Consider a finite morphism $f: X \rightarrow Y$ of smooth, projective varieties over a finite field $\mathbf{F}$. Suppose $X$ is the vanishing locus in $\mathbf{P}^N$ of $r$ forms of degree at most $d$. We show that there is a constant $C$ depending only on $(N,r,d)$ and $\deg(f)$ such that if $|{\mathbf{F}}|>C$, then $f(\mathbf{F}): X(\mathbf{F}) \rightarrow Y(\mathbf{F})$ is injective if and only if it is surjective.

By $\textrm{d}(X,Y)$ we denote the (multiplicative) Banach--Mazur distance between two normed spaces $X$ and $Y.$ Let $X$ be an $n$-dimensional normed space with $\textrm{d}(X,\ell_\infty^n) \le 2,$ where $\ell_\infty^n$ stands for $\mathbb{R}^n$ endowed with the norm $\|(x_1,\dots,x_n)\|_\infty := \max \{|x_1|,\dots, |x_n| \}.$ Then every metric space $(S,\rho)$ of cardinality $n+1$ with norm $\rho$ satisfying the condition $\max D / \min D \le 2/ \textrm{d}(X,\ell_\infty^n)$ for $D:=\{ \rho(a,b) : a, b \in S, \ a \ne b\}$ can be isometrically embedded into $X.$

We characterize those linear projections represented as a convex combination of two surjective isometries on standard Banach spaces of continuous functions with values in a strictly convex Banach space.

Let $G$ be a finite group acting linearly on the vector space $V$ over a field of arbitrary characteristic. The action is called coregular if the invariant ring is generated by algebraically independent homogeneous invariants, and the direct summand property holds if there is a surjective $k[V]^G$-linear map $\pi\colon k[V]\to k[V]^G$. The following Chevalley--Shephard--Todd type theorem is proved. Suppose $G$ is abelian. Then the action is coregular if and only if $G$ is generated by pseudo-reflections and the direct summand property holds.

We completely classify three-dimensional Lorentz manifolds, curvature homogeneous up to order one, equipped with Einstein-like metrics. New examples arise with respect to both homogeneous examples and three-dimensional Lorentz manifolds admitting a degenerate parallel null line field.

We prove that the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $\operatorname{PreLie}$ is a free Lie algebra in
the category of $\mathfrak{S}$-modules and can therefore be written as the
composition of the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $\operatorname{Lie}$ with a new $\mathfrak{S}$-module
$X$. This implies that free pre-Lie algebras in the category of
vector spaces, when considered as Lie algebras, are free on
generators that can be described using $X$. Furthermore, we define a
natural filtration on the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $X$. We also obtain a
relationship between $X$ and the $\mathfrak{S}$-module coming from the
anticyclic structure of the $\operatorname{PreLie}$ operad.

Let $\Gamma$ be a discrete group and let $f \in \ell^{1}(\Gamma)$. We observe that if the natural convolution operator $\rho_f: \ell^{\infty}(\Gamma)\to \ell^{\infty}(\Gamma)$ is injective, then $f$ is invertible in $\ell^{1}(\Gamma)$. Our proof simplifies and generalizes calculations in a preprint of Deninger and Schmidt by appealing to the direct finiteness of the algebra $\ell^{1}(\Gamma)$. We give simple examples to show that in general one cannot replace $\ell^{\infty}$ with $\ell^{p}$, $1\leq p< \infty$, nor with $L^{\infty}(G)$ for nondiscrete $G$. Finally, we consider the problem of extending the main result to the case of weighted convolution operators on $\Gamma$, and give some partial results.

In this paper we give a description of separating or disjointness preserving linear bijections on spaces of vector-valued absolutely continuous functions defined on compact subsets of the real line. We obtain that they are continuous and biseparating in the finite-dimensional case. The infinite-dimensional case is also studied.

In this paper we shall discuss nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems for second order differential equations when deviating arguments depend on the unknown solution. Sufficient conditions under which such problems have extremal and quasi-solutions are given. The problem of when a unique solution exists is also investigated. To obtain existence results, a monotone iterative technique is used. Two examples are added to verify theoretical results.

In this paper, we discuss various maximal functions on the Laguerre hypergroup $\mathbf{K}$ including the heat maximal function, the Poisson maximal function, and the Hardy--Littlewood maximal function which is consistent with the structure of hypergroup of $\mathbf{K}$. We shall establish the weak type $(1,1)$ estimates for these maximal functions. The $L^p$ estimates for $p>1$ follow from the interpolation. Some applications are included.

Using the time change method we show how to construct a solution to the stochastic equation $dX_t=b(X_{t-})dZ_t+a(X_t)dt$ with a nonnegative drift $a$ provided there exists a solution to the auxililary equation $dL_t=[a^{-1/\alpha}b](L_{t-})d\bar Z_t+dt$ where $Z, \bar Z$ are two symmetric stable processes of the same index $\alpha\in(0,2]$. This approach allows us to prove the existence of solutions for both stochastic equations for the values $0<\alpha<1$ and only measurable coefficients $a$ and $b$ satisfying some conditions of boundedness. The existence proof for the auxililary equation uses the method of integral estimates in the sense of Krylov.

We prove that the least perimeter $P(n)$ of a partition of a smooth, compact Riemannian surface into $n$ regions of equal area $A$ is asymptotic to $n/2$ times the perimeter of a planar regular hexagon of area $A$. Along the way, we derive tighter estimates for flat tori, Klein bottles, truncated cylinders, and Möbius bands.

We consider semilinear evolution equations with some locally Lipschitz nonlinearities, perturbed by Banach space valued, continuous, and adapted stochastic process. We show that under some assumptions there exists a solution to the equation. Using the result we show that there exists a mild, continuous, global solution to a semilinear Itô equation with locally Lipschitz nonlinearites. An example of the equation is given.

We prove that, in ordered plane geometries endowed with a very weak
notion of orthogonality, one can always triangulate any triangle
into seven acute triangles, and, in case the given triangle is not
acute, into no fewer than seven.

In this paper we provide lower bounds for the dimension of various critical sets, and we point out some differential maps with high dimensional critical sets.

In this paper we propose a new technical tool for analyzing
representations of Hilbert $C^*$-product systems. Using this tool,
we give a new proof that every doubly commuting representation
over $\mathbb{N}^k$ has a regular isometric dilation, and we also
prove sufficient conditions for the existence of a regular
isometric dilation of representations over more general
subsemigroups of $\mathbb R_{+}^k$.

In this paper we give a sufficient condition for a complete, simply connected, and strict nearly Kähler manifold of dimension 6 to be a homogeneous nearly Kähler manifold. This result was announced in a previous paper by the first author.

Let $f$ be a classical newform of weight $2$ on the upper half-plane $\mathcal H^{(2)}$, $E$ the corresponding strong Weil curve, $K$ a class number one imaginary quadratic field, and $F$ the base change of $f$ to $K$. Under a mild hypothesis on the pair $(f,K)$, we prove that the period ratio $\Omega_E/(\sqrt{|D|}\Omega_F)$ is in $\mathbb Q$. Here $\Omega_F$ is the unique minimal positive period of $F$, and $\Omega_E$ the area of $E(\mathbb C)$. The claim is a specialization to base change forms of a conjecture proposed and numerically verified by Cremona and Whitley.