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1. CMB Online first

Motegi, Kimihiko; Teragaito, Masakazu
Generalized torsion elements and bi-orderability of 3-manifold groups
It is known that a bi-orderable group has no generalized torsion element, but the converse does not hold in general. We conjecture that the converse holds for the fundamental groups of $3$-manifolds, and verify the conjecture for non-hyperbolic, geometric $3$-manifolds. We also confirm the conjecture for some infinite families of closed hyperbolic $3$-manifolds. In the course of the proof, we prove that each standard generator of the Fibonacci group $F(2, m)$ ($m \gt 2$) is a generalized torsion element.

Keywords:generalized torsion element, bi-ordering, 3-manifold group
Categories:57M25, 57M05, 06F15, 20F05

2. CMB 2017 (vol 60 pp. 372)

Rao, M. Sambasiva
Coaxer Lattices
The notion of coaxers is introduced in a pseudo-complemented distributive lattice. Boolean algebras are characterized in terms of coaxer ideals and congruences. The concept of coaxer lattices is introduced in pseudo-complemented distributive lattices and characterized in terms of coaxer ideals and maximal ideals. Finally, the coaxer lattices are also characterized in topological terms.

Keywords:pseudo-complemented distributive lattice, coaxer ideal, coaxer lattice, maximal ideal, congruence, kernel, antikernel

3. CMB 2017 (vol 60 pp. 246)

Bhuniya, Anjan Kumar; Hansda, Kalyan
On Radicals of Green's Relations in Ordered Semigroups
In this paper, we give a new definition of radicals of Green's relations in an ordered semigroup and characterize left regular (right regular), intra regular ordered semigroups by radicals of Green's relations. Also we characterize the ordered semigroups which are unions and complete semilattices of t-simple ordered semigroups.

Keywords:radical of Green's relation, intra regular ordered semigroup, left regular, t-simple ordered semigroup

4. CMB 2016 (vol 59 pp. 472)

Clay, Adam; Desmarais, Colin; Naylor, Patrick
Testing Bi-orderability of Knot Groups
We investigate the bi-orderability of two-bridge knot groups and the groups of knots with 12 or fewer crossings by applying recent theorems of Chiswell, Glass and Wilson. Amongst all knots with 12 or fewer crossings (of which there are 2977), previous theorems were only able to determine bi-orderability of 499 of the corresponding knot groups. With our methods we are able to deal with 191 more.

Keywords:knots, fundamental groups, orderable groups
Categories:57M25, 57M27, 06F15

5. CMB 2013 (vol 57 pp. 225)

Adamaszek, Michał
Small Flag Complexes with Torsion
We classify flag complexes on at most $12$ vertices with torsion in the first homology group. The result is moderately computer-aided. As a consequence we confirm a folklore conjecture that the smallest poset whose order complex is homotopy equivalent to the real projective plane (and also the smallest poset with torsion in the first homology group) has exactly $13$ elements.

Keywords:clique complex, order complex, homology, torsion, minimal model
Categories:55U10, 06A11, 55P40, 55-04, 05-04

6. CMB Online first

Left-orderable fundamental group and Dehn surgery on the knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

7. CMB Online first

Left-orderable fundamental group and Dehn surgery on the knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

8. CMB 2013 (vol 57 pp. 310)

Hakamata, Ryoto; Teragaito, Masakazu
Left-orderable Fundamental Group and Dehn Surgery on the Knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

9. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 850)

Teragaito, Masakazu
Left-orderability and Exceptional Dehn Surgery on Twist Knots
We show that any exceptional non-trivial Dehn surgery on a twist knot, except the trefoil, yields a $3$-manifold whose fundamental group is left-orderable. This is a generalization of a result of Clay, Lidman and Watson, and also gives a new supporting evidence for a conjecture of Boyer, Gordon and Watson.

Keywords:left-ordering, twist knot, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

10. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 551)

Handelman, David
Real Dimension Groups
Dimension groups (not countable) that are also real ordered vector spaces can be obtained as direct limits (over directed sets) of simplicial real vector spaces (finite dimensional vector spaces with the coordinatewise ordering), but the directed set is not as interesting as one would like, i.e., it is not true that a countable-dimensional real vector space that has interpolation can be represented as such a direct limit over the a countable directed set. It turns out this is the case when the group is additionally simple, and it is shown that the latter have an ordered tensor product decomposition. In the Appendix, we provide a huge class of polynomial rings that, with a pointwise ordering, are shown to satisfy interpolation, extending a result outlined by Fuchs.

Keywords:dimension group, simplicial vector space, direct limit, Riesz interpolation
Categories:46A40, 06F20, 13J25, 19K14

11. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 277)

Farley, Jonathan David
Maximal Sublattices of Finite Distributive Lattices. III: A Conjecture from the 1984 Banff Conference on Graphs and Order
Let $L$ be a finite distributive lattice. Let $\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)$ be the lattice $$ \{S\mid S\text{ is a sublattice of }L\}\cup\{\emptyset\} $$ and let $\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)]$ be the length of the shortest maximal chain in $\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)$. It is proved that if $K$ and $L$ are non-trivial finite distributive lattices, then $$ \ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(K\times L)]=\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(K)]+\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)]. $$ A conjecture from the 1984 Banff Conference on Graphs and Order is thus proved.

Keywords:(distributive) lattice, maximal sublattice, (partially) ordered set
Categories:06D05, 06D50, 06A07

12. CMB 2010 (vol 54 pp. 193)

Bennett, Harold; Lutzer, David
Measurements and $G_\delta$-Subsets of Domains
In this paper we study domains, Scott domains, and the existence of measurements. We use a space created by D.~K. Burke to show that there is a Scott domain $P$ for which $\max(P)$ is a $G_\delta$-subset of $P$ and yet no measurement $\mu$ on $P$ has $\ker(\mu) = \max(P)$. We also correct a mistake in the literature asserting that $[0, \omega_1)$ is a space of this type. We show that if $P$ is a Scott domain and $X \subseteq \max(P)$ is a $G_\delta$-subset of $P$, then $X$ has a $G_\delta$-diagonal and is weakly developable. We show that if $X \subseteq \max(P)$ is a $G_\delta$-subset of $P$, where $P$ is a domain but perhaps not a Scott domain, then $X$ is domain-representable, first-countable, and is the union of dense, completely metrizable subspaces. We also show that there is a domain $P$ such that $\max(P)$ is the usual space of countable ordinals and is a $G_\delta$-subset of $P$ in the Scott topology. Finally we show that the kernel of a measurement on a Scott domain can consistently be a normal, separable, non-metrizable Moore space.

Keywords:domain-representable, Scott-domain-representable, measurement, Burke's space, developable spaces, weakly developable spaces, $G_\delta$-diagonal, Čech-complete space, Moore space, $\omega_1$, weakly developable space, sharp base, AF-complete
Categories:54D35, 54E30, 54E52, 54E99, 06B35, 06F99

13. CMB 2010 (vol 54 pp. 381)

Velušček, Dejan
A Short Note on the Higher Level Version of the Krull--Baer Theorem
Klep and Velu\v{s}\v{c}ek generalized the Krull--Baer theorem for higher level preorderings to the non-commutative setting. A $n$-real valuation $v$ on a skew field $D$ induces a group homomorphism $\overline{v}$. A section of $\overline{v}$ is a crucial ingredient of the construction of a complete preordering on the base field $D$ such that its projection on the residue skew field $k_v$ equals the given level $1$ ordering on $k_v$. In the article we give a proof of the existence of the section of $\overline{v}$, which was left as an open problem by Klep and Velu\v{s}\v{c}ek, and thus complete the generalization of the Krull--Baer theorem for preorderings.

Keywords:orderings of higher level, division rings, valuations
Categories:14P99, 06Fxx

14. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 598)

Moreno, M. A.; Nicola, J.; Pardo, E.; Thomas, H.
Numerical Semigroups That Are Not Intersections of $d$-Squashed Semigroups
We say that a numerical semigroup is \emph{$d$-squashed} if it can be written in the form $$ S=\frac 1 N \langle a_1,\dots,a_d \rangle \cap \mathbb{Z}$$ for $N,a_1,\dots,a_d$ positive integers with $\gcd(a_1,\dots, a_d)=1$. Rosales and Urbano have shown that a numerical semigroup is 2-squashed if and only if it is proportionally modular. Recent works by Rosales \emph{et al.} give a concrete example of a numerical semigroup that cannot be written as an intersection of $2$-squashed semigroups. We will show the existence of infinitely many numerical semigroups that cannot be written as an intersection of $2$-squashed semigroups. We also will prove the same result for $3$-squashed semigroups. We conjecture that there are numerical semigroups that cannot be written as the intersection of $d$-squashed semigroups for any fixed $d$, and we prove some partial results towards this conjecture.

Keywords:numerical semigroup, squashed semigroup, proportionally modular semigroup
Categories:20M14, 06F05, 46L80

15. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 182)

Chapoton, Frédéric
On the Coxeter Transformations for Tamari Posets
A relation between the anticyclic structure of the dendriform operad and the Coxeter transformations in the Grothendieck groups of the derived categories of modules over the Tamari posets is obtained.

Categories:18D50, 18E30, 06A11

16. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 191)

Grätzer, G.; Schmidt, E. T.
Congruence Class Sizes in Finite Sectionally Complemented Lattices
The congruences of a finite sectionally complemented lattice $L$ are not necessarily \emph{uniform} (any two congruence classes of a congruence are of the same size). To measure how far a congruence $\Theta$ of $L$ is from being uniform, we introduce $\Spec\Theta$, the \emph{spectrum} of $\Theta$, the family of cardinalities of the congruence classes of $\Theta$. A typical result of this paper characterizes the spectrum $S = (m_j \mid j < n)$ of a nontrivial congruence $\Theta$ with the following two properties: \begin{enumerate}[$(S_2)$] \item[$(S_1)$] $2 \leq n$ and $n \neq 3$. \item[$(S_2)$] $2 \leq m_j$ and $m_j \neq 3$, for all $j
Keywords:congruence lattice, congruence-preserving extension
Categories:06B10, 06B15

17. CMB 1998 (vol 41 pp. 290)

Grätzer, G.; Lakser, H.; Schmidt, E. T.
Congruence lattices of finite semimodular lattices
We prove that every finite distributive lattice can be represented as the congruence lattice of a finite (planar) {\it semimodular} lattice.

Categories:06B10, 08A05

18. CMB 1997 (vol 40 pp. 39)

Zhao, Dongsheng
On projective $Z$-frames
This paper deals with the projective objects in the category of all $Z$-frames, where the latter is a common generalization of different types of frames. The main result obtained here is that a $Z$-frame is ${\bf E}$-projective if and only if it is stably $Z$-continuous, for a naturally arising collection ${\bf E}$ of morphisms.

Categories:06D05, 54D10, 18D15

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