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Search: MSC category 03E50 ( Continuum hypothesis and Martin's axiom [See also 03E57] )

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1. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 378)

Oman, Greg; Salminen, Adam
On Modules Whose Proper Homomorphic Images Are of Smaller Cardinality
Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity, and let $M$ be a unitary module over $R$. We call $M$ H-smaller (HS for short) if and only if $M$ is infinite and $|M/N|<|M|$ for every nonzero submodule $N$ of $M$. After a brief introduction, we show that there exist nontrivial examples of HS modules of arbitrarily large cardinality over Noetherian and non-Noetherian domains. We then prove the following result: suppose $M$ is faithful over $R$, $R$ is a domain (we will show that we can restrict to this case without loss of generality), and $K$ is the quotient field of $R$. If $M$ is HS over $R$, then $R$ is HS as a module over itself, $R\subseteq M\subseteq K$, and there exists a generating set $S$ for $M$ over $R$ with $|S|<|R|$. We use this result to generalize a problem posed by Kaplansky and conclude the paper by answering an open question on Jónsson modules.

Keywords:Noetherian ring, residually finite ring, cardinal number, continuum hypothesis, valuation ring, Jónsson module
Categories:13A99, 13C05, 13E05, 03E50

2. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 303)

Shelah, Saharon
A Comment on ``$\mathfrak{p} < \mathfrak{t}$''
Dealing with the cardinal invariants ${\mathfrak p}$ and ${\mathfrak t}$ of the continuum, we prove that ${\mathfrak m}={\mathfrak p} = \aleph_2\ \Rightarrow\ {\mathfrak t} =\aleph_2$. In other words, if ${\bf MA}_{\aleph_1}$ (or a weak version of this) holds, then (of course $\aleph_2\le {\mathfrak p}\le {\mathfrak t}$ and) ${\mathfrak p}=\aleph_2\ \Rightarrow\ {\mathfrak p}={\mathfrak t}$. The proof is based on a criterion for ${\mathfrak p}<{\mathfrak t}$.

Categories:03E17, 03E05, 03E50

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