Let $J$ be an abelian variety and
$A$ be an abelian subvariety of $J$, both defined over $\mathbf{Q}$.
Let $x$ be an element of $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A)$.
Then there are at least two definitions of $x$ being visible in $J$:
one asks that the torsor corresponding to $x$ be isomorphic over $\mathbf{Q}$
to a subvariety of $J$, and the other asks that $x$ be in the kernel
of the natural map $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A) \to H^1(\mathbf{Q},J)$. In this article, we
clarify the relation between the two definitions.
In this article we study the Cesàro
operator
$$
\mathcal{C}(f)(z)=\frac{1}{z}\int_{0}^{z}f(\zeta)\,d\zeta,
$$
and its companion operator $\mathcal{T}$ on Hardy spaces of the
upper half plane. We identify $\mathcal{C}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ as
resolvents for appropriate semigroups of composition operators and we
find the norm and the spectrum in each case. The relation of
$\mathcal{C}$ and $\mathcal{T}$ with the corresponding Ces\`{a}ro
operators on Lebesgue spaces $L^p(\mathbb R)$ of the boundary line is also
discussed.
We prove variants of Schwarz's lemma involving monotonicity
properties of condenser capacity and inner radius. Also, we
examine when a similar monotonicity property holds for the
hyperbolic metric.
Let $\lambda (n)$ denote the Liouville function. Complementary to the prime number theorem, Chowla conjectured
that
\begin{equation*}
\label{a.1}
\sum_{n\le x} \lambda (f(n)) =o(x)\tag{$*$}
\end{equation*}
for any polynomial $f(x)$ with integer coefficients which is not of
form $bg(x)^2$.
When $f(x)=x$, $(*)$ is equivalent to the prime number theorem.
Chowla's conjecture has been proved for linear functions,
but for degree
greater than 1, the conjecture seems
to be extremely hard and remains wide open.
One can consider a weaker form
of Chowla's conjecture.
Conjecture 1.
[Cassaigne et al.]
If $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z} [x]$ and is not in the form of $bg^2(x)$
for some $g(x)\in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, then $\lambda (f(n))$
changes sign infinitely often.
Clearly, Chowla's conjecture implies Conjecture 1.
Although weaker,
Conjecture 1 is still wide open for polynomials of degree $\gt 1$.
In this article, we study Conjecture 1 for
quadratic polynomials. One of our main theorems is the following.
Theorem 1
Let $f(x) = ax^2+bx +c $ with $a\gt 0$ and $l$
be a positive integer such that $al$ is
not a perfect square. If the
equation $f(n)=lm^2 $ has one solution
$(n_0,m_0) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$, then it has infinitely
many positive solutions $(n,m) \in \mathbb{N}^2$.
As a direct consequence of Theorem 1, we prove the following.
Theorem 2
Let $f(x)=ax^2+bx+c$ with $a \in \mathbb{N}$ and $b,c \in \mathbb{Z}$. Let
\[
A_0=\Bigl[\frac{|b|+(|D|+1)/2}{2a}\Bigr]+1.
\]
Then either the binary sequence $\{ \lambda (f(n)) \}_{n=A_0}^\infty$ is
a constant sequence or it changes sign infinitely often.
Some partial results of Conjecture 1 for quadratic polynomials are also proved using Theorem 1.
Dufresnoy and Pisot characterized the smallest
Pisot number of degree $n \geq 3$ by giving explicitly its minimal
polynomial. In this paper, we translate Dufresnoy and Pisot's
result to the Laurent series case.
The
aim of this paper is to prove that the minimal polynomial
of the smallest Pisot element (SPE) of degree $n$ in the field of
formal power series over a finite field
is given by $P(Y)=Y^{n}-\alpha XY^{n-1}-\alpha^n,$ where $\alpha$
is the least element of the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{q}\backslash\{0\}$
(as a finite total ordered set). We prove that the sequence of
SPEs of degree $n$ is decreasing and converges to $\alpha X.$
Finally, we show how to obtain explicit continued fraction
expansion of the smallest Pisot element over a finite field.
Total embedding distributions have been known for a few classes of graphs.
Chen, Gross, and Rieper
computed it for necklaces, close-end ladders and cobblestone
paths. Kwak and Shim computed it for bouquets of circles and
dipoles. In this paper, a splitting theorem is generalized
and the embedding distributions of
generalized fan graphs are obtained.
In this note, we first give a characterization of super weakly
compact convex sets of a Banach space $X$:
a closed bounded convex set $K\subset X$ is
super weakly compact if and only if there exists a $w^*$ lower
semicontinuous seminorm $p$ with $p\geq\sigma_K\equiv\sup_{x\in
K}\langle\,\cdot\,,x\rangle$ such that $p^2$ is uniformly Fréchet
differentiable on each bounded set of $X^*$. Then we present a
representation theorem for the dual of the semigroup $\textrm{swcc}(X)$
consisting of all the nonempty super weakly compact convex sets of the
space $X$.
We prove a result concerning power series
$f(z)\in\mathbb{C}[\mkern-3mu[z]\mkern-3mu]$
satisfying a functional equation of the form
$$
f(z^d)=\sum_{k=1}^n
\frac{A_k(z)}{B_k(z)}f(z)^k,
$$
where $A_k(z),B_k(z)\in
\mathbb{C}[z]$. In particular, we show that if $f(z)$ satisfies a
minimal functional equation of the above form with $n\geqslant 2$,
then $f(z)$ is necessarily transcendental. Towards a more complete
classification, the case $n=1$ is also considered.
M. Hu and S. Wen considered quasisymmetrically minimal uniform Cantor
sets of Hausdorff dimension $1$, where at the $k$-th set one removes
from each interval $I$ a certain number $n_{k}$ of open subintervals
of length $c_{k}|I|$, leaving $(n_{k}+1)$ closed subintervals of
equal length. Quasisymmetrically Moran sets of Hausdorff dimension $1$
considered in the paper are more general than uniform Cantor sets in
that neither the open subintervals nor the closed subintervals are
required to be of equal length.
We prove the non-existence of real hypersurfaces in complex projective
space whose structure Jacobi operator is Lie $\mathbb{D}$-parallel and
satisfies a further condition.
In 1968, Galvin conjectured that an uncountable poset $P$ is the
union of countably many chains if and only if this is true for every
subposet $Q \subseteq P$ with size $\aleph_1$. In 1981, Rado
formulated a similar conjecture that an uncountable interval graph $G$ is countably
chromatic if and only if this is true for every induced subgraph $H
\subseteq G$ with size $\aleph_1$. Todorčević has shown
that Rado's Conjecture is consistent relative to the existence of a
supercompact cardinal, while the consistency of Galvin's Conjecture
remains open. In this paper, we survey and collect a variety of
results related to these two conjectures. We also show that the
extension of Rado's conjecture to the class of all chordal graphs is
relatively consistent with the existence of a supercompact cardinal.
We show that the following $K_0$-monoid properties of $C^*$-algebras
in the class $\Omega$ are inherited by simple unital $C^*$-algebras in
the class $TA\Omega$: (1) weak comparability, (2) strictly
unperforated, (3) strictly cancellative.
Let $g\mapsto g^*$ denote an involution on a
group $G$. For any (commutative, associative) ring
$R$ (with $1$), $*$ extends linearly to an involution
of the group ring $RG$. An element $\alpha\in RG$
is symmetric if $\alpha^*=\alpha$ and
skew-symmetric if $\alpha^*=-\alpha$.
The skew-symmetric elements are closed under
the Lie bracket, $[\alpha,\beta]=\alpha\beta-\beta\alpha$.
In this paper, we investigate when this set is also closed
under the ring product in $RG$.
The symmetric elements are closed under the Jordan
product, $\alpha\circ\beta=\alpha\beta+\beta\alpha$.
Here, we determine when this product is trivial.
These two problems
are analogues of problems about the skew-symmetric and
symmetric elements in group rings that have received a
lot of attention.
A linear Cantor set $C$ with zero Lebesgue measure is associated with
the countable collection of the bounded complementary open intervals. A
rearrangment of $C$ has the same lengths of its complementary
intervals, but with different locations. We study the Hausdorff and packing
$h$-measures and dimensional properties of the set of all rearrangments of
some given $C$ for general dimension functions $h$. For each set of
complementary lengths, we construct a Cantor set rearrangement which has the
maximal Hausdorff and the minimal packing $h$-premeasure, up to a constant.
We also show that if the packing measure of this Cantor set is positive,
then there is a rearrangement which has infinite packing measure.
We consider a nonlinear periodic problem driven by a
nonlinear nonhomogeneous differential operator and a
Carathéodory reaction term $f(t,x)$ that exhibits a
$(p-1)$-superlinear growth in $x \in \mathbb{R}$
near $\pm\infty$ and near zero.
A special case of the differential operator is the scalar
$p$-Laplacian. Using a combination of variational methods based on
the critical point theory with Morse theory (critical groups), we
show that the problem has three nontrivial solutions, two of which
have constant sign (one positive, the other negative).
In this paper, we consider the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the
trapped dipolar quantum gases. We obtain the sharp criterion for the
global existence and finite time blow up in the unstable regime by
constructing a variational problem and the so-called invariant
manifold of the evolution flow.
In this paper we determine the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness on
the sequence space $n(\phi)$ of W. L. C. Sargent.
Further we apply
the technique of measures of noncompactness to the theory of infinite
systems of differential equations in the Banach sequence spaces
$n(\phi)$ and $m(\phi)$. Our aim is to present some existence results
for infinite systems of differential equations formulated with the help
of measures of noncompactness.
An epimorphism $\phi\colon G\to H$ of groups, where $G$ has rank $n$, is called
coessential if every (ordered) generating $n$-tuple of $H$ can be
lifted along $\phi$ to a generating $n$-tuple for $G$. We discuss this
property in the context of the category of groups, and establish a criterion
for such a group $G$ to have the property that its abelianization
epimorphism $G\to G/[G,G]$, where $[G,G]$ is the commutator subgroup, is
coessential. We give an example of a family of 2-generator groups whose
abelianization epimorphism is not coessential.
This family also provides counterexamples to the generalized Andrews--Curtis conjecture.
Let $(X,\mathcal B,\mu)$ be a $\sigma$-finite
measure space and let $H\subset L^2(X,\mu)$
be a separable reproducing kernel Hilbert
space on $X$. We show that the multiplier
algebra of $H$ has property $(A_1(1))$.
We first determine the domination number for the zero-divisor
graph of the product of two commutative rings with $1$. We then
calculate the domination number for the zero-divisor graph of any
commutative artinian ring. Finally, we extend some of the results
to non-commutative rings in which an element is a left
zero-divisor if and only if it is a right zero-divisor.
Suppose that $G$ is an abelian group, $A \subset G$ is finite with $|A+A| \leq K|A|$ and $\eta \in (0,1]$ is a parameter.
Our main result is that there is a set $\mathcal{L}$ such that
\begin{equation*}
|A \cap \operatorname{Span}(\mathcal{L})| \geq K^{-O_\eta(1)}|A| \quad\text{and}\quad |\mathcal{L}| = O(K^\eta\log |A|).
\end{equation*}
We include an application of this result to a generalisation of the Roth--Meshulam theorem due to Liu and Spencer.
We prove that a finitely generated group contains a
sequence of non-trivial elements that converge to the identity in
every compact homomorphic image if and only if the group is not
virtually abelian. As a consequence of the methods used, we show that a finitely generated
group satisfies Chu duality if and only if it is virtually abelian.
Following ideas used by Drewnowski and Wilansky we prove that if $I$
is an infinite dimensional and
infinite codimensional closed ideal in a complete metrizable locally
solid Riesz space and $I$ does
not contain any order copy of $\mathbb R^{\mathbb N}$ then there exists a
closed, separable, discrete Riesz subspace
$G$ such that the topology induced on $G$ is Lebesgue, $I \cap G =
\{0\}$, and $I + G$ is not closed.
Let $G$ be an infinite discrete group and let $\beta G$ be the
Stone--Čech compactification of $G$. We take the points of $ėta
G$ to be the ultrafilters on $G$, identifying the principal
ultrafilters with the points of $G$. The set $U(G)$ of uniform
ultrafilters on $G$ is a closed two-sided ideal of $\beta G$. For
every $p\in U(G)$, define $I_p\subseteq\beta G$ by $I_p=\bigcap_{A\in
p}\operatorname{cl} (GU(A))$, where $U(A)=\{p\in U(G):A\in p\}$. We show
that if $|G|$ is a regular cardinal, then $\{I_p:p\in U(G)\}$ is the
finest decomposition of $U(G)$ into closed left ideals of $\beta G$
such that the corresponding quotient space of $U(G)$ is Hausdorff.