We show that every finite, finitely related algebra in a congruence
distributive variety has a near unanimity term operation.
As a consequence we solve the near unanimity problem for relational
structures: it is decidable whether a given finite set of relations on
a finite set admits a compatible near unanimity operation. This
consequence also implies that it is decidable whether a given finite
constraint language defines a constraint satisfaction problem of
bounded strict width.
We prove a non-vanishing result for families of
$\operatorname{GL}_n\times\operatorname{GL}_n$ Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions in the critical strip,
as one factor runs over twists by Hecke characters. As an
application, we simplify the proof, due to Luo, Rudnick, and Sarnak,
of the best known bounds towards the Generalized Ramanujan Conjecture
at the infinite places for cusp forms on $\operatorname{GL}_n$. A key ingredient is
the regularization of the units in residue classes by the use of an
Arakelov ray class group.
In this paper we consider near inclusions $A\subseteq_\gamma B$ of C$^*$-algebras. We show that if $B$ is a separable type $\mathrm{I}$ C$^*$-algebra and $A$ satisfies Kadison's similarity problem, then $A$ is also type $\mathrm{I}$ and use this to obtain an embedding of $A$ into $B$.
In this paper we give an explicit formula for the flag curvature of
homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type and apply this formula to
obtain some interesting results. We first deduce an explicit formula
for the flag curvature of an arbitrary left invariant Randers metric
on a two-step nilpotent Lie group. Then we obtain a classification of
negatively curved homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type. This
results, in particular, in many examples of homogeneous non-Riemannian
Finsler spaces with negative flag curvature. Finally, we prove a
rigidity result that a homogeneous Randers space of Berwald type whose
flag curvature is everywhere nonzero must be Riemannian.
Let $X$ be an
$n$-dimensional, finite, simply connected CW complex and set
$\alpha_X =\limsup_i \frac{\log\mbox{ rank}\, \pi_i(X)}{i}$. When
$0\lt \alpha_X\lt \infty$, we give upper and lower bound for $
\sum_{i=k+2}^{k+n} \textrm{rank}\, \pi_i(X) $ for $k$ sufficiently
large. We show also for any $r$ that $\alpha_X$ can be estimated
from the integers rk$\,\pi_i(X)$, $i\leq nr$ with an error bound
depending explicitly on $r$.
We introduce the notion of families of $n$-marked
smooth rational tropical curves over smooth tropical varieties and
establish a one-to-one correspondence between (equivalence classes of)
these families and morphisms
from smooth tropical varieties into the moduli space of $n$-marked
abstract rational tropical curves $\mathcal{M}_{n}$.
We characterize equicontinuous Delone dynamical systems as those
coming from Delone sets with strongly almost periodic Dirac combs.
Within the class of systems with finite local complexity, the only
equicontinuous systems are then shown to be the crystallographic
ones. On the other hand, within the class without finite local
complexity, we exhibit examples of equicontinuous minimal Delone
dynamical systems that are not crystallographic.
Our results solve the problem posed by Lagarias as to whether a Delone
set whose Dirac comb is strongly almost periodic must be
crystallographic.
Let $P\in\mathbb Z[n]$ with $P(0)=0$ and $\varepsilon\gt 0$.
We show, using Fourier analytic techniques, that if $N\geq
\exp\exp(C\varepsilon^{-1}\log\varepsilon^{-1})$ and
$A\subseteq\{1,\dots,N\}$, then there must exist $n\in\mathbb N$ such that
\[\frac{|A\cap (A+P(n))|}{N}\gt \left(\frac{|A|}{N}\right)^2-\varepsilon.\]
In addition to this we also show, using the same Fourier analytic
methods, that if $A\subseteq\mathbb N$, then the set of
$\varepsilon$-optimal return times
\[R(A,P,\varepsilon)=\left\{n\in \mathbb N
\,:\,\delta(A\cap(A+P(n)))\gt \delta(A)^2-\varepsilon\right\}\]
is syndetic for every $\varepsilon\gt 0$. Moreover, we show that
$R(A,P,\varepsilon)$ is dense in every sufficiently long interval, in particular we show that
there exists an $L=L(\varepsilon,P,A)$ such that
\[\left|R(A,P,\varepsilon)\cap I\right|
\geq c(\varepsilon,P)|I|\]
for all intervals $I$ of natural numbers with $|I|\geq L$ and
$c(\varepsilon,P)=\exp\exp(-C\,\varepsilon^{-1}\log\varepsilon^{-1})$.
We classify minimal surfaces of general type with $p_g=q=2$ and
$K^2=6$ whose Albanese map is a generically finite double cover.
We show that the corresponding moduli space is the disjoint union
of three generically smooth irreducible components
$\mathcal{M}_{Ia}$, $\mathcal{M}_{Ib}$, $\mathcal{M}_{II}$ of
dimension $4$, $4$, $3$, respectively.
A metric space $\mathrm{M}=(M;\operatorname{d})$ is {\em homogeneous} if for every
isometry $f$ of a finite subspace of $\mathrm{M}$ to a subspace of
$\mathrm{M}$ there exists an isometry of $\mathrm{M}$ onto
$\mathrm{M}$ extending $f$. The space $\mathrm{M}$ is {\em universal}
if it isometrically embeds every finite metric space $\mathrm{F}$ with
$\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{F})\subseteq \operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})$. (With
$\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})$ being the set of distances between points in
$\mathrm{M}$.)
A metric space $\boldsymbol{U}$ is an {\em Urysohn} metric space if
it is homogeneous, universal, separable and complete. (It is not
difficult to deduce
that an Urysohn metric space $\boldsymbol{U}$ isometrically embeds
every separable metric space $\mathrm{M}$ with
$\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})\subseteq \operatorname{dist}(\boldsymbol{U})$.)
The main results are: (1) A characterization of the sets
$\operatorname{dist}(\boldsymbol{U})$ for Urysohn metric spaces $\boldsymbol{U}$.
(2) If $R$ is the distance set of an Urysohn metric space and
$\mathrm{M}$ and $\mathrm{N}$ are two metric spaces, of any
cardinality with distances in $R$, then they amalgamate disjointly to
a metric space with distances in $R$. (3) The completion of every
homogeneous, universal, separable metric space $\mathrm{M}$ is
homogeneous.
Following Radford's proof of Lagrange's theorem for pointed Hopf algebras,
we prove Lagrange's theorem for Hopf monoids in the category of
connected species.
As a corollary, we obtain necessary conditions for a given subspecies
$\mathbf k$ of a Hopf monoid $\mathbf h$ to be a Hopf submonoid: the quotient of
any one of the generating series of $\mathbf h$ by the corresponding
generating series of $\mathbf k$ must have nonnegative coefficients. Other
corollaries include a necessary condition for a sequence of
nonnegative integers to be the
dimension sequence of a Hopf monoid
in the form of certain polynomial inequalities, and of
a set-theoretic Hopf monoid in the form of certain linear inequalities.
The latter express that the binomial transform of the sequence must be nonnegative.
Sur une surface de Riemann, l'énergie d'une application à valeurs dans une variété riemannienne est une fonctionnelle invariante conforme, ses points critiques sont les applications harmoniques. Nous proposons ici un analogue en dimension supérieure, en construisant une fonctionnelle invariante conforme pour les applications entre deux variétés riemanniennes, dont la variété de départ est de dimension $n$ paire. Ses points critiques satisfont une EDP elliptique d'ordre $n$ non-linéaire qui est covariante conforme par rapport à la variété de départ, on les appelle les applications conforme-harmoniques. Dans le cas des fonctions, on retrouve l'opérateur GJMS, dont le terme principal est une puissance $n/2$ du laplacien. Quand $n$ est impaire, les mêmes idées permettent de montrer que le terme constant dans le développement asymptotique de l'énergie d'une application asymptotiquement harmonique sur une variété AHE est indépendant du choix du représentant de l'infini conforme.
In this paper,
we prove certain $L^2$-estimate
for multilinear Fourier multiplier operators
with multipliers of limited smoothness.
As a result,
we extend the result of Calderón and Torchinsky
in the linear theory to the multilinear case.
The sharpness of our results and some
related estimates in Hardy spaces
are also discussed.
We show that for spaces with 1-unconditional bases
lushness, the alternative Daugavet property and numerical
index 1 are equivalent. In the class of rearrangement
invariant (r.i.) sequence spaces the only examples of spaces with
these properties are $c_0$, $\ell_1$ and $\ell_\infty$.
The only lush r.i. separable function space on $[0,1]$ is $L_1[0,1]$;
the same space is the only r.i. separable function space on $[0,1]$
with the Daugavet property over the reals.
We provide a framework for studying randomly coloured point sets in a
locally compact, second-countable space on which a
metrisable unimodular group acts continuously and properly.
We first construct and describe an
appropriate dynamical system for uniformly discrete uncoloured point sets. For
point sets of finite local complexity, we
characterise ergodicity geometrically in terms of pattern frequencies.
The general framework allows to incorporate a random
colouring of the point sets. We derive an ergodic theorem for randomly
coloured point sets with finite-range dependencies.
Special attention is paid to the exclusion of exceptional instances for uniquely ergodic
systems. The setup allows for a straightforward application to randomly
coloured graphs.
We construct a bipartite Euler system in the sense of Howard for Hilbert modular eigenforms of parallel
weight two over totally real fields, generalizing works of Bertolini-Darmon, Longo, Nekovar, Pollack-Weston
and others. The construction has direct applications to Iwasawa main conjectures. For instance, it implies
in many cases one divisibility of the associated dihedral or anticyclotomic main conjecture, at the same
time reducing the other divisibility to a certain nonvanishing criterion for the associated $p$-adic $L$-functions.
It also has applications to cyclotomic main conjectures for Hilbert modular forms over CM fields via the technique
of Skinner and Urban.
We show that quasimap Floer cohomology for varying symplectic
quotients resolves several puzzles regarding displaceability of toric
moment fibers. For example, we (i) present a compact Hamiltonian
torus action containing an open subset of non-displaceable
orbits and a codimension four singular set, partly answering a
question of McDuff, and (ii) determine displaceability for most of the
moment fibers of a symplectic ellipsoid.
The proofs of Theorem 2.2 of K. J. Dykema and M. Rørdam, Purely infinite simple
$C^*$-algebras arising from free product constructions}, Canad. J.
Math. 50 (1998), 323--341 and
of Theorem 3.1 of K. J. Dykema, Purely infinite simple
$C^*$-algebras arising from free product constructions, II, Math.
Scand. 90 (2002), 73--86 are corrected.
In this paper we analyze states on C*-algebras and
their relationship to filter-like structures of projections and
positive elements in the unit ball. After developing the basic theory
we use this to investigate the Kadison-Singer conjecture, proving its
equivalence to an apparently quite weak paving conjecture and the
existence of unique maximal centred extensions of projections coming
from ultrafilters on the natural numbers. We then prove that Reid's
positive answer to this for q-points in fact also holds for rapid
p-points, and that maximal centred filters are obtained in this case.
We then show that consistently such maximal centred filters do not
exist at all meaning that, for every pure state on the Calkin algebra,
there exists a pair of projections on which the state is 1, even
though the state is bounded strictly below 1 for projections below
this pair. Lastly we investigate towers, using cardinal invariant
equalities to construct towers on the natural numbers that do and do
not remain towers when canonically embedded into the Calkin algebra.
Finally we show that consistently all towers on the natural numbers
remain towers under this embedding.
We prove
restriction and extension of multipliers between
weighted Lebesgue spaces with
two different weights, which belong to a class more general than periodic weights, and two different exponents of integrability which can be
below one.
We also develop some ad-hoc methods which apply to weights
defined by the product of periodic weights with functions of power type.
Our vector-valued approach allow us to extend results
to transference of maximal multipliers and provide transference of Littlewood-Paley inequalities.
We show that higher order invariants of smooth functions can be
written as linear combinations of full invariants times iterated
integrals.
The non-uniqueness of such a presentation is captured in the kernel of
the ensuing map from the tensor product. This kernel is computed
explicitly.
As a consequence, it turns out that higher order invariants are a free
module of the algebra of full invariants.
This paper provides an addendum and erratum to L. Godinho and
M. E. Sousa-Dias,
"The Fundamental Group of
$S^1$-manifolds". Canad. J. Math. 62(2010), no. 5, 1082--1098.
We define and study the so-called extreme version of the notion of a
projective normed module. The relevant definition takes into account
the exact value of the norm of the module in question, in contrast
with the standard known definition that is formulated in terms of norm
topology.
After the discussion of the case where our normed algebra $A$ is just
$\mathbb{C}$, we concentrate on the case of the next degree of complication,
where $A$ is a sequence algebra, satisfying some natural conditions.
The main results give a full characterization of extremely projective
objects within the subcategory of the category of non-degenerate
normed $A$--modules, consisting of the so-called homogeneous modules.
We consider two cases, `non-complete' and `complete', and the
respective answers turn out to be essentially different.
In particular, all Banach non-degenerate homogeneous modules,
consisting of sequences, are extremely projective within the category
of Banach non-degenerate homogeneous modules. However, neither of
them, provided it is infinite-dimensional, is extremely projective
within the category of all normed non-degenerate homogeneous modules.
On the other hand, submodules of these modules, consisting of finite
sequences, are extremely projective within the latter category.
Permutation products and their various ``fat diagonal'' subspaces are
studied from the topological and geometric point of view. We describe
in detail the stabilizer and orbit stratifications related to the
permutation action, producing a sharp upper bound for its depth and
then paying particular attention to the geometry of the diagonal
stratum. We write down an expression for the fundamental group of any
permutation product of a connected space $X$ having the homotopy type
of a CW complex in terms of $\pi_1(X)$ and $H_1(X;\mathbb{Z})$. We then
prove that the fundamental group of the configuration space of
$n$-points on $X$, of which multiplicities do not exceed $n/2$,
coincides with $H_1(X;\mathbb{Z})$. Further results consist in giving
conditions for when fat diagonal subspaces of manifolds can be
manifolds again. Various examples and homological calculations are
included.
We establish asymptotics for Christoffel functions associated with
multivariate orthogonal polynomials. The underlying measures are assumed to
be regular on a suitable domain - in particular this is true if they are
positive a.e. on a compact set that admits analytic parametrization. As a
consequence, we obtain asymptotics for Christoffel functions for measures on
the ball and simplex, under far more general conditions than previously
known. As another consequence, we establish universality type limits in the
bulk in a variety of settings.
In this paper, we introduce two notions on a surface in a contact
manifold. The first one is called degree of transversality (DOT) which
measures the transversality between the tangent spaces of a surface
and the contact planes. The second quantity, called curvature of
transversality (COT), is designed to give a comparison principle for
DOT along characteristic curves under bounds on COT. In particular,
this gives estimates on lengths of characteristic curves assuming COT
is bounded below by a positive constant.
<p>
We show that surfaces with constant COT exist and we classify all
graphs in the Heisenberg group with vanishing COT. This is
accomplished by showing that the equation for graphs with zero COT can
be decomposed into two first order PDEs, one of which is the backward
invisicid Burgers' equation. Finally we show that the p-minimal graph
equation in the Heisenberg group also has such a
decomposition. Moreover, we can use this decomposition to write down
an explicit formula of a solution near a regular point.
We prove that $r$ independent homogeneous polynomials of the same degree $d$
become dependent when restricted to any hyperplane if and only if their inverse system parameterizes a variety
whose $(d-1)$-osculating spaces have dimension smaller than expected. This gives an equivalence
between an algebraic notion (called Weak Lefschetz Property)
and a differential geometric notion, concerning varieties which satisfy certain Laplace equations. In the toric case,
some relevant examples are classified and as byproduct we provide counterexamples to Ilardi's conjecture.
Darboux Wronskian formulas allow to construct Darboux transformations,
but Laplace transformations, which are Darboux transformations of
order one
cannot be represented this way.
It has been a long standing problem on what are other exceptions. In
our previous work we proved that among transformations of total
order one there are no other exceptions. Here we prove that for
transformations of total order two there are no exceptions at all.
We also obtain a simple explicit invariant description of all possible
Darboux Transformations of total order two.
Meyer sets have a relatively dense set of Bragg peaks and
for this reason they may be considered as basic mathematical
examples of (aperiodic) crystals. In this paper we investigate the
pure point part of the diffraction of Meyer sets in more detail.
The results are of two kinds. First we show that given a Meyer set
and any positive intensity $a$ less than the maximum intensity of its Bragg
peaks, the set of Bragg peaks whose intensity exceeds $a$ is
itself a Meyer set (in the Fourier space). Second we show that if a
Meyer set is modified by addition and removal of points in such a
way that its density is not altered too much (the allowable amount
being given explicitly as a proportion of the original density)
then the newly obtained set still has a relatively dense set of Bragg
peaks.
We analyze the regularity of standing wave solutions
to nonlinear Schrödinger equations of power type on bounded domains,
concentrating on Lipschitz domains. We establish optimal regularity results
in this setting, in Besov spaces and in Hölder spaces.
Given a real analytic set $X$ in a complex manifold and a positive
integer $d$, denote by $\mathcal A^d$ the set of points $p$ in $X$ at which
there exists a germ of a complex analytic set of dimension $d$ contained in $X$.
It is proved that $\mathcal A^d$ is a closed semianalytic subset of $X$.
We expose different methods of regularizations of subsolutions
in the context of discrete weak KAM theory.
They allow to prove the existence and the density of $C^{1,1}$
subsolutions. Moreover, these subsolutions can be made strict
and smooth outside of the Aubry set.
The squared distance curvature is a kind of two-point curvature the
sign of which turned out crucial for the smoothness of optimal
transportation maps on Riemannian manifolds. Positivity properties of
that new curvature have been established recently for all the simply
connected compact rank one symmetric spaces, except the Cayley
plane. Direct proofs were given for the sphere, an indirect one
via the Hopf fibrations) for the complex and quaternionic
projective spaces. Here, we present a direct proof of a property
implying all the preceding ones, valid on every positively curved
Riemannian locally symmetric space.
Let $\mathcal{S}$ be the semigroup $\mathcal{S}=\sum^{\oplus k}_{i=1}\mathcal{S}_i$, where for each $i\in I$,
$\mathcal{S}_i$ is a countable subsemigroup of the additive semigroup $\mathbb{R}_+$ containing $0$. We consider representations
of $\mathcal{S}$ as contractions $\{T_s\}_{s\in\mathcal{S}}$ on a Hilbert space with the Nica-covariance property:
$T_s^*T_t=T_tT_s^*$ whenever $t\wedge s=0$. We show that all such representations have a unique minimal isometric Nica-covariant
dilation.
This result is used to help analyse the nonself-adjoint semicrossed product algebras formed from Nica-covariant representations of the action of $\mathcal{S}$ on an operator algebra $\mathcal{A}$ by completely contractive endomorphisms.
We conclude by calculating the $C^*$-envelope of the isometric nonself-adjoint semicrossed product algebra (in the sense
of Kakariadis and Katsoulis).
We introduce generalised triple homomorphism between Jordan Banach
triple systems as a concept which extends the notion of generalised homomorphism between
Banach algebras given by K. Jarosz and B.E. Johnson in 1985 and 1987, respectively.
We prove that every generalised triple homomorphism between JB$^*$-triples
is automatically continuous. When particularised to C$^*$-algebras, we rediscover
one of the main theorems established by B.E. Johnson. We shall also consider generalised
triple derivations from a Jordan Banach triple $E$ into a Jordan Banach triple $E$-module,
proving that every generalised triple derivation from a JB$^*$-triple $E$ into itself or into $E^*$
is automatically continuous.
Given a non-oscillating gradient trajectory $|\gamma|$ of a real analytic function $f$,
we show that the limit $\nu$ of the secants at the limit point
$\mathbf{0}$
of $|\gamma|$ along the trajectory
$|\gamma|$ is an eigen-vector of the limit of the direction of the
Hessian matrix $\operatorname{Hess} (f)$ at $\mathbf{0}$
along $|\gamma|$. The same holds true at infinity if the function is globally sub-analytic. We also deduce
some interesting estimates along the trajectory. Away from the ends of the ambient space, this property is
of metric nature and still holds in a general Riemannian analytic setting.
Recent work of Ein-Lazarsfeld-Smith and Hochster-Huneke
raised the problem of which symbolic powers of an ideal
are contained in a given ordinary power of the ideal.
Bocci-Harbourne developed methods to address this problem,
which involve asymptotic numerical characters of
symbolic powers of the ideals. Most of the work
done up to now has been done for ideals defining 0-dimensional
subschemes of projective space.
Here we focus on certain subschemes given by
a union of lines in $\mathbb{P}^3$ which can also be viewed
as points in $\mathbb{P}^1 \times \mathbb{P}^1$.
We also obtain results on the
closely related problem, studied by Hochster and by Li-Swanson, of
determining situations for which
each symbolic power of an ideal is an ordinary power.
For $\delta \ge 1$ and $n \ge 1$, consider the simplicial
complex of graphs on $n$ vertices in which each vertex has degree
at most $\delta$; we identify a given graph with its edge set and
admit one loop at each vertex.
This complex is of some importance in the theory of semigroup
algebras.
When $\delta = 1$, we obtain the
matching complex, for which it is known that
there is $3$-torsion in degree $d$ of the homology
whenever $\frac{n-4}{3} \le d \le \frac{n-6}{2}$.
This paper establishes similar bounds for $\delta \ge
2$. Specifically, there is $3$-torsion in degree $d$ whenever
$\frac{(3\delta-1)n-8}{6} \le d \le \frac{\delta (n-1) -
4}{2}$.
The procedure for detecting
torsion is to construct an explicit cycle $z$ that is easily seen
to have the property that $3z$ is a boundary. Defining a
homomorphism that sends
$z$ to a non-boundary element in the chain complex of a certain
matching complex, we obtain that $z$ itself is a non-boundary.
In particular, the homology class of $z$ has order $3$.
The $q$-semicircular distribution is a probability law that
interpolates between the Gaussian law and the semicircular law. There
is a combinatorial interpretation of its moments in terms of matchings
where $q$ follows the number of crossings, whereas for the free
cumulants one has to restrict the enumeration to connected matchings.
The purpose of this article is to describe combinatorial properties of
the classical cumulants. We show that like the free cumulants, they
are obtained by an enumeration of connected matchings, the weight
being now an evaluation of the Tutte polynomial of a so-called
crossing graph. The case $q=0$ of these cumulants was studied by
Lassalle using symmetric functions and hypergeometric series. We show
that the underlying combinatorics is explained through the theory of
heaps, which is Viennot's geometric interpretation of the
Cartier-Foata monoid. This method also gives a general formula for
the cumulants in terms of free cumulants.
Guest-Ohnita and Crawford have shown the path-connectedness of the
space of harmonic maps from $S^2$ to $\mathbf{C} P^n$
of a fixed degree and energy.It is well-known that the $\partial$ transform is defined on this space.
In this paper,we will show that the space is decomposed into mutually disjoint connected subspaces on which
$\partial$ is homeomorphic.
We consider threefolds that admit a fibration by K3 surfaces over a nonsingular curve, equipped with a divisorial sheaf that defines a polarisation of degree two on the general fibre. Under certain assumptions on the threefold we show that its relative log canonical model exists and can be explicitly reconstructed from a small set of data determined by the original fibration. Finally we prove a converse to the above statement: under certain assumptions, any such set of data determines a threefold that arises as the relative log canonical model of a threefold admitting a fibration by K3 surfaces of degree two.
We consider the following prescribed boundary mean curvature problem
in $ \mathbb B^N$ with the Euclidean metric:
\[
\begin{cases}
\displaystyle -\Delta u =0,\quad u\gt 0 &\text{in }\mathbb B^N,
\\[2ex]
\displaystyle \frac{\partial u}{\partial\nu} + \frac{N-2}{2} u =\frac{N-2}{2} \widetilde K(x) u^{2^\#-1} \quad & \text{on }\mathbb S^{N-1},
\end{cases}
\]
where $\widetilde K(x)$ is positive and rotationally symmetric on $\mathbb
S^{N-1}, 2^\#=\frac{2(N-1)}{N-2}$.
We show that if $\widetilde K(x)$ has a local maximum point,
then the above problem has infinitely many positive solutions
that are not rotationally symmetric on $\mathbb S^{N-1}$.
Multiview geometry is the study of
two-dimensional images of three-dimensional scenes, a foundational subject in computer vision.
We determine a universal Gröbner basis for the multiview ideal of $n$ generic cameras.
As the cameras move, the multiview varieties vary in a family of dimension $11n-15$.
This family is the distinguished component of a multigraded Hilbert scheme
with a unique Borel-fixed point.
We present a combinatorial study
of ideals lying on that Hilbert scheme.
We introduce the concept of a rare element in a non-associative normed
algebra and show that the existence of such element is the only obstruction
to continuity of a surjective homomorphism from a non-associative Banach
algebra to a unital normed algebra with simple completion. Unital
associative algebras do not admit any rare element and hence automatic
continuity holds.
Let $G$ be a locally compact group. Let $A_{M}(G)$ ($A_{0}(G)$)denote
the closure of $A(G)$, the Fourier algebra of $G$ in the space of
bounded (completely bounded) multipliers of $A(G)$.
We call a locally compact group M-weakly amenable if
$A_M(G)$
has a
bounded approximate identity. We will show that when $G$ is M-weakly
amenable, the algebras $A_{M}(G)$ and $A_{0}(G)$ have
properties that are characteristic of the Fourier algebra of an
amenable group. Along the way we show that the sets of tolopolically
invariant means associated with these algebras have the same
cardinality as those of the Fourier algebra.
Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of these branched covers related to the expansion of complete symmetric functions in the Jucys-Murphy elements, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.
We study locally compact quantum groups $\mathbb{G}$ through the
convolution algebras $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})),
\triangleright)$. We prove that the reduced quantum group
$C^*$-algebra $C_0(\mathbb{G})$ can be recovered from the convolution
$\triangleright$ by showing that the right $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$-module
$\langle K(L_2(\mathbb{G}) \triangleright T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ is
equal to $C_0(\mathbb{G})$. On the other hand, we show that the left
$T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$-module $\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright
K(L_2(\mathbb{G})\rangle$ is isomorphic to the reduced crossed product
$C_0(\widehat{\mathbb{G}}) \,_r\!\ltimes C_0(\mathbb{G})$, and hence is
a much larger $C^*$-subalgebra of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$.
We establish a natural isomorphism between the completely bounded
right multiplier algebras of $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and
$(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})), \triangleright)$, and settle two invariance
problems associated with the representation theorem of
Junge-Neufang-Ruan (2009). We characterize regularity and discreteness
of the quantum group $\mathbb{G}$ in terms of continuity properties of
the convolution $\triangleright$ on $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We prove
that if $\mathbb{G}$ is semi-regular, then the space
$\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ of right
$\mathbb{G}$-continuous operators on $L_2(\mathbb{G})$, which was
introduced by Bekka (1990) for $L_{\infty}(G)$, is a unital $C^*$-subalgebra
of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. In the representation framework formulated by
Neufang-Ruan-Spronk (2008) and Junge-Neufang-Ruan, we show that the
dual properties of compactness and discreteness can be characterized
simultaneously via automatic normality of quantum group bimodule maps
on $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We also characterize some commutation
relations of completely bounded multipliers of $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})),
\triangleright)$ over $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$.
In this paper we use the recent developments in the
representation theory of locally compact quantum groups,
to assign, to each locally compact
quantum group $\mathbb{G}$, a locally compact group $\tilde {\mathbb{G}}$ which
is the quantum version of point-masses, and is an
invariant for the latter. We show that ``quantum point-masses"
can be identified with several other locally compact groups that can be
naturally assigned to the quantum group $\mathbb{G}$.
This assignment preserves compactness as well as
discreteness (hence also finiteness), and for large classes of quantum
groups, amenability. We calculate this invariant for some of the most
well-known examples of
non-classical quantum groups.
Also, we show that several structural properties of $\mathbb{G}$ are encoded
by $\tilde {\mathbb{G}}$: the latter, despite being a simpler object, can carry very
important information about $\mathbb{G}$.
Nous considérons les perturbations $H := H_{0} + V$ et $D := D_{0} +
V$ des Hamiltoniens libres $H_{0}$ de Pauli et $D_{0}$ de Dirac en
dimension 3 avec champ magnétique non constant, $V$ étant un
potentiel électrique qui décroît super-exponentiellement dans la
direction du champ magnétique. Nous montrons que dans des espaces de
Banach appropriés, les résolvantes de $H$ et $D$ définies sur le
demi-plan supérieur admettent des prolongements méromorphes. Nous
définissons les résonances de $H$ et $D$ comme étant les pôles de
ces extensions méromorphes. D'une part, nous étudions la
répartition des résonances de $H$ près de l'origine $0$ et d'autre
part, celle des résonances de $D$ près de $\pm m$ où $m$ est la
masse d'une particule. Dans les deux cas, nous obtenons d'abord des
majorations du nombre de résonances dans de petits domaines au
voisinage de $0$ et $\pm m$. Sous des hypothèses supplémentaires,
nous obtenons des développements asymptotiques du nombre de
résonances qui entraînent leur accumulation près des seuils $0$ et
$\pm m$. En particulier, pour une perturbation $V$ de signe défini,
nous obtenons des informations sur la répartition des valeurs propres
de $H$ et $D$ près de $0$ et $\pm m$ respectivement.
In this paper, we study the reduced loci of special cycles on local
models of the Shimura variety for $\operatorname{GU}(1,n-1)$. Those special cycles are defined by Kudla and Rapoport. We explicitly compute the irreducible components of the reduced locus of a single special cycle, as well as of an arbitrary intersection of special cycles, and their intersection behaviour in terms of Bruhat-Tits
theory. Furthermore, as an application of our results, we prove the connectedness of arbitrary intersections of special cycles, as conjectured by Kudla and Rapoport.
We define partial differential (PD in the following), i.e., field
theoretic analogues of Hamiltonian systems on abstract symplectic
manifolds and study their main properties, namely, PD Hamilton
equations, PD Noether theorem, PD Poisson bracket, etc.. Unlike in
standard multisymplectic approach to Hamiltonian field theory, in our
formalism, the geometric structure (kinematics) and the dynamical
information on the ``phase space''
appear as just different components of one single geometric object.
We construct unconditionally several families of number fields with
the largest possible class numbers. They are number fields of degree 4
and 5 whose Galois closures have the Galois group $A_4, S_4$ and
$S_5$. We first construct families of number fields with smallest
regulators, and by using the strong Artin conjecture and applying zero
density result of Kowalski-Michel, we choose subfamilies of
$L$-functions which are zero free close to 1.
For these subfamilies, the $L$-functions have the extremal value at
$s=1$, and by the class number formula, we obtain the extreme class
numbers.
Our goal in this work is to present some function spaces on the
complex plane $\mathbb C$, $X(\mathbb C)$, for which the quasiregular solutions of
the Beltrami equation, $\overline\partial f (z) = \mu(z) \partial f
(z)$, have first derivatives locally in $X(\mathbb C)$, provided that the
Beltrami coefficient $\mu$ belongs to $X(\mathbb C)$.
We prove that the set of all support points of a nonempty closed convex bounded set $C$ in a real infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$ is $\mathrm{AR(}\sigma$-$\mathrm{compact)}$ and contractible. Under suitable conditions, similar results are proved also for the set of all support functionals of $C$ and for the domain, the graph and the range of the subdifferential map of a proper convex l.s.c. function on $X$.
We establish the formula for the variation of
integrals of differential forms on cubic chains, in the
context of diffeological spaces. Then, we establish the diffeological version of Stoke's
theorem, and we apply that to get the diffeological variant of the
Cartan-Lie formula. Still in the context of Cartan-De-Rham calculus
in diffeology, we
construct a Chain-Homotopy Operator $\mathbf K$ we apply it here to
get the homotopic invariance of De Rham cohomology for
diffeological spaces. This is the Chain-Homotopy Operator which used in
symplectic diffeology to construct the Moment Map.
The paper studies the $K$-theoretic invariants of the crossed product
$C^{*}$-algebras associated with an important family of homeomorphisms
of the tori $\mathbb{T}^{n}$ called Furstenberg transformations.
Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu theorem, we prove that given $n$, the
$K$-groups of those crossed products, whose corresponding $n\times n$
integer matrices are unipotent of maximal degree, always have the same
rank $a_{n}$. We show using the theory developed here that a claim
made in the literature about the torsion subgroups of these $K$-groups
is false. Using the representation theory of the simple Lie algebra
$\frak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$, we show that, remarkably, $a_{n}$ has a
combinatorial significance. For example, every $a_{2n+1}$ is just the
number of ways that $0$ can be represented as a sum of integers
between $-n$ and $n$ (with no repetitions). By adapting an argument
of van Lint (in which he answered a question of Erdős), a simple,
explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the sequence
$\{a_{n}\}$ is given. Finally, we describe the order structure of the
$K_{0}$-groups of an important class of Furstenberg crossed products,
obtaining their complete Elliott invariant using classification
results of H. Lin and N. C. Phillips.
We introduce the notion of orbital $L$-functions
for the space of binary cubic forms
and investigate their analytic properties.
We study their functional equations and residue formulas in some detail.
Aside from their intrinsic interest,
the results from this paper are used to
prove the existence of secondary terms in counting
functions for cubic fields.
This is worked out in a companion paper.
This article concerns a class of open billiards consisting of a finite
number of strictly convex, non-eclipsing obstacles $K$. The
non-wandering set $M_0$ of the billiard ball map is a topological
Cantor set and its Hausdorff dimension has been previously estimated
for billiards in $\mathbb{R}^2$, using well-known techniques. We
extend these estimates to billiards in $\mathbb{R}^n$, and make
various refinements to the estimates. These refinements also allow
improvements to other results. We also show that in many cases, the
non-wandering set is confined to a particular subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$
formed by the convex hull of points determined by period 2
orbits. This allows more accurate bounds on the constants used in
estimating Hausdorff dimension.
In this paper, we establish a universal volume comparison theorem
for Finsler manifolds and give the Berger-Kazdan inequality and
Santaló's formula in Finsler geometry. Being based on these, we
derive a Berger-Kazdan type comparison theorem and a Croke type
isoperimetric inequality for Finsler manifolds.