Canadian Mathematical Society
Canadian Mathematical Society
  location:  Publicationsjournals
Search results

Search: MSC category 46L80 ( $K$-theory and operator algebras (including cyclic theory) [See also 18F25, 19Kxx, 46M20, 55Rxx, 58J22] )

  Expand all        Collapse all Results 1 - 16 of 16

1. CJM Online first

Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren; Sørensen, Adam P. W.
Geometric classification of graph C*-algebras over finite graphs
We address the classification problem for graph $C^*$-algebras of finite graphs (finitely many edges and vertices), containing the class of Cuntz-Krieger algebras as a prominent special case. Contrasting earlier work, we do not assume that the graphs satisfy the standard condition (K), so that the graph $C^*$-algebras may come with uncountably many ideals. We find that in this generality, stable isomorphism of graph $C^*$-algebras does not coincide with the geometric notion of Cuntz move equivalence. However, adding a modest condition on the graphs, the two notions are proved to be mutually equivalent and equivalent to the $C^*$-algebras having isomorphic $K$-theories. This proves in turn that under this condition, the graph $C^*$-algebras are in fact classifiable by $K$-theory, providing in particular complete classification when the $C^*$-algebras in question are either of real rank zero or type I/postliminal. The key ingredient in obtaining these results is a characterization of Cuntz move equivalence using the adjacency matrices of the graphs. Our results are applied to discuss the classification problem for the quantum lens spaces defined by Hong and Szymański, and to complete the classification of graph $C^*$-algebras associated to all simple graphs with four vertices or less.

Keywords:graph $C^*$-algebra, geometric classification, $K$-theory, flow equivalence
Categories:46L35, 46L80, 46L55, 37B10

2. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 1023)

Phillips, John; Raeburn, Iain
Centre-valued Index for Toeplitz Operators with Noncommuting Symbols
We formulate and prove a ``winding number'' index theorem for certain ``Toeplitz'' operators in the same spirit as Gohberg-Krein, Lesch and others. The ``number'' is replaced by a self-adjoint operator in a subalgebra $Z\subseteq Z(A)$ of a unital $C^*$-algebra, $A$. We assume a faithful $Z$-valued trace $\tau$ on $A$ left invariant under an action $\alpha:{\mathbf R}\to Aut(A)$ leaving $Z$ pointwise fixed.If $\delta$ is the infinitesimal generator of $\alpha$ and $u$ is invertible in $\operatorname{dom}(\delta)$ then the ``winding operator'' of $u$ is $\frac{1}{2\pi i}\tau(\delta(u)u^{-1})\in Z_{sa}.$ By a careful choice of representations we extend $(A,Z,\tau,\alpha)$ to a von Neumann setting $(\mathfrak{A},\mathfrak{Z},\bar\tau,\bar\alpha)$ where $\mathfrak{A}=A^{\prime\prime}$ and $\mathfrak{Z}=Z^{\prime\prime}.$ Then $A\subset\mathfrak{A}\subset \mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\bf R}$, the von Neumann crossed product, and there is a faithful, dual $\mathfrak{Z}$-trace on $\mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\bf R}$. If $P$ is the projection in $\mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\bf R}$ corresponding to the non-negative spectrum of the generator of $\mathbf R$ inside $\mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\mathbf R}$ and $\tilde\pi:A\to\mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\mathbf R}$ is the embedding then we define for $u\in A^{-1}$, $T_u=P\tilde\pi(u) P$ and show it is Fredholm in an appropriate sense and the $\mathfrak{Z}$-valued index of $T_u$ is the negative of the winding operator. In outline the proof follows the proof of the scalar case done previously by the authors. The main difficulty is making sense of the constructions with the scalars replaced by $\mathfrak{Z}$ in the von Neumann setting. The construction of the dual $\mathfrak{Z}$-trace on $\mathfrak{A}\rtimes{\mathbf R}$ required the nontrivial development of a $\mathfrak{Z}$-Hilbert Algebra theory. We show that certain of these Fredholm operators fiber as a ``section'' of Fredholm operators with scalar-valued index and the centre-valued index fibers as a section of the scalar-valued indices.

Keywords:index ,Toeplitz operator
Categories:46L55, 19K56, 46L80

3. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1287)

Reihani, Kamran
$K$-theory of Furstenberg Transformation Group $C^*$-algebras
The paper studies the $K$-theoretic invariants of the crossed product $C^{*}$-algebras associated with an important family of homeomorphisms of the tori $\mathbb{T}^{n}$ called Furstenberg transformations. Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu theorem, we prove that given $n$, the $K$-groups of those crossed products, whose corresponding $n\times n$ integer matrices are unipotent of maximal degree, always have the same rank $a_{n}$. We show using the theory developed here that a claim made in the literature about the torsion subgroups of these $K$-groups is false. Using the representation theory of the simple Lie algebra $\frak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$, we show that, remarkably, $a_{n}$ has a combinatorial significance. For example, every $a_{2n+1}$ is just the number of ways that $0$ can be represented as a sum of integers between $-n$ and $n$ (with no repetitions). By adapting an argument of van Lint (in which he answered a question of Erdős), a simple, explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ is given. Finally, we describe the order structure of the $K_{0}$-groups of an important class of Furstenberg crossed products, obtaining their complete Elliott invariant using classification results of H. Lin and N. C. Phillips.

Keywords:$K$-theory, transformation group $C^*$-algebra, Furstenberg transformation, Anzai transformation, minimal homeomorphism, positive cone, minimal homeomorphism
Categories:19K14, 19K99, 46L35, 46L80, , 05A15, 05A16, 05A17, 15A36, 17B10, 17B20, 37B05, 54H20

4. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 596)

Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
The Ordered $K$-theory of a Full Extension
Let $\mathfrak{A}$ be a $C^{*}$-algebra with real rank zero which has the stable weak cancellation property. Let $\mathfrak{I}$ be an ideal of $\mathfrak{A}$ such that $\mathfrak{I}$ is stable and satisfies the corona factorization property. We prove that $ 0 \to \mathfrak{I} \to \mathfrak{A} \to \mathfrak{A} / \mathfrak{I} \to 0 $ is a full extension if and only if the extension is stenotic and $K$-lexicographic. {As an immediate application, we extend the classification result for graph $C^*$-algebras obtained by Tomforde and the first named author to the general non-unital case. In combination with recent results by Katsura, Tomforde, West and the first author, our result may also be used to give a purely $K$-theoretical description of when an essential extension of two simple and stable graph $C^*$-algebras is again a graph $C^*$-algebra.}

Keywords:classification, extensions, graph algebras
Categories:46L80, 46L35, 46L05

5. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 755)

Brown, Lawrence G.; Lee, Hyun Ho
Homotopy Classification of Projections in the Corona Algebra of a Non-simple $C^*$-algebra
We study projections in the corona algebra of $C(X)\otimes K$, where K is the $C^*$-algebra of compact operators on a separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space and $X=[0,1],[0,\infty),(-\infty,\infty)$, or $[0,1]/\{ 0,1 \}$. Using BDF's essential codimension, we determine conditions for a projection in the corona algebra to be liftable to a projection in the multiplier algebra. We also determine the conditions for two projections to be equal in $K_0$, Murray-von Neumann equivalent, unitarily equivalent, or homotopic. In light of these characterizations, we construct examples showing that the equivalence notions above are all distinct.

Keywords:essential codimension, continuous field of Hilbert spaces, Corona algebra
Categories:46L05, 46L80

6. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 343)

Lin, Huaxin
Weak Semiprojectivity in Purely Infinite Simple $C^*$-Algebras
Let $A$ be a separable amenable purely infinite simple \CA which satisfies the Universal Coefficient Theorem. We prove that $A$ is weakly semiprojective if and only if $K_i(A)$ is a countable direct sum of finitely generated groups ($i=0,1$). Therefore, if $A$ is such a \CA, for any $\ep>0$ and any finite subset ${\mathcal F}\subset A$ there exist $\dt>0$ and a finite subset ${\mathcal G}\subset A$ satisfying the following: for any contractive positive linear map $L: A\to B$ (for any \CA $B$) with $ \|L(ab)-L(a)L(b)\|<\dt$ for $a, b\in {\mathcal G}$ there exists a homomorphism $h\from A\to B$ such that $ \|h(a)-L(a)\|<\ep$ for $a\in {\mathcal F}$.

Keywords:weakly semiprojective, purely infinite simple $C^*$-algebras
Categories:46L05, 46L80

7. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 1223)

Mygind, Jesper
Classification of Certain Simple $C^*$-Algebras with Torsion in $K_1$
We show that the Elliott invariant is a classifying invariant for the class of $C^*$-algebras that are simple unital infinite dimensional inductive limits of finite direct sums of building blocks of the form $$ \{f \in C(\T) \otimes M_n : f(x_i) \in M_{d_i}, i = 1,2,\dots,N\}, $$ where $x_1,x_2,\dots,x_N \in \T$, $d_1,d_2,\dots,d_N$ are integers dividing $n$, and $M_{d_i}$ is embedded unitally into $M_n$. Furthermore we prove existence and uniqueness theorems for $*$-homomorphisms between such algebras and we identify the range of the invariant.

Categories:46L80, 19K14, 46L05

8. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 979)

Nagisa, Masaru; Osaka, Hiroyuki; Phillips, N. Christopher
Ranks of Algebras of Continuous $C^*$-Algebra Valued Functions
We prove a number of results about the stable and particularly the real ranks of tensor products of \ca s under the assumption that one of the factors is commutative. In particular, we prove the following: {\raggedright \begin{enumerate}[(5)] \item[(1)] If $X$ is any locally compact $\sm$-compact Hausdorff space and $A$ is any \ca, then\break $\RR \bigl( C_0 (X) \otimes A \bigr) \leq \dim (X) + \RR(A)$. \item[(2)] If $X$ is any locally compact Hausdorff space and $A$ is any \pisca, then $\RR \bigl( C_0 (X) \otimes A \bigr) \leq 1$. \item[(3)] $\RR \bigl( C ([0,1]) \otimes A \bigr) \geq 1$ for any nonzero \ca\ $A$, and $\sr \bigl( C ([0,1]^2) \otimes A \bigr) \geq 2$ for any unital \ca\ $A$. \item[(4)] If $A$ is a unital \ca\ such that $\RR(A) = 0$, $\sr (A) = 1$, and $K_1 (A) = 0$, then\break $\sr \bigl( C ([0,1]) \otimes A \bigr) = 1$. \item[(5)] There is a simple separable unital nuclear \ca\ $A$ such that $\RR(A) = 1$ and\break $\sr \bigl( C ([0,1]) \otimes A \bigr) = 1$. \end{enumerate}}

Categories:46L05, 46L52, 46L80, 19A13, 19B10

9. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 809)

Robertson, Guyan; Steger, Tim
Asymptotic $K$-Theory for Groups Acting on $\tA_2$ Buildings
Let $\Gamma$ be a torsion free lattice in $G=\PGL(3, \mathbb{F})$ where $\mathbb{F}$ is a nonarchimedean local field. Then $\Gamma$ acts freely on the affine Bruhat-Tits building $\mathcal{B}$ of $G$ and there is an induced action on the boundary $\Omega$ of $\mathcal{B}$. The crossed product $C^*$-algebra $\mathcal{A}(\Gamma)=C(\Omega) \rtimes \Gamma$ depends only on $\Gamma$ and is classified by its $K$-theory. This article shows how to compute the $K$-theory of $\mathcal{A}(\Gamma)$ and of the larger class of rank two Cuntz-Krieger algebras.

Keywords:$K$-theory, $C^*$-algebra, affine building
Categories:46L80, 51E24

10. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 631)

Walters, Samuel G.
K-Theory of Non-Commutative Spheres Arising from the Fourier Automorphism
For a dense $G_\delta$ set of real parameters $\theta$ in $[0,1]$ (containing the rationals) it is shown that the group $K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}^9$, where $A_\theta$ is the rotation C*-algebra generated by unitaries $U$, $V$ satisfying $VU = e^{2\pi i\theta} UV$ and $\sigma$ is the Fourier automorphism of $A_\theta$ defined by $\sigma(U) = V$, $\sigma(V) = U^{-1}$. More precisely, an explicit basis for $K_0$ consisting of nine canonical modules is given. (A slight generalization of this result is also obtained for certain separable continuous fields of unital C*-algebras over $[0,1]$.) The Connes Chern character $\ch \colon K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4) \to H^{\ev} (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)^*$ is shown to be injective for a dense $G_\delta$ set of parameters $\theta$. The main computational tool in this paper is a group homomorphism $\vtr \colon K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4) \to \mathbb{R}^8 \times \mathbb{Z}$ obtained from the Connes Chern character by restricting the functionals in its codomain to a certain nine-dimensional subspace of $H^{\ev} (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)$. The range of $\vtr$ is fully determined for each $\theta$. (We conjecture that this subspace is all of $H^{\ev}$.)

Keywords:C*-algebras, K-theory, automorphisms, rotation algebras, unbounded traces, Chern characters
Categories:46L80, 46L40, 19K14

11. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 592)

Perera, Francesc
Ideal Structure of Multiplier Algebras of Simple $C^*$-algebras With Real Rank Zero
We give a description of the monoid of Murray-von Neumann equivalence classes of projections for multiplier algebras of a wide class of $\sigma$-unital simple $C^\ast$-algebras $A$ with real rank zero and stable rank one. The lattice of ideals of this monoid, which is known to be crucial for understanding the ideal structure of the multiplier algebra $\mul$, is therefore analyzed. In important cases it is shown that, if $A$ has finite scale then the quotient of $\mul$ modulo any closed ideal $I$ that properly contains $A$ has stable rank one. The intricacy of the ideal structure of $\mul$ is reflected in the fact that $\mul$ can have uncountably many different quotients, each one having uncountably many closed ideals forming a chain with respect to inclusion.

Keywords:$C^\ast$-algebra, multiplier algebra, real rank zero, stable rank, refinement monoid
Categories:46L05, 46L80, 06F05

12. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 325)

Matui, Hiroki
Ext and OrderExt Classes of Certain Automorphisms of $C^*$-Algebras Arising from Cantor Minimal Systems
Giordano, Putnam and Skau showed that the transformation group $C^*$-algebra arising from a Cantor minimal system is an $AT$-algebra, and classified it by its $K$-theory. For approximately inner automorphisms that preserve $C(X)$, we will determine their classes in the Ext and OrderExt groups, and introduce a new invariant for the closure of the topological full group. We will also prove that every automorphism in the kernel of the homomorphism into the Ext group is homotopic to an inner automorphism, which extends Kishimoto's result.

Categories:46L40, 46L80, 54H20

13. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 1164)

Elliott, George A.; Villadsen, Jesper
Perforated Ordered $\K_0$-Groups
A simple $\C^*$-algebra is constructed for which the Murray-von Neumann equivalence classes of projections, with the usual addition---induced by addition of orthogonal projections---form the additive semi-group $$ \{0,2,3,\dots\}. $$ (This is a particularly simple instance of the phenomenon of perforation of the ordered $\K_0$-group, which has long been known in the commutative case---for instance, in the case of the four-sphere---and was recently observed by the second author in the case of a simple $\C^*$-algebra.)

Categories:46L35, 46L80

14. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 633)

Walters, Samuel G.
Chern Characters of Fourier Modules
Let $A_\theta$ denote the rotation algebra---the universal $C^\ast$-algebra generated by unitaries $U,V$ satisfying $VU=e^{2\pi i\theta}UV$, where $\theta$ is a fixed real number. Let $\sigma$ denote the Fourier automorphism of $A_\theta$ defined by $U\mapsto V$, $V\mapsto U^{-1}$, and let $B_\theta = A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}/4\mathbb{Z}$ denote the associated $C^\ast$-crossed product. It is shown that there is a canonical inclusion $\mathbb{Z}^9 \hookrightarrow K_0(B_\theta)$ for each $\theta$ given by nine canonical modules. The unbounded trace functionals of $B_\theta$ (yielding the Chern characters here) are calculated to obtain the cyclic cohomology group of order zero $\HC^0(B_\theta)$ when $\theta$ is irrational. The Chern characters of the nine modules---and more importantly, the Fourier module---are computed and shown to involve techniques from the theory of Jacobi's theta functions. Also derived are explicit equations connecting unbounded traces across strong Morita equivalence, which turn out to be non-commutative extensions of certain theta function equations. These results provide the basis for showing that for a dense $G_\delta$ set of values of $\theta$ one has $K_0(B_\theta)\cong\mathbb{Z}^9$ and is generated by the nine classes constructed here.

Keywords:$C^\ast$-algebras, unbounded traces, Chern characters, irrational rotation algebras, $K$-groups
Categories:46L80, 46L40

15. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 673)

Carey, Alan; Phillips, John
Fredholm modules and spectral flow
An {\it odd unbounded\/} (respectively, $p$-{\it summable}) {\it Fredholm module\/} for a unital Banach $\ast$-algebra, $A$, is a pair $(H,D)$ where $A$ is represented on the Hilbert space, $H$, and $D$ is an unbounded self-adjoint operator on $H$ satisfying: \item{(1)} $(1+D^2)^{-1}$ is compact (respectively, $\Trace\bigl((1+D^2)^{-(p/2)}\bigr) <\infty$), and \item{(2)} $\{a\in A\mid [D,a]$ is bounded$\}$ is a dense $\ast-$subalgebra of $A$. If $u$ is a unitary in the dense $\ast-$subalgebra mentioned in (2) then $$ uDu^\ast=D+u[D,u^{\ast}]=D+B $$ where $B$ is a bounded self-adjoint operator. The path $$ D_t^u:=(1-t) D+tuDu^\ast=D+tB $$ is a ``continuous'' path of unbounded self-adjoint ``Fredholm'' operators. More precisely, we show that $$ F_t^u:=D_t^u \bigl(1+(D_t^u)^2\bigr)^{-{1\over 2}} $$ is a norm-continuous path of (bounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators. The {\it spectral flow\/} of this path $\{F_t^u\}$ (or $\{ D_t^u\}$) is roughly speaking the net number of eigenvalues that pass through $0$ in the positive direction as $t$ runs from $0$ to $1$. This integer, $$ \sf(\{D_t^u\}):=\sf(\{F_t^u\}), $$ recovers the pairing of the $K$-homology class $[D]$ with the $K$-theory class [$u$]. We use I.~M.~Singer's idea (as did E.~Getzler in the $\theta$-summable case) to consider the operator $B$ as a parameter in the Banach manifold, $B_{\sa}(H)$, so that spectral flow can be exhibited as the integral of a closed $1$-form on this manifold. Now, for $B$ in our manifold, any $X\in T_B(B_{\sa}(H))$ is given by an $X$ in $B_{\sa}(H)$ as the derivative at $B$ along the curve $t\mapsto B+tX$ in the manifold. Then we show that for $m$ a sufficiently large half-integer: $$ \alpha (X)={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}}\Tr \Bigl(X\bigl(1+(D+B)^2\bigr)^{-m}\Bigr) $$ is a closed $1$-form. For any piecewise smooth path $\{D_t=D+B_t\}$ with $D_0$ and $D_1$ unitarily equivalent we show that $$ \sf(\{D_t\})={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}} \int_0^1\Tr \Bigl({d\over {dt}} (D_t)(1+D_t^2)^{-m}\Bigr)\,dt $$ the integral of the $1$-form $\alpha$. If $D_0$ and $D_1$ are not unitarily equivalent, we must add a pair of correction terms to the right-hand side. We also prove a bounded finitely summable version of the form: $$ \sf(\{F_t\})={1\over C_n}\int_0^1\Tr\Bigl({d\over dt}(F_t)(1-F_t^2)^n\Bigr)\,dt $$ for $n\geq{{p-1}\over 2}$ an integer. The unbounded case is proved by reducing to the bounded case via the map $D\mapsto F=D(1+D^2 )^{-{1\over 2}}$. We prove simultaneously a type II version of our results.

Categories:46L80, 19K33, 47A30, 47A55

16. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 963)

Lin, Huaxin
Homomorphisms from $C(X)$ into $C^*$-algebras
Let $A$ be a simple $C^*$-algebra with real rank zero, stable rank one and weakly unperforated $K_0(A)$ of countable rank. We show that a monomorphism $\phi\colon C(S^2) \to A$ can be approximated pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into $A$ with finite dimensional range if and only if certain index vanishes. In particular, we show that every homomorphism $\phi$ from $C(S^2)$ into a UHF-algebra can be approximated pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into the UHF-algebra with finite dimensional range. As an application, we show that if $A$ is a simple $C^*$-algebra of real rank zero and is an inductive limit of matrices over $C(S^2)$ then $A$ is an AF-algebra. Similar results for tori are also obtained. Classification of ${\bf Hom}\bigl(C(X),A\bigr)$ for lower dimensional spaces is also studied.

Keywords:Homomorphism of $C(S^2)$, approximation, real, rank zero, classification
Categories:46L05, 46L80, 46L35

© Canadian Mathematical Society, 2017 :