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101. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 39)

Exel, R.; Vershik, A.
$C^*$-Algebras of Irreversible Dynamical Systems
We show that certain $C^*$-algebras which have been studied by, among others, Arzumanian, Vershik, Deaconu, and Renault, in connection with a measure-preserving transformation of a measure space or a covering map of a compact space, are special cases of the endomorphism crossed-product construction recently introduced by the first named author. As a consequence these algebras are given presentations in terms of generators and relations. These results come as a consequence of a general theorem on faithfulness of representations which are covariant with respect to certain circle actions. For the case of topologically free covering maps we prove a stronger result on faithfulness of representations which needs no covariance. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition for simplicity.

Categories:46L55, 37A55

102. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1249)

Lindström, Mikael; Saksman, Eero; Tylli, Hans-Olav
Strictly Singular and Cosingular Multiplications
Let $L(X)$ be the space of bounded linear operators on the Banach space $X$. We study the strict singularity andcosingularity of the two-sided multiplication operators $S \mapsto ASB$ on $L(X)$, where $A,B \in L(X)$ are fixed bounded operators and $X$ is a classical Banach space. Let $1
Categories:47B47, 46B28

103. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 983)

an Huef, Astrid; Raeburn, Iain; Williams, Dana P.
A Symmetric Imprimitivity Theorem for Commuting Proper Actions
We prove a symmetric imprimitivity theorem for commuting proper actions of locally compact groups $H$ and $K$ on a $C^*$-algebra.

Categories:46L05, 46L08, 46L55

104. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1056)

Ozawa, Narutaka; Rieffel, Marc A.
Hyperbolic Group $C^*$-Algebras and Free-Product $C^*$-Algebras as Compact Quantum Metric Spaces
Let $\ell$ be a length function on a group $G$, and let $M_{\ell}$ denote the operator of pointwise multiplication by $\ell$ on $\bell^2(G)$. Following Connes, $M_{\ell}$ can be used as a ``Dirac'' operator for $C_r^*(G)$. It defines a Lipschitz seminorm on $C_r^*(G)$, which defines a metric on the state space of $C_r^*(G)$. We show that if $G$ is a hyperbolic group and if $\ell$ is a word-length function on $G$, then the topology from this metric coincides with the weak-$*$ topology (our definition of a ``compact quantum metric space''). We show that a convenient framework is that of filtered $C^*$-algebras which satisfy a suitable ``Haagerup-type'' condition. We also use this framework to prove an analogous fact for certain reduced free products of $C^*$-algebras.

Categories:46L87, 20F67, 46L09

105. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 897)

Berezhnoĭ, Evgenii I.; Maligranda, Lech
Representation of Banach Ideal Spaces and Factorization of Operators
Representation theorems are proved for Banach ideal spaces with the Fatou property which are built by the Calder{\'o}n--Lozanovski\u\i\ construction. Factorization theorems for operators in spaces more general than the Lebesgue $L^{p}$ spaces are investigated. It is natural to extend the Gagliardo theorem on the Schur test and the Rubio de~Francia theorem on factorization of the Muckenhoupt $A_{p}$ weights to reflexive Orlicz spaces. However, it turns out that for the scales far from $L^{p}$-spaces this is impossible. For the concrete integral operators it is shown that factorization theorems and the Schur test in some reflexive Orlicz spaces are not valid. Representation theorems for the Calder{\'o}n--Lozanovski\u\i\ construction are involved in the proofs.

Keywords:Banach ideal spaces, weighted spaces, weight functions,, Calderón--Lozanovski\u\i\ spaces, Orlicz spaces, representation of, spaces, uniqueness problem, positive linear operators, positive sublinear, operators, Schur test, factorization of operators, f
Categories:46E30, 46B42, 46B70

106. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 673)

Androulakis, G.; Odell, E.; Schlumprecht, Th.; Tomczak-Jaegermann, N.
On the Structure of the Spreading Models of a Banach Space
We study some questions concerning the structure of the set of spreading models of a separable infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$. In particular we give an example of a reflexive $X$ so that all spreading models of $X$ contain $\ell_1$ but none of them is isomorphic to $\ell_1$. We also prove that for any countable set $C$ of spreading models generated by weakly null sequences there is a spreading model generated by a weakly null sequence which dominates each element of $C$. In certain cases this ensures that $X$ admits, for each $\alpha < \omega_1$, a spreading model $(\tilde x_i^{(\alpha)})_i$ such that if $\alpha < \beta$ then $(\tilde x_i^{(\alpha)})_i$ is dominated by (and not equivalent to) $(\tilde x_i^{(\beta)})_i$. Some applications of these ideas are used to give sufficient conditions on a Banach space for the existence of a subspace and an operator defined on the subspace, which is not a compact perturbation of a multiple of the inclusion map.


107. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 351)

Lin, Huaxin
Extensions by Simple $C^*$-Algebras: Quasidiagonal Extensions
Let $A$ be an amenable separable $C^*$-algebra and $B$ be a non-unital but $\sigma$-unital simple $C^*$-algebra with continuous scale. We show that two essential extensions $\tau_1$ and $\tau_2$ of $A$ by $B$ are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if $$ [\tau_1]=[\tau_2] \text{ in } KL(A, M(B)/B). $$ If $A$ is assumed to satisfy the Universal Coefficient Theorem, there is a bijection from approximate unitary equivalence classes of the above mentioned extensions to $KL(A, M(B)/B)$. Using $KL(A, M(B)/B)$, we compute exactly when an essential extension is quasidiagonal. We show that quasidiagonal extensions may not be approximately trivial. We also study the approximately trivial extensions.

Keywords:Extensions, Simple $C^*$-algebras
Categories:46L05, 46L35

108. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 17)

Bédos, Erik; Conti, Roberto; Tuset, Lars
On Amenability and Co-Amenability of Algebraic Quantum Groups and Their Corepresentations
We introduce and study several notions of amenability for unitary corepresentations and $*$-representations of algebraic quantum groups, which may be used to characterize amenability and co-amenability for such quantum groups. As a background for this study, we investigate the associated tensor C$^{*}$-categories.

Keywords:quantum group, amenability
Categories:46L05, 46L65, 22D10, 22D25, 43A07, 43A65, 58B32

109. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 61)

Binding, Paul; Strauss, Vladimir
On Operators with Spectral Square but without Resolvent Points
Decompositions of spectral type are obtained for closed Hilbert space operators with empty resolvent set, but whose square has closure which is spectral. Krein space situations are also discussed.

Keywords:unbounded operators, closed operators,, spectral resolution, indefinite metric
Categories:47A05, 47A15, 47B40, 47B50, 46C20

110. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 1121)

Chaumat, Jacques; Chollet, Anne-Marie
Division par un polynôme hyperbolique
On se donne un intervalle ouvert non vide $\omega$ de $\mathbb R$, un ouvert connexe non vide $\Omega$ de $\mathbb R_s$ et un polyn\^ome unitaire \[ P_m(z, \lambda) = z^m + a_1(\lambda)z^{m-1} = +\dots + a_{m-1}(\lambda) z + a_m(\lambda), \] de degr\'e $m>0$, d\'ependant du param\`etre $\lambda \in \Omega$. Un tel polyn\^ome est dit $\omega$-hyperbolique si, pour tout $\lambda \in \Omega$, ses racines sont r\'eelles et appartiennent \`a $\omega$. On suppose que les fonctions $a_k, \, k=1, \dots, m$, appartiennent \`a une classe ultradiff\'erentiable $C_M(\Omega)$. On s`int\'eresse au probl\`eme suivant. Soit $f$ appartient \`a $C_M(\Omega)$, existe-t-il des fonctions $Q_f$ et $R_{f,k},\, k=0, \dots, m-1$, appartenant respectivement \`a $C_M(\omega \times \Omega)$ et \`a $C_M(\Omega)$, telles que l'on ait, pour $(x,\lambda) \in \omega \times \Omega$, \[ f(x) = P_m(x,\lambda) Q_f (x,\lambda) + \sum^{m-1}_{k=0} x^k R_{f,k}(\lambda)~? \] On donne ici une r\'eponse positive d\`es que le polyn\^ome est $\omega$-hyperbolique, que la class untradiff\'eren\-tiable soit quasi-analytique ou non ; on obtient alors, des exemples d'id\'eaux ferm\'es dans $C_M(\mathbb R^n)$. On compl\`ete ce travail par une g\'en\'eralisation d'un r\'esultat de C.~L. Childress dans le cadre quasi-analytique et quelques remarques.

Categories:26E10, 46E25, 46J20

111. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 1237)

Kishimoto, Akitaka
Central Sequence Algebras of a Purely Infinite Simple $C^{*}$-algebra
We are concerned with a unital separable nuclear purely infinite simple $C^{*}$-algebra\ $A$ satisfying UCT with a Rohlin flow, as a continuation of~\cite{Kismh}. Our first result (which is independent of the Rohlin flow) is to characterize when two {\em central} projections in $A$ are equivalent by a {\em central} partial isometry. Our second result shows that the K-theory of the central sequence algebra $A'\cap A^\omega$ (for an $\omega\in \beta\N\setminus\N$) and its {\em fixed point} algebra under the flow are the same (incorporating the previous result). We will also complete and supplement the characterization result of the Rohlin property for flows stated in~ \cite{Kismh}.


112. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 983)

Junge, Marius
Fubini's Theorem for Ultraproducts \\of Noncommutative $L_p$-Spaces
Let $(\M_i)_{i\in I}$, $(\N_j)_{j\in J}$ be families of von Neumann algebras and $\U$, $\U'$ be ultrafilters in $I$, $J$, respectively. Let $1\le p<\infty$ and $\nen$. Let $x_1$,\dots,$x_n$ in $\prod L_p(\M_i)$ and $y_1$,\dots,$y_n$ in $\prod L_p(\N_j)$ be bounded families. We show the following equality $$ \lim_{i,\U} \lim_{j,\U'} \Big\| \summ_{k=1}^n x_k(i)\otimes y_k(j)\Big\|_{L_p(\M_i\otimes \N_j)} = \lim_{j,\U'} \lim_{i,\U} \Big\| \summ_{k=1}^n x_k(i)\otimes y_k(j)\Big\|_{L_p(\M_i\otimes \N_j)} . $$ For $p=1$ this Fubini type result is related to the local reflexivity of duals of $C^*$-algebras. This fails for $p=\infty$.

Keywords:noncommutative $L_p$-spaces, ultraproducts
Categories:46L52, 46B08, 46L07

113. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 926)

Hadfield, Tom
K-Homology of the Rotation Algebras $A_{\theta}$
We study the K-homology of the rotation algebras $A_{\theta}$ using the six-term cyclic sequence for the K-homology of a crossed product by ${\bf Z}$. In the case that $\theta$ is irrational, we use Pimsner and Voiculescu's work on AF-embeddings of the $A_{\theta}$ to search for the missing generator of the even K-homology.

Categories:58B34, 19K33, 46L

114. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 699)

Gaspari, Thierry
Bump Functions with Hölder Derivatives
We study the range of the gradients of a $C^{1,\al}$-smooth bump function defined on a Banach space. We find that this set must satisfy two geometrical conditions: It can not be too flat and it satisfies a strong compactness condition with respect to an appropriate distance. These notions are defined precisely below. With these results we illustrate the differences with the case of $C^1$-smooth bump functions. Finally, we give a sufficient condition on a subset of $X^{\ast}$ so that it is the set of the gradients of a $C^{1,1}$-smooth bump function. In particular, if $X$ is an infinite dimensional Banach space with a $C^{1,1}$-smooth bump function, then any convex open bounded subset of $X^{\ast}$ containing $0$ is the set of the gradients of a $C^{1,1}$-smooth bump function.

Keywords:Banach space, bump function, range of the derivative
Categories:46T20, 26E15, 26B05

115. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 843)

Ruan, Zhong-Jin
Type Decomposition and the Rectangular AFD Property for $W^*$-TRO's
We study the type decomposition and the rectangular AFD property for $W^*$-TRO's. Like von Neumann algebras, every $W^*$-TRO can be uniquely decomposed into the direct sum of $W^*$-TRO's of type $I$, type $II$, and type $III$. We may further consider $W^*$-TRO's of type $I_{m, n}$ with cardinal numbers $m$ and $n$, and consider $W^*$-TRO's of type $II_{\lambda, \mu}$ with $\lambda, \mu = 1$ or $\infty$. It is shown that every separable stable $W^*$-TRO (which includes type $I_{\infty,\infty}$, type $II_{\infty, \infty}$ and type $III$) is TRO-isomorphic to a von Neumann algebra. We also introduce the rectangular version of the approximately finite dimensional property for $W^*$-TRO's. One of our major results is to show that a separable $W^*$-TRO is injective if and only if it is rectangularly approximately finite dimensional. As a consequence of this result, we show that a dual operator space is injective if and only if its operator predual is a rigid rectangular ${\OL}_{1, 1^+}$ space (equivalently, a rectangular

Categories:46L07, 46L08, 46L89

116. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 472)

Fonf, Vladimir P.; Veselý, Libor
Infinite-Dimensional Polyhedrality
This paper deals with generalizations of the notion of a polytope to infinite dimensions. The most general definition is the following: a bounded closed convex subset of a Banach space is called a \emph{polytope} if each of its finite-dimensional affine sections is a (standard) polytope. We study the relationships between eight known definitions of infinite-dimensional polyhedrality. We provide a complete isometric classification of them, which gives solutions to several open problems. An almost complete isomorphic classification is given as well (only one implication remains open).

Categories:46B20, 46B03, 46B04, 52B99

117. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 225)

Blower, Gordon; Ransford, Thomas
Complex Uniform Convexity and Riesz Measure
The norm on a Banach space gives rise to a subharmonic function on the complex plane for which the distributional Laplacian gives a Riesz measure. This measure is calculated explicitly here for Lebesgue $L^p$ spaces and the von~Neumann-Schatten trace ideals. Banach spaces that are $q$-uniformly $\PL$-convex in the sense of Davis, Garling and Tomczak-Jaegermann are characterized in terms of the mass distribution of this measure. This gives a new proof that the trace ideals $c^p$ are $2$-uniformly $\PL$-convex for $1\leq p\leq 2$.

Keywords:subharmonic functions, Banach spaces, Schatten trace ideals
Categories:46B20, 46L52

118. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 3)

Amini, Massoud
Locally Compact Pro-$C^*$-Algebras
Let $X$ be a locally compact non-compact Hausdorff topological space. Consider the algebras $C(X)$, $C_b(X)$, $C_0(X)$, and $C_{00}(X)$ of respectively arbitrary, bounded, vanishing at infinity, and compactly supported continuous functions on $X$. Of these, the second and third are $C^*$-algebras, the fourth is a normed algebra, whereas the first is only a topological algebra (it is indeed a pro-$C^\ast$-algebra). The interesting fact about these algebras is that if one of them is given, the others can be obtained using functional analysis tools. For instance, given the $C^\ast$-algebra $C_0(X)$, one can get the other three algebras by $C_{00}(X)=K\bigl(C_0(X)\bigr)$, $C_b(X)=M\bigl(C_0(X)\bigr)$, $C(X)=\Gamma\bigl( K(C_0(X))\bigr)$, where the right hand sides are the Pedersen ideal, the multiplier algebra, and the unbounded multiplier algebra of the Pedersen ideal of $C_0(X)$, respectively. In this article we consider the possibility of these transitions for general $C^\ast$-algebras. The difficult part is to start with a pro-$C^\ast$-algebra $A$ and to construct a $C^\ast$-algebra $A_0$ such that $A=\Gamma\bigl(K(A_0)\bigr)$. The pro-$C^\ast$-algebras for which this is possible are called {\it locally compact\/} and we have characterized them using a concept similar to that of an approximate identity.

Keywords:pro-$C^\ast$-algebras, projective limit, multipliers of Pedersen's ideal
Categories:46L05, 46M40

119. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1302)

Katsura, Takeshi
The Ideal Structures of Crossed Products of Cuntz Algebras by Quasi-Free Actions of Abelian Groups
We completely determine the ideal structures of the crossed products of Cuntz algebras by quasi-free actions of abelian groups and give another proof of A.~Kishimoto's result on the simplicity of such crossed products. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition that our algebras become primitive, and compute the Connes spectra and $K$-groups of our algebras.

Categories:46L05, 46L55, 46L45

120. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 969)

Glöckner, Helge
Lie Groups of Measurable Mappings
We describe new construction principles for infinite-dimensional Lie groups. In particular, given any measure space $(X,\Sigma,\mu)$ and (possibly infinite-dimensional) Lie group $G$, we construct a Lie group $L^\infty (X,G)$, which is a Fr\'echet-Lie group if $G$ is so. We also show that the weak direct product $\prod^*_{i\in I} G_i$ of an arbitrary family $(G_i)_{i\in I}$ of Lie groups can be made a Lie group, modelled on the locally convex direct sum $\bigoplus_{i\in I} L(G_i)$.

Categories:22E65, 46E40, 46E30, 22E67, 46T20, 46T25

121. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 204)

Yan, Yaqiang
On the Nonsquare Constants of Orlicz Spaces with Orlicz Norm
Let $l^{\Phi}$ and $L^\Phi (\Omega)$ be the Orlicz sequence space and function space generated by $N$-function $\Phi(u)$ with Orlicz norm. We give equivalent expressions for the nonsquare constants $C_J (l^\Phi)$, $C_J \bigl( L^\Phi (\Omega) \bigr)$ in sense of James and $C_S (l^\Phi)$, $C_S \bigl( L^\Phi(\Omega) \bigr)$ in sense of Sch\"affer. We are devoted to get practical computational formulas giving estimates of these constants and to obtain their exact value in a class of spaces $l^{\Phi}$ and $L^\Phi (\Omega)$.

Keywords:James nonsquare constant, Schäffer nonsquare constant, Orlicz sequence space, Orlicz function space

122. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1165)

Blasco, Oscar; Arregui, José Luis
Multipliers on Vector Valued Bergman Spaces
Let $X$ be a complex Banach space and let $B_p(X)$ denote the vector-valued Bergman space on the unit disc for $1\le p<\infty$. A sequence $(T_n)_n$ of bounded operators between two Banach spaces $X$ and $Y$ defines a multiplier between $B_p(X)$ and $B_q(Y)$ (resp.\ $B_p(X)$ and $\ell_q(Y)$) if for any function $f(z) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty x_n z^n$ in $B_p(X)$ we have that $g(z) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty T_n (x_n) z^n$ belongs to $B_q(Y)$ (resp.\ $\bigl( T_n (x_n) \bigr)_n \in \ell_q(Y)$). Several results on these multipliers are obtained, some of them depending upon the Fourier or Rademacher type of the spaces $X$ and $Y$. New properties defined by the vector-valued version of certain inequalities for Taylor coefficients of functions in $B_p(X)$ are introduced.

Categories:42A45, 46E40

123. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1280)

Skrzypczak, Leszek
Besov Spaces and Hausdorff Dimension For Some Carnot-Carathéodory Metric Spaces
We regard a system of left invariant vector fields $\mathcal{X}=\{X_1,\dots,X_k\}$ satisfying the H\"ormander condition and the related Carnot-Carath\'eodory metric on a unimodular Lie group $G$. We define Besov spaces corresponding to the sub-Laplacian $\Delta=\sum X_i^2$ both with positive and negative smoothness. The atomic decomposition of the spaces is given. In consequence we get the distributional characterization of the Hausdorff dimension of Borel subsets with the Haar measure zero.

Keywords:Besov spaces, sub-elliptic operators, Carnot-Carathéodory metric, Hausdorff dimension
Categories:46E35, 43A15, 28A78

124. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1100)

Wood, Peter J.
The Operator Biprojectivity of the Fourier Algebra
In this paper, we investigate projectivity in the category of operator spaces. In particular, we show that the Fourier algebra of a locally compact group $G$ is operator biprojective if and only if $G$ is discrete.

Keywords:locally compact group, Fourier algebra, operator space, projective
Categories:13D03, 18G25, 43A95, 46L07, 22D99

125. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 694)

Gabriel, Michael J.
Cuntz Algebra States Defined by Implementers of Endomorphisms of the $\CAR$ Algebra
We investigate representations of the Cuntz algebra $\mathcal{O}_2$ on antisymmetric Fock space $F_a (\mathcal{K}_1)$ defined by isometric implementers of certain quasi-free endomorphisms of the CAR algebra in pure quasi-free states $\varphi_{P_1}$. We pay corresponding to these representations and the Fock special attention to the vector states on $\mathcal{O}_2$ vacuum, for which we obtain explicit formulae. Restricting these states to the gauge-invariant subalgebra $\mathcal{F}_2$, we find that for natural choices of implementers, they are again pure quasi-free and are, in fact, essentially the states $\varphi_{P_1}$. We proceed to consider the case for an arbitrary pair of implementers, and deduce that these Cuntz algebra representations are irreducible, as are their restrictions to $\mathcal{F}_2$. The endomorphisms of $B \bigl( F_a (\mathcal{K}_1) \bigr)$ associated with these representations of $\mathcal{O}_2$ are also considered.

Categories:46L05, 46L30
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