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26. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 404)

Hua, Jiajie; Lin, Huaxin
Rotation Algebras and the Exel Trace Formula
We found that if $u$ and $v$ are any two unitaries in a unital $C^*$-algebra with $\|uv-vu\|\lt 2$ and $uvu^*v^*$ commutes with $u$ and $v,$ then the $C^*$-subalgebra $A_{u,v}$ generated by $u$ and $v$ is isomorphic to a quotient of some rotation algebra $A_\theta$ provided that $A_{u,v}$ has a unique tracial state. We also found that the Exel trace formula holds in any unital $C^*$-algebra. Let $\theta\in (-1/2, 1/2)$ be a real number. We prove the following: For any $\epsilon\gt 0,$ there exists $\delta\gt 0$ satisfying the following: if $u$ and $v$ are two unitaries in any unital simple $C^*$-algebra $A$ with tracial rank zero such that \[ \|uv-e^{2\pi i\theta}vu\|\lt \delta \text{ and } {1\over{2\pi i}}\tau(\log(uvu^*v^*))=\theta, \] for all tracial state $\tau$ of $A,$ then there exists a pair of unitaries $\tilde{u}$ and $\tilde{v}$ in $A$ such that \[ \tilde{u}\tilde{v}=e^{2\pi i\theta} \tilde{v}\tilde{u},\,\, \|u-\tilde{u}\|\lt \epsilon \text{ and } \|v-\tilde{v}\|\lt \epsilon. \]

Keywords:rotation algebras, Exel trace formula

27. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1287)

Reihani, Kamran
$K$-theory of Furstenberg Transformation Group $C^*$-algebras
The paper studies the $K$-theoretic invariants of the crossed product $C^{*}$-algebras associated with an important family of homeomorphisms of the tori $\mathbb{T}^{n}$ called Furstenberg transformations. Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu theorem, we prove that given $n$, the $K$-groups of those crossed products, whose corresponding $n\times n$ integer matrices are unipotent of maximal degree, always have the same rank $a_{n}$. We show using the theory developed here that a claim made in the literature about the torsion subgroups of these $K$-groups is false. Using the representation theory of the simple Lie algebra $\frak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$, we show that, remarkably, $a_{n}$ has a combinatorial significance. For example, every $a_{2n+1}$ is just the number of ways that $0$ can be represented as a sum of integers between $-n$ and $n$ (with no repetitions). By adapting an argument of van Lint (in which he answered a question of Erdős), a simple, explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ is given. Finally, we describe the order structure of the $K_{0}$-groups of an important class of Furstenberg crossed products, obtaining their complete Elliott invariant using classification results of H. Lin and N. C. Phillips.

Keywords:$K$-theory, transformation group $C^*$-algebra, Furstenberg transformation, Anzai transformation, minimal homeomorphism, positive cone, minimal homeomorphism
Categories:19K14, 19K99, 46L35, 46L80, , 05A15, 05A16, 05A17, 15A36, 17B10, 17B20, 37B05, 54H20

28. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 1143)

Plevnik, Lucijan; Šemrl, Peter
Maps Preserving Complementarity of Closed Subspaces of a Hilbert Space
Let $\mathcal{H}$ and $\mathcal{K}$ be infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert spaces and ${\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H}$ the lattice of all closed subspaces oh $\mathcal{H}$. We describe the general form of pairs of bijective maps $\phi , \psi : {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H} \to {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{K}$ having the property that for every pair $U,V \in {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H}$ we have $\mathcal{H} = U \oplus V \iff \mathcal{K} = \phi (U) \oplus \psi (V)$. Then we reformulate this theorem as a description of bijective image equality and kernel equality preserving maps acting on bounded linear idempotent operators. Several known structural results for maps on idempotents are easy consequences.

Keywords:Hilbert space, lattice of closed subspaces, complemented subspaces, adjacent subspaces, idempotents
Categories:46B20, 47B49

29. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1005)

Forrest, Brian; Miao, Tianxuan
Uniformly Continuous Functionals and M-Weakly Amenable Groups
Let $G$ be a locally compact group. Let $A_{M}(G)$ ($A_{0}(G)$)denote the closure of $A(G)$, the Fourier algebra of $G$ in the space of bounded (completely bounded) multipliers of $A(G)$. We call a locally compact group M-weakly amenable if $A_M(G)$ has a bounded approximate identity. We will show that when $G$ is M-weakly amenable, the algebras $A_{M}(G)$ and $A_{0}(G)$ have properties that are characteristic of the Fourier algebra of an amenable group. Along the way we show that the sets of tolopolically invariant means associated with these algebras have the same cardinality as those of the Fourier algebra.

Keywords:Fourier algebra, multipliers, weakly amenable, uniformly continuous functionals
Categories:43A07, 43A22, 46J10, 47L25

30. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 596)

Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren
The Ordered $K$-theory of a Full Extension
Let $\mathfrak{A}$ be a $C^{*}$-algebra with real rank zero which has the stable weak cancellation property. Let $\mathfrak{I}$ be an ideal of $\mathfrak{A}$ such that $\mathfrak{I}$ is stable and satisfies the corona factorization property. We prove that $ 0 \to \mathfrak{I} \to \mathfrak{A} \to \mathfrak{A} / \mathfrak{I} \to 0 $ is a full extension if and only if the extension is stenotic and $K$-lexicographic. {As an immediate application, we extend the classification result for graph $C^*$-algebras obtained by Tomforde and the first named author to the general non-unital case. In combination with recent results by Katsura, Tomforde, West and the first author, our result may also be used to give a purely $K$-theoretical description of when an essential extension of two simple and stable graph $C^*$-algebras is again a graph $C^*$-algebra.}

Keywords:classification, extensions, graph algebras
Categories:46L80, 46L35, 46L05

31. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 373)

Kim, Sun Kwang; Lee, Han Ju
Uniform Convexity and Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás Property
A new characterization of the uniform convexity of Banach space is obtained in the sense of Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás theorem. It is also proved that the couple of Banach spaces $(X,Y)$ has the bishop-phelps-bollobás property for every banach space $y$ when $X$ is uniformly convex. As a corollary, we show that the Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás theorem holds for bilinear forms on $\ell_p\times \ell_q$ ($1\lt p, q\lt \infty$).

Keywords:Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás property, Bishop-Phelps-Bollobás theorem, norm attaining, uniformly convex
Categories:46B20, 46B22

32. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 721)

Durand-Cartagena, E.; Ihnatsyeva, L.; Korte, R.; Szumańska, M.
On Whitney-type Characterization of Approximate Differentiability on Metric Measure Spaces
We study approximately differentiable functions on metric measure spaces admitting a Cheeger differentiable structure. The main result is a Whitney-type characterization of approximately differentiable functions in this setting. As an application, we prove a Stepanov-type theorem and consider approximate differentiability of Sobolev, $BV$ and maximal functions.

Keywords:approximate differentiability, metric space, strong measurable differentiable structure, Whitney theorem
Categories:26B05, 28A15, 28A75, 46E35

33. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 783)

Garcés, Jorge J.; Peralta, Antonio M.
Generalised Triple Homomorphisms and Derivations
We introduce generalised triple homomorphism between Jordan Banach triple systems as a concept which extends the notion of generalised homomorphism between Banach algebras given by K. Jarosz and B.E. Johnson in 1985 and 1987, respectively. We prove that every generalised triple homomorphism between JB$^*$-triples is automatically continuous. When particularised to C$^*$-algebras, we rediscover one of the main theorems established by B.E. Johnson. We shall also consider generalised triple derivations from a Jordan Banach triple $E$ into a Jordan Banach triple $E$-module, proving that every generalised triple derivation from a JB$^*$-triple $E$ into itself or into $E^*$ is automatically continuous.

Keywords:generalised homomorphism, generalised triple homomorphism, generalised triple derivation, Banach algebra, Jordan Banach triple, C$^*$-algebra, JB$^*$-triple
Categories:46L05, 46L70, 47B48, 17C65, 46K70, 46L40, 47B47, 47B49

34. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 641)

Grigor'yan, Alexander; Hu, Jiaxin
Heat Kernels and Green Functions on Metric Measure Spaces
We prove that, in a setting of local Dirichlet forms on metric measure spaces, a two-sided sub-Gaussian estimate of the heat kernel is equivalent to the conjunction of the volume doubling propety, the elliptic Harnack inequality and a certain estimate of the capacity between concentric balls. The main technical tool is the equivalence between the capacity estimate and the estimate of a mean exit time in a ball, that uses two-sided estimates of a Green function in a ball.

Keywords:Dirichlet form, heat kernel, Green function, capacity
Categories:35K08, 28A80, 31B05, 35J08, 46E35, 47D07

35. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1073)

Kalantar, Mehrdad; Neufang, Matthias
From Quantum Groups to Groups
In this paper we use the recent developments in the representation theory of locally compact quantum groups, to assign, to each locally compact quantum group $\mathbb{G}$, a locally compact group $\tilde {\mathbb{G}}$ which is the quantum version of point-masses, and is an invariant for the latter. We show that ``quantum point-masses" can be identified with several other locally compact groups that can be naturally assigned to the quantum group $\mathbb{G}$. This assignment preserves compactness as well as discreteness (hence also finiteness), and for large classes of quantum groups, amenability. We calculate this invariant for some of the most well-known examples of non-classical quantum groups. Also, we show that several structural properties of $\mathbb{G}$ are encoded by $\tilde {\mathbb{G}}$: the latter, despite being a simpler object, can carry very important information about $\mathbb{G}$.

Keywords:locally compact quantum group, locally compact group, von Neumann algebra

36. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1236)

De Bernardi, Carlo Alberto
Higher Connectedness Properties of Support Points and Functionals of Convex Sets
We prove that the set of all support points of a nonempty closed convex bounded set $C$ in a real infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$ is $\mathrm{AR(}\sigma$-$\mathrm{compact)}$ and contractible. Under suitable conditions, similar results are proved also for the set of all support functionals of $C$ and for the domain, the graph and the range of the subdifferential map of a proper convex l.s.c. function on $X$.

Keywords:convex set, support point, support functional, absolute retract, Leray-Schauder continuation principle
Categories:46A55, 46B99, 52A07

37. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 863)

Josuat-Vergès, Matthieu
Cumulants of the $q$-semicircular Law, Tutte Polynomials, and Heaps
The $q$-semicircular distribution is a probability law that interpolates between the Gaussian law and the semicircular law. There is a combinatorial interpretation of its moments in terms of matchings where $q$ follows the number of crossings, whereas for the free cumulants one has to restrict the enumeration to connected matchings. The purpose of this article is to describe combinatorial properties of the classical cumulants. We show that like the free cumulants, they are obtained by an enumeration of connected matchings, the weight being now an evaluation of the Tutte polynomial of a so-called crossing graph. The case $q=0$ of these cumulants was studied by Lassalle using symmetric functions and hypergeometric series. We show that the underlying combinatorics is explained through the theory of heaps, which is Viennot's geometric interpretation of the Cartier-Foata monoid. This method also gives a general formula for the cumulants in terms of free cumulants.

Keywords:moments, cumulants, matchings, Tutte polynomials, heaps
Categories:05A18, 05C31, 46L54

38. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 989)

Chu, C-H.; Velasco, M. V.
Automatic Continuity of Homomorphisms in Non-associative Banach Algebras
We introduce the concept of a rare element in a non-associative normed algebra and show that the existence of such element is the only obstruction to continuity of a surjective homomorphism from a non-associative Banach algebra to a unital normed algebra with simple completion. Unital associative algebras do not admit any rare element and hence automatic continuity holds.

Keywords:automatic continuity, non-associative algebra, spectrum, rare operator, rare element
Categories:46H40, 46H70

39. CJM 2012 (vol 66 pp. 102)

Birth, Lidia; Glöckner, Helge
Continuity of convolution of test functions on Lie groups
For a Lie group $G$, we show that the map $C^\infty_c(G)\times C^\infty_c(G)\to C^\infty_c(G)$, $(\gamma,\eta)\mapsto \gamma*\eta$ taking a pair of test functions to their convolution is continuous if and only if $G$ is $\sigma$-compact. More generally, consider $r,s,t \in \mathbb{N}_0\cup\{\infty\}$ with $t\leq r+s$, locally convex spaces $E_1$, $E_2$ and a continuous bilinear map $b\colon E_1\times E_2\to F$ to a complete locally convex space $F$. Let $\beta\colon C^r_c(G,E_1)\times C^s_c(G,E_2)\to C^t_c(G,F)$, $(\gamma,\eta)\mapsto \gamma *_b\eta$ be the associated convolution map. The main result is a characterization of those $(G,r,s,t,b)$ for which $\beta$ is continuous. Convolution of compactly supported continuous functions on a locally compact group is also discussed, as well as convolution of compactly supported $L^1$-functions and convolution of compactly supported Radon measures.

Keywords:Lie group, locally compact group, smooth function, compact support, test function, second countability, countable basis, sigma-compactness, convolution, continuity, seminorm, product estimates
Categories:22E30, 46F05, 22D15, 42A85, 43A10, 43A15, 46A03, 46A13, 46E25

40. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1043)

Hu, Zhiguo; Neufang, Matthias; Ruan, Zhong-Jin
Convolution of Trace Class Operators over Locally Compact Quantum Groups
We study locally compact quantum groups $\mathbb{G}$ through the convolution algebras $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})), \triangleright)$. We prove that the reduced quantum group $C^*$-algebra $C_0(\mathbb{G})$ can be recovered from the convolution $\triangleright$ by showing that the right $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$-module $\langle K(L_2(\mathbb{G}) \triangleright T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ is equal to $C_0(\mathbb{G})$. On the other hand, we show that the left $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$-module $\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright K(L_2(\mathbb{G})\rangle$ is isomorphic to the reduced crossed product $C_0(\widehat{\mathbb{G}}) \,_r\!\ltimes C_0(\mathbb{G})$, and hence is a much larger $C^*$-subalgebra of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We establish a natural isomorphism between the completely bounded right multiplier algebras of $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})), \triangleright)$, and settle two invariance problems associated with the representation theorem of Junge-Neufang-Ruan (2009). We characterize regularity and discreteness of the quantum group $\mathbb{G}$ in terms of continuity properties of the convolution $\triangleright$ on $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We prove that if $\mathbb{G}$ is semi-regular, then the space $\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ of right $\mathbb{G}$-continuous operators on $L_2(\mathbb{G})$, which was introduced by Bekka (1990) for $L_{\infty}(G)$, is a unital $C^*$-subalgebra of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. In the representation framework formulated by Neufang-Ruan-Spronk (2008) and Junge-Neufang-Ruan, we show that the dual properties of compactness and discreteness can be characterized simultaneously via automatic normality of quantum group bimodule maps on $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We also characterize some commutation relations of completely bounded multipliers of $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})), \triangleright)$ over $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$.

Keywords:locally compact quantum groups and associated Banach algebras
Categories:22D15, 43A30, 46H05

41. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 481)

Ara, Pere; Dykema, Kenneth J.; Rørdam, Mikael
Correction of Proofs in "Purely Infinite Simple $C^*$-algebras Arising from Free Product Constructions'' and a Subsequent Paper
The proofs of Theorem 2.2 of K. J. Dykema and M. Rørdam, Purely infinite simple $C^*$-algebras arising from free product constructions}, Canad. J. Math. 50 (1998), 323--341 and of Theorem 3.1 of K. J. Dykema, Purely infinite simple $C^*$-algebras arising from free product constructions, II, Math. Scand. 90 (2002), 73--86 are corrected.

Keywords:C*-algebras, purely infinite

42. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 559)

Helemskii, A. Ya.
Extreme Version of Projectivity for Normed Modules Over Sequence Algebras
We define and study the so-called extreme version of the notion of a projective normed module. The relevant definition takes into account the exact value of the norm of the module in question, in contrast with the standard known definition that is formulated in terms of norm topology. After the discussion of the case where our normed algebra $A$ is just $\mathbb{C}$, we concentrate on the case of the next degree of complication, where $A$ is a sequence algebra, satisfying some natural conditions. The main results give a full characterization of extremely projective objects within the subcategory of the category of non-degenerate normed $A$--modules, consisting of the so-called homogeneous modules. We consider two cases, `non-complete' and `complete', and the respective answers turn out to be essentially different. In particular, all Banach non-degenerate homogeneous modules, consisting of sequences, are extremely projective within the category of Banach non-degenerate homogeneous modules. However, neither of them, provided it is infinite-dimensional, is extremely projective within the category of all normed non-degenerate homogeneous modules. On the other hand, submodules of these modules, consisting of finite sequences, are extremely projective within the latter category.

Keywords:extremely projective module, sequence algebra, homogeneous module

43. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 331)

Kadets, Vladimir; Martín, Miguel; Merí, Javier; Werner, Dirk
Lushness, Numerical Index 1 and the Daugavet Property in Rearrangement Invariant Spaces
We show that for spaces with 1-unconditional bases lushness, the alternative Daugavet property and numerical index 1 are equivalent. In the class of rearrangement invariant (r.i.) sequence spaces the only examples of spaces with these properties are $c_0$, $\ell_1$ and $\ell_\infty$. The only lush r.i. separable function space on $[0,1]$ is $L_1[0,1]$; the same space is the only r.i. separable function space on $[0,1]$ with the Daugavet property over the reals.

Keywords:lush space, numerical index, Daugavet property, Köthe space, rearrangement invariant space
Categories:46B04, 46E30

44. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 52)

Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.; Smith, Roger R.; White, Stuart
C$^*$-algebras Nearly Contained in Type $\mathrm{I}$ Algebras
In this paper we consider near inclusions $A\subseteq_\gamma B$ of C$^*$-algebras. We show that if $B$ is a separable type $\mathrm{I}$ C$^*$-algebra and $A$ satisfies Kadison's similarity problem, then $A$ is also type $\mathrm{I}$ and use this to obtain an embedding of $A$ into $B$.

Keywords:C$^*$-algebras, near inclusions, perturbations, type I C$^*$-algebras, similarity problem

45. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 485)

Bice, Tristan Matthew
Filters in C*-Algebras
In this paper we analyze states on C*-algebras and their relationship to filter-like structures of projections and positive elements in the unit ball. After developing the basic theory we use this to investigate the Kadison-Singer conjecture, proving its equivalence to an apparently quite weak paving conjecture and the existence of unique maximal centred extensions of projections coming from ultrafilters on the natural numbers. We then prove that Reid's positive answer to this for q-points in fact also holds for rapid p-points, and that maximal centred filters are obtained in this case. We then show that consistently such maximal centred filters do not exist at all meaning that, for every pure state on the Calkin algebra, there exists a pair of projections on which the state is 1, even though the state is bounded strictly below 1 for projections below this pair. Lastly we investigate towers, using cardinal invariant equalities to construct towers on the natural numbers that do and do not remain towers when canonically embedded into the Calkin algebra. Finally we show that consistently all towers on the natural numbers remain towers under this embedding.

Keywords:C*-algebras, states, Kadinson-Singer conjecture, ultrafilters, towers
Categories:46L03, 03E35

46. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 755)

Brown, Lawrence G.; Lee, Hyun Ho
Homotopy Classification of Projections in the Corona Algebra of a Non-simple $C^*$-algebra
We study projections in the corona algebra of $C(X)\otimes K$, where K is the $C^*$-algebra of compact operators on a separable infinite dimensional Hilbert space and $X=[0,1],[0,\infty),(-\infty,\infty)$, or $[0,1]/\{ 0,1 \}$. Using BDF's essential codimension, we determine conditions for a projection in the corona algebra to be liftable to a projection in the multiplier algebra. We also determine the conditions for two projections to be equal in $K_0$, Murray-von Neumann equivalent, unitarily equivalent, or homotopic. In light of these characterizations, we construct examples showing that the equivalence notions above are all distinct.

Keywords:essential codimension, continuous field of Hilbert spaces, Corona algebra
Categories:46L05, 46L80

47. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 705)

Thomsen, Klaus
Pure Infiniteness of the Crossed Product of an AH-Algebra by an Endomorphism
It is shown that simplicity of the crossed product of a unital AH-algebra with slow dimension growth by an endomorphism implies that the algebra is also purely infinite, provided only that the endomorphism leaves no trace state invariant and takes the unit to a full projection.

Keywords:purely infinite $C^*$-algebras, crossed products

48. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 544)

Li, Zhiqiang
On the Simple Inductive Limits of Splitting Interval Algebras with Dimension Drops
A K-theoretic classification is given of the simple inductive limits of finite direct sums of the type I $C^*$-algebras known as splitting interval algebras with dimension drops. (These are the subhomogeneous $C^*$-algebras, each having spectrum a finite union of points and an open interval, and torsion $\textrm{K}_1$-group.)

Categories:46L05, 46L35

49. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 805)

Chapon, François; Defosseux, Manon
Quantum Random Walks and Minors of Hermitian Brownian Motion
Considering quantum random walks, we construct discrete-time approximations of the eigenvalues processes of minors of Hermitian Brownian motion. It has been recently proved by Adler, Nordenstam, and van Moerbeke that the process of eigenvalues of two consecutive minors of a Hermitian Brownian motion is a Markov process; whereas, if one considers more than two consecutive minors, the Markov property fails. We show that there are analog results in the noncommutative counterpart and establish the Markov property of eigenvalues of some particular submatrices of Hermitian Brownian motion.

Keywords:quantum random walk, quantum Markov chain, generalized casimir operators, Hermitian Brownian motion, diffusions, random matrices, minor process
Categories:46L53, 60B20, 14L24

50. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1161)

Neuwirth, Stefan; Ricard, Éric
Transfer of Fourier Multipliers into Schur Multipliers and Sumsets in a Discrete Group
We inspect the relationship between relative Fourier multipliers on noncommutative Lebesgue-Orlicz spaces of a discrete group $\varGamma$ and relative Toeplitz-Schur multipliers on Schatten-von-Neumann-Orlicz classes. Four applications are given: lacunary sets, unconditional Schauder bases for the subspace of a Lebesgue space determined by a given spectrum $\varLambda\subseteq\varGamma$, the norm of the Hilbert transform and the Riesz projection on Schatten-von-Neumann classes with exponent a power of 2, and the norm of Toeplitz Schur multipliers on Schatten-von-Neumann classes with exponent less than 1.

Keywords:Fourier multiplier, Toeplitz Schur multiplier, lacunary set, unconditional approximation property, Hilbert transform, Riesz projection
Categories:47B49, 43A22, 43A46, 46B28
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