1. CJM Online first
 Bremner, Murray; Dotsenko, Vladimir

Classification of regular parametrized onerelation operads
JeanLouis Loday introduced a class of symmetric operads generated
by one bilinear operation subject to one
relation making each leftnormed product of three elements equal
to a linear combination
of rightnormed products:
\[
(a_1a_2)a_3=\sum_{\sigma\in S_3}x_\sigma\, a_{\sigma(1)}(a_{\sigma(2)}a_{\sigma(3)})\
;
\]
such an operad is called a parametrized onerelation operad.
For a particular choice of parameters $\{x_\sigma\}$,
this operad is said to be regular if each of its components is
the regular representation of the symmetric group; equivalently, the corresponding free algebra on a vector space $V$ is, as a
graded vector space, isomorphic to the tensor
algebra of $V$. We classify, over an algebraically closed field
of characteristic zero, all regular parametrized onerelation
operads.
In fact, we prove that each such operad is isomorphic to one
of the following five operads: the leftnilpotent operad
defined by the relation $((a_1a_2)a_3)=0$, the associative operad,
the Leibniz operad, the dual Leibniz (Zinbiel) operad, and the
Poisson operad.
Our computational methods combine linear algebra over polynomial
rings, representation theory of the symmetric group, and
GrÃ¶bner bases for determinantal ideals and their radicals.
Keywords:parametrized onerelation algebra, algebraic operad, Koszul duality, representation theory of the symmetric group, determinantal ideal, GrÃ¶bner basis Categories:18D50, 13B25, 13P10, 13P15, 15A54, 1704, , , , , 17A30, 17A50, 20C30, 68W30 

2. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 395)
 Garibaldi, Skip; Nakano, Daniel K.

Bilinear and Quadratic Forms on Rational Modules of Split Reductive Groups
The representation theory of semisimple algebraic groups over
the complex numbers (equivalently, semisimple complex Lie algebras
or Lie groups, or real compact Lie groups) and the question of
whether a
given complex representation is symplectic or orthogonal has
been solved since at least the 1950s. Similar results for Weyl
modules of split reductive groups over fields of characteristic
different from 2 hold by
using similar proofs. This paper considers analogues of these
results for simple, induced and tilting modules of split reductive
groups over fields of prime characteristic as well as a complete
answer for Weyl modules over fields of characteristic 2.
Keywords:orthogonal representations, symmetric tensors, alternating forms, characteristic 2, split reductive groups Categories:20G05, 11E39, 11E88, 15A63, 20G15 

3. CJM 2015 (vol 69 pp. 408)
 Klep, Igor; Špenko, Špela

Free Function Theory Through Matrix Invariants
This paper concerns free function theory. Free maps are free
analogs of analytic functions in several complex variables,
and are defined in terms of freely noncommuting variables.
A function of $g$ noncommuting variables is a function on $g$tuples
of square matrices of all sizes that respects direct sums and
simultaneous conjugation.
Examples of such maps include noncommutative polynomials, noncommutative
rational functions and convergent noncommutative power series.
In sharp contrast to the existing literature in free analysis, this article
investigates free maps \emph{with involution} 
free analogs of real analytic functions.
To
get a grip on these,
techniques and tools from invariant theory are developed and
applied to free analysis. Here is a sample of the results obtained.
A characterization of polynomial free maps via properties of
their finitedimensional slices is presented and then used to
establish power series expansions for analytic free maps about
scalar and nonscalar points; the latter are series of generalized
polynomials for which an invarianttheoretic characterization
is given.
Furthermore,
an inverse and implicit function theorem for free maps with
involution is obtained.
Finally, with a selection of carefully chosen examples
it is shown that
free maps with involution
do not exhibit strong rigidity properties
enjoyed by their involutionfree
counterparts.
Keywords:free algebra, free analysis, invariant theory, polynomial identities, trace identities, concomitants, analytic maps, inverse function theorem, generalized polynomials Categories:16R30, 32A05, 46L52, 15A24, 47A56, 15A24, 46G20 

4. CJM 2015 (vol 67 pp. 961)
 Abuaf, Roland; Boralevi, Ada

Orthogonal Bundles and SkewHamiltonian Matrices
Using properties of skewHamiltonian matrices and classic
connectedness results, we prove that the moduli space
$M_{ort}^0(r,n)$ of stable rank $r$ orthogonal vector bundles
on $\mathbb{P}^2$, with Chern classes $(c_1,c_2)=(0,n)$, and trivial
splitting on the general line, is smooth irreducible of
dimension $(r2)n\binom{r}{2}$ for $r=n$ and $n \ge 4$, and
$r=n1$ and $n\ge 8$. We speculate that the result holds in
greater generality.
Keywords:orthogonal vector bundles, moduli spaces, skewHamiltonian matrices Categories:14J60, 15B99 

5. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 241)
 Agler, Jim; McCarthy, John E.

Global Holomorphic Functions in Several Noncommuting Variables
We define a free holomorphic function to be a function
that is locally, with respect to the free topology, a bounded
ncfunction.
We prove that free holomorphic functions are the functions that
are locally uniformly approximable
by free polynomials. We prove a realization formula and an OkaWeil
theorem for free analytic functions.
Keywords:noncommutative analysis, free holomorphic functions Category:15A54 

6. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1287)
 Reihani, Kamran

$K$theory of Furstenberg Transformation Group $C^*$algebras
The paper studies the $K$theoretic invariants of the crossed product
$C^{*}$algebras associated with an important family of homeomorphisms
of the tori $\mathbb{T}^{n}$ called Furstenberg transformations.
Using the PimsnerVoiculescu theorem, we prove that given $n$, the
$K$groups of those crossed products, whose corresponding $n\times n$
integer matrices are unipotent of maximal degree, always have the same
rank $a_{n}$. We show using the theory developed here that a claim
made in the literature about the torsion subgroups of these $K$groups
is false. Using the representation theory of the simple Lie algebra
$\frak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$, we show that, remarkably, $a_{n}$ has a
combinatorial significance. For example, every $a_{2n+1}$ is just the
number of ways that $0$ can be represented as a sum of integers
between $n$ and $n$ (with no repetitions). By adapting an argument
of van Lint (in which he answered a question of ErdÅs), a simple,
explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the sequence
$\{a_{n}\}$ is given. Finally, we describe the order structure of the
$K_{0}$groups of an important class of Furstenberg crossed products,
obtaining their complete Elliott invariant using classification
results of H. Lin and N. C. Phillips.
Keywords:$K$theory, transformation group $C^*$algebra, Furstenberg transformation, Anzai transformation, minimal homeomorphism, positive cone, minimal homeomorphism Categories:19K14, 19K99, 46L35, 46L80, , 05A15, 05A16, 05A17, 15A36, 17B10, 17B20, 37B05, 54H20 

7. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1020)
 Goulden, I. P.; GuayPaquet, Mathieu; Novak, Jonathan

Monotone Hurwitz Numbers in Genus Zero
Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of these branched covers related to the expansion of complete symmetric functions in the JucysMurphy elements, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the HarishChandraItzyksonZuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone joincut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.
Keywords:Hurwitz numbers, matrix models, enumerative geometry Categories:05A15, 14E20, 15B52 

8. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1364)
 Meinrenken, Eckhard

The Cubic Dirac Operator for InfiniteDimensonal Lie Algebras
Let $\mathfrak{g}=\bigoplus_{i\in\mathbb{Z}} \mathfrak{g}_i$ be an infinitedimensional graded
Lie algebra, with $\dim\mathfrak{g}_i<\infty$, equipped with a nondegenerate
symmetric bilinear form $B$ of degree $0$. The quantum Weil algebra
$\widehat{\mathcal{W}}\mathfrak{g}$ is a completion of the tensor product of the
enveloping and Clifford algebras of $\mathfrak{g}$. Provided that the
KacPeterson class of $\mathfrak{g}$ vanishes, one can construct a cubic Dirac
operator $\mathcal{D}\in\widehat{\mathcal{W}}(\mathfrak{g})$, whose square is a quadratic Casimir
element. We show that this condition holds for symmetrizable
KacMoody algebras. Extending Kostant's arguments, one obtains
generalized WeylKac character formulas for suitable ``equal rank''
Lie subalgebras of KacMoody algebras. These extend the formulas of
G. Landweber for affine Lie algebras.
Categories:22E65, 15A66 

9. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 413)
 Konvalinka, Matjaž; Skandera, Mark

Generating Functions for Hecke Algebra Characters
Certain polynomials in $n^2$ variables that serve as generating
functions for symmetric group characters are sometimes called
($S_n$) character immanants.
We point out a close connection between the identities of
LittlewoodMerrisWatkins
and GouldenJackson, which relate $S_n$ character immanants
to the determinant, the permanent and MacMahon's Master Theorem.
From these results we obtain a generalization
of Muir's identity.
Working with the quantum polynomial ring and the Hecke algebra
$H_n(q)$, we define quantum immanants that are generating
functions for Hecke algebra characters.
We then prove quantum analogs of the LittlewoodMerrisWatkins identities
and selected GouldenJackson identities
that relate $H_n(q)$ character immanants to
the quantum determinant, quantum permanent, and quantum Master Theorem
of GaroufalidisL\^eZeilberger.
We also obtain a generalization of Zhang's quantization of Muir's
identity.
Keywords:determinant, permanent, immanant, Hecke algebra character, quantum polynomial ring Categories:15A15, 20C08, 81R50 

10. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 3)
 Banica, T.; Belinschi, S. T.; Capitaine, M.; Collins, B.

Free Bessel Laws
We introduce and study a remarkable family of real probability
measures $\pi_{st}$ that we call free Bessel laws. These are related
to the free Poisson law $\pi$ via the formulae
$\pi_{s1}=\pi^{\boxtimes s}$ and ${\pi_{1t}=\pi^{\boxplus t}}$. Our
study includes definition and basic properties, analytic aspects
(supports, atoms, densities), combinatorial aspects (functional
transforms, moments, partitions), and a discussion of the relation
with random matrices and quantum groups.
Keywords:Poisson law, Bessel function, Wishart matrix, quantum group Categories:46L54, 15A52, 16W30 

11. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 758)
 Dolinar, Gregor; Kuzma, Bojan

General Preservers of QuasiCommutativity
Let ${ M}_n$ be the algebra of all $n \times n$ matrices over $\mathbb{C}$. We say that $A, B \in { M}_n$ quasicommute if there exists a nonzero $\xi \in \mathbb{C}$ such that $AB = \xi BA$. In the paper we classify bijective not necessarily linear maps $\Phi \colon M_n \to M_n$ which preserve quasicommutativity in both directions.
Keywords:general preservers, matrix algebra, quasicommutativity Categories:15A04, 15A27, 06A99 

12. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 109)
 Li, ChiKwong; Poon, YiuTung

Sum of Hermitian Matrices with Given Eigenvalues: Inertia, Rank, and Multiple Eigenvalues
Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ complex Hermitian (or real symmetric) matrices
with eigenvalues $a_1 \ge \dots \ge a_n$ and $b_1 \ge \dots \ge b_n$.
All possible inertia values, ranks, and multiple eigenvalues
of $A + B$ are determined. Extension of the results to the sum of $k$ matrices
with $k > 2$ and connections of the results to other subjects such
as algebraic combinatorics are also discussed.
Keywords:complex Hermitian matrices, real symmetric matrices, inertia, rank, multiple eigenvalues Categories:15A42, 15A57 

13. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 1149)
 Petersen, Kathleen L.; Sinclair, Christopher D.

Conjugate Reciprocal Polynomials with All Roots on the Unit Circle
We study the geometry, topology and Lebesgue measure of the set of
monic conjugate reciprocal polynomials of fixed degree with all
roots on the unit circle. The set of such polynomials of degree $N$
is naturally associated to a subset of $\R^{N1}$. We calculate
the volume of this set, prove the set is homeomorphic to the $N1$
ball and that its isometry group is isomorphic to the dihedral
group of order $2N$.
Categories:11C08, 28A75, 15A52, 54H10, 58D19 

14. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 1050)
 Huang, Wenling; Semrl, Peter \v

Adjacency Preserving Maps on Hermitian Matrices
Hua's fundamental theorem of the geometry of hermitian matrices
characterizes bijective maps on the space of all $n\times n$
hermitian matrices preserving adjacency in both directions.
The problem of possible improvements
has been open for a while. There are three natural problems here.
Do we need the bijectivity assumption? Can we replace the
assumption of preserving adjacency in both directions by the
weaker assumption of preserving adjacency in one direction only?
Can we obtain such a characterization for maps acting between the
spaces of hermitian matrices of different sizes? We answer all
three questions for the complex hermitian matrices, thus obtaining
the optimal structural result for adjacency preserving maps on
hermitian matrices over the complex field.
Keywords:rank, adjacency preserving map, hermitian matrix, geometry of matrices Categories:15A03, 15A04, 15A57, 15A99 

15. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 923)
 Okoh, F.; Zorzitto, F.

Endomorphisms of Kronecker Modules Regulated by Quadratic Algebra Extensions of a Function Field
The Kronecker modules $\mathbb{V}(m,h,\alpha)$, where $m$ is a positive integer, $h$ is
a height function, and $\alpha$ is a $K$linear functional on the
space $K(X)$ of rational functions in one variable $X$ over an
algebraically closed field $K$, are models for the family of all
torsionfree rank2 modules that are extensions of finitedimensional
rank1 modules. Every such module comes with a regulating polynomial
$f$ in $K(X)[Y]$. When the endomorphism algebra of $\mathbb{V}(m,h,\alpha)$ is
commutative and nontrivial, the regulator $f$ must be quadratic in
$Y$. If $f$ has one repeated root in $K(X)$, the endomorphism algebra
is the trivial extension $K\ltimes S$ for some vector space $S$. If
$f$ has distinct roots in $K(X)$, then the endomorphisms form a
structure that we call a bridge. These include the coordinate rings
of some curves. Regardless of the number of roots in the regulator,
those $\End\mathbb{V}(m,h,\alpha)$ that are domains have zero radical. In addition,
each semilocal $\End\mathbb{V}(m,h,\alpha)$ must be either a trivial extension
$K\ltimes S$ or the product $K\times K$.
Categories:16S50, 15A27 

16. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 520)
 Chen, ChangPao; Huang, HaoWei; Shen, ChunYen

Matrices Whose Norms Are Determined by Their Actions on Decreasing Sequences
Let $A=(a_{j,k})_{j,k \ge 1}$ be a nonnegative matrix. In this
paper, we characterize those $A$ for which $\A\_{E, F}$ are
determined by their actions on decreasing sequences, where $E$ and
$F$ are suitable normed Riesz spaces of sequences. In particular,
our results can apply to the following spaces: $\ell_p$, $d(w,p)$,
and $\ell_p(w)$. The results established here generalize
ones given by Bennett; Chen, Luor, and Ou; Jameson; and
Jameson and Lashkaripour.
Keywords:norms of matrices, normed Riesz spaces, weighted mean matrices, NÃ¶rlund mean matrices, summability matrices, matrices with row decreasing Categories:15A60, 40G05, 47A30, 47B37, 46B42 

17. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1284)
 Fukshansky, Lenny

On Effective Witt Decomposition and the CartanDieudonn{Ã© Theorem
Let $K$ be a number field, and let $F$ be a symmetric bilinear form in
$2N$ variables over $K$. Let $Z$ be a subspace of $K^N$. A classical
theorem of Witt states that the bilinear space $(Z,F)$ can be
decomposed into an orthogonal sum of hyperbolic planes and singular and
anisotropic components. We prove the existence of such a decomposition
of small height, where all bounds on height are explicit in terms of
heights of $F$ and $Z$. We also prove a special version of Siegel's
lemma for a bilinear space, which provides a smallheight orthogonal
decomposition into onedimensional subspaces. Finally, we prove an
effective version of the CartanDieudonn{\'e} theorem. Namely, we show
that every isometry $\sigma$ of a regular bilinear space $(Z,F)$ can
be represented as a product of reflections of bounded heights with an
explicit bound on heights in terms of heights of $F$, $Z$, and
$\sigma$.
Keywords:quadratic form, heights Categories:11E12, 15A63, 11G50 

18. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 638)
 MacDonald, Gordon W.

Distance from Idempotents to Nilpotents
We give bounds on the distance from a nonzero idempotent to the
set of nilpotents in the set of $n\times n$ matrices in terms of
the norm of the idempotent. We construct explicit idempotents and
nilpotents which achieve these distances, and determine exact
distances in some special cases.
Keywords:operator, matrix, nilpotent, idempotent, projection Categories:47A15, 47D03, 15A30 

19. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 488)
 Bernardi, A.; Catalisano, M. V.; Gimigliano, A.; Idà, M.

Osculating Varieties of Veronese Varieties and Their Higher Secant Varieties
We consider the $k$osculating varieties
$O_{k,n.d}$ to the (Veronese) $d$uple embeddings of $\PP^n$. We
study the dimension of their higher secant varieties via inverse
systems (apolarity). By associating certain 0dimensional schemes
$Y\subset \PP^n$ to $O^s_{k,n,d}$ and by studying their Hilbert
functions, we are able, in several cases, to determine whether those
secant varieties are defective or not.
Categories:14N15, 15A69 

20. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 186)
 Okoh, F.; Zorzitto, F.

Endomorphism Algebras of Kronecker Modules Regulated by Quadratic Function Fields
Purely simple Kronecker modules ${\mathcal M}$, built from an algebraically closed field $K$,
arise from a triplet $(m,h,\alpha)$ where $m$ is a positive integer,
$h\colon\ktil\ar \{\infty,0,1,2,3,\dots\}$ is a height function, and
$\alpha$ is a $K$linear functional on the space $\krx$ of rational
functions in one variable $X$. Every pair $(h,\alpha)$ comes with a
polynomial $f$ in $K(X)[Y]$ called the regulator. When the module
${\mathcal M}$ admits nontrivial endomorphisms, $f$ must be linear or
quadratic in $Y$. In that case ${\mathcal M}$ is purely simple if and
only if $f$ is an irreducible quadratic. Then the $K$algebra
$\edm\cm$ embeds in the quadratic function field $\krx[Y]/(f)$. For
some height functions $h$ of infinite support $I$, the search for a
functional $\alpha$ for which $(h,\alpha)$ has regulator $0$ comes
down to having functions $\eta\colon I\ar K$ such that no planar curve
intersects the graph of $\eta$ on a cofinite subset. If $K$ has
characterictic not $2$, and the triplet $(m,h,\alpha)$ gives a
purelysimple Kronecker module ${\mathcal M}$ having nontrivial
endomorphisms, then $h$ attains the value $\infty$ at least once on
$\ktil$ and $h$ is finitevalued at least twice on
$\ktil$. Conversely all these $h$ form part of such triplets. The
proof of this result hinges on the fact that a rational function $r$
is a perfect square in $\krx$ if and only if $r$ is a perfect square
in the completions of $\krx$ with respect to all of its valuations.
Keywords:Purely simple Kronecker module, regulating polynomial, Laurent expansions, endomorphism algebra Categories:16S50, 15A27 

21. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 82)
 Fallat, Shaun M.; Gekhtman, Michael I.

Jordan Structures of Totally Nonnegative Matrices
An $n \times n$ matrix is said to be totally nonnegative if every
minor of $A$ is nonnegative. In this paper we completely
characterize all possible Jordan canonical forms of irreducible
totally nonnegative matrices. Our approach is mostly combinatorial
and is based on the study of weighted planar diagrams associated
with totally nonnegative matrices.
Keywords:totally nonnegative matrices, planar diagrams,, principal rank, Jordan canonical form Categories:15A21, 15A48, 05C38 

22. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 776)
 Lim, Yongdo

Best Approximation in Riemannian Geodesic Submanifolds of Positive Definite Matrices
We explicitly describe
the best approximation in
geodesic submanifolds of positive definite matrices
obtained from involutive
congruence transformations on the
CartanHadamard manifold ${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\Bbb R})^{++}$ of
positive definite matrices.
An explicit calculation for the minimal distance
function from the geodesic submanifold
${\mathrm{Sym}}(p,{\mathbb R})^{++}\times
{\mathrm{Sym}}(q,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ block diagonally embedded in
${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ is
given in terms of metric and
spectral geometric means, Cayley transform, and Schur
complements of positive definite matrices when $p\leq 2$ or $q\leq 2.$
Keywords:Matrix approximation, positive, definite matrix, geodesic submanifold, CartanHadamard manifold,, best approximation, minimal distance function, global tubular, neighborhood theorem, Schur complement, metric and spectral, geometric mean, Cayley transform Categories:15A48, 49R50, 15A18, 53C3 

23. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 134)
 Li, ChiKwong; Sourour, Ahmed Ramzi

Linear Operators on Matrix Algebras that Preserve the Numerical Range, Numerical Radius or the States
Every norm $\nu$ on $\mathbf{C}^n$ induces two norm numerical
ranges on the algebra $M_n$ of all $n\times n$ complex matrices,
the spatial numerical range
$$
W(A)= \{x^*Ay : x, y \in \mathbf{C}^n,\nu^D(x) = \nu(y) = x^*y = 1\},
$$
where $\nu^D$ is the norm dual to $\nu$, and the algebra numerical range
$$
V(A) = \{ f(A) : f \in \mathcal{S} \},
$$
where $\mathcal{S}$ is the set of states on the normed algebra
$M_n$ under the operator norm induced by $\nu$. For a symmetric
norm $\nu$, we identify all linear maps on $M_n$ that preserve
either one of the two norm numerical ranges or the set of states or
vector states. We also identify the numerical radius isometries,
{\it i.e.}, linear maps that preserve the (one) numerical radius
induced by either numerical range. In particular, it is shown that
if $\nu$ is not the $\ell_1$, $\ell_2$, or $\ell_\infty$ norms,
then the linear maps that preserve either numerical range or either
set of states are ``inner'', {\it i.e.}, of the form $A\mapsto
Q^*AQ$, where $Q$ is a product of a diagonal unitary matrix and a
permutation matrix and the numerical radius isometries are
unimodular scalar multiples of such inner maps. For the $\ell_1$
and the $\ell_\infty$ norms, the results are quite different.
Keywords:Numerical range, numerical radius, state, isometry Categories:15A60, 15A04, 47A12, 47A30 

24. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1000)
 Graczyk, P.; Sawyer, P.

Some Convexity Results for the Cartan Decomposition
In this paper, we consider the set $\mathcal{S} = a(e^X K e^Y)$
where $a(g)$ is the abelian part in the Cartan decomposition of
$g$. This is exactly the support of the measure intervening in the
product formula for the spherical functions on symmetric spaces of
noncompact type. We give a simple description of that support in
the case of $\SL(3,\mathbf{F})$ where $\mathbf{F} = \mathbf{R}$,
$\mathbf{C}$ or $\mathbf{H}$. In particular, we show that
$\mathcal{S}$ is convex.
We also give an application of our result to the description of
singular values of a product of two arbitrary matrices with
prescribed singular values.
Keywords:convexity theorems, Cartan decomposition, spherical functions, product formula, semisimple Lie groups, singular values Categories:43A90, 53C35, 15A18 

25. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 91)
 Choi, ManDuen; Li, ChiKwong; Poon, YiuTung

Some Convexity Features Associated with Unitary Orbits
Let $\mathcal{H}_n$ be the real linear space of $n\times n$ complex
Hermitian matrices. The unitary (similarity) orbit $\mathcal{U}
(C)$ of $C \in \mathcal{H}_n$ is the collection of all matrices
unitarily similar to $C$. We characterize those $C \in \mathcal{H}_n$
such that every matrix in the convex hull of $\mathcal{U}(C)$ can
be written as the average of two matrices in $\mathcal{U}(C)$. The
result is used to study spectral properties of submatrices of
matrices in $\mathcal{U}(C)$, the convexity of images of $\mathcal{U}
(C)$ under linear transformations, and some related questions
concerning the joint $C$numerical range of Hermitian matrices.
Analogous results on real symmetric matrices are also discussed.
Keywords:Hermitian matrix, unitary orbit, eigenvalue, joint numerical range Categories:15A60, 15A42 
