26. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 721)
 Adamus, J.; Bierstone, E.; Milman, P. D.

Uniform Linear Bound in Chevalley's Lemma
We obtain a uniform linear bound for the Chevalley function at a point in
the source of an analytic mapping that is regular in the sense of
Gabrielov. There is a version of
Chevalley's lemma also along a fibre, or at a point of the image of a proper
analytic mapping. We get a uniform linear bound for the Chevalley
function of a closed Nash (or formally Nash) subanalytic set.
Keywords:Chevalley function, regular mapping, Nash subanalytic set Categories:13J07, 32B20, 13J10, 32S10 

27. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 556)
 Draisma, Jan; Kemper, Gregor; Wehlau, David

Polarization of Separating Invariants
We prove a characteristic free version of Weyl's theorem on
polarization. Our result is an exact analogue of Weyl's theorem, the
difference being that our statement is about separating invariants
rather than generating invariants. For the special case of finite
group actions we introduce the concept of \emph{cheap polarization},
and show that it is enough to take cheap polarizations of invariants
of just one copy of a representation to obtain separating vector
invariants for any number of copies. This leads to upper bounds on
the number and degrees of separating vector invariants of finite
groups.
Keywords:Jan Draisma, Gregor Kemper, David Wehlau Categories:13A50, 14L24 

28. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 391)
 Migliore, Juan C.

The Geometry of the Weak Lefschetz Property and Level Sets of Points
In a recent paper, F. Zanello showed that level Artinian algebras in 3
variables can fail to have the Weak Lefschetz Property (WLP), and can
even fail to have unimodal Hilbert function. We show that the same is
true for the Artinian reduction of reduced, level sets of points in
projective 3space. Our main goal is to begin an understanding of how
the geometry of a set of points can prevent its Artinian reduction
from having WLP, which in itself is a very algebraic notion. More
precisely, we produce level sets of points whose Artinian reductions
have socle types 3 and 4 and arbitrary socle degree $\geq 12$ (in the
worst case), but fail to have WLP. We also produce a level set of
points whose Artinian reduction fails to have unimodal Hilbert
function; our example is based on Zanello's example. Finally, we show
that a level set of points can have Artinian reduction that has WLP
but fails to have the Strong Lefschetz Property. While our
constructions are all based on basic double Glinkage, the
implementations use very different methods.
Keywords:Weak Lefschetz Property, Strong Lefschetz Property, basic double Glinkage, level, arithmetically Gorenstein, arithmetically CohenMacaulay, socle type, socle degree, Artinian reduction Categories:13D40, 13D02, 14C20, 13C40, 13C13, 14M05 

29. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 880)
 van, John E.

Radical Ideals in Valuation Domains
An ideal $I$ of a ring $R$ is called a radical ideal if
$I={\mathcalR}(R)$ where ${\mathcal R}$ is a radical in the sense of
KuroshAmitsur. The main theorem of this paper asserts that if $R$
is a valuation domain, then a proper ideal $I$ of $R$ is a radical
ideal if and only if $I$ is a distinguished ideal of $R$ (the
latter property means that if $J$ and $K$ are ideals of $R$ such
that $J\subset I\subset K$ then we cannot have $I/J\cong K/I$ as
rings) and that such an ideal is necessarily prime. Examples are
exhibited which show that, unlike prime ideals, distinguished
ideals are not characterizable in terms of a property of the
underlying value group of the valuation domain.
Categories:16N80, 13A18 

30. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 109)
 Jayanthan, A. V.; Puthenpurakal, Tony J.; Verma, J. K.

On Fiber Cones of $\m$Primary Ideals
Two formulas for the multiplicity of the fiber cone
$F(I)=\bigoplus_{n=0}^{\infty} I^n/\m I^n$ of an $\m$primary ideal of
a $d$dimensional CohenMacaulay local ring $(R,\m)$ are derived in
terms of the mixed multiplicity $e_{d1}(\m  I)$, the multiplicity
$e(I)$, and superficial elements. As a consequence, the
CohenMacaulay property of $F(I)$ when $I$ has minimal mixed
multiplicity or almost minimal mixed multiplicity is characterized
in terms of the reduction number of $I$ and lengths of certain ideals.
We also characterize the CohenMacaulay and Gorenstein properties of
fiber cones of $\m$primary ideals with a $d$generated minimal
reduction $J$ satisfying $\ell(I^2/JI)=1$ or
$\ell(I\m/J\m)=1.$
Keywords:fiber cones, mixed multiplicities, joint reductions, CohenMacaulay fiber cones, Gorenstein fiber cones, ideals having minimal and almost minimal mixed multiplicities Categories:13H10, 13H15, 13A30, 13C15, 13A02 

31. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1178)
 Cutkosky, Steven Dale; Hà, Huy Tài; Srinivasan, Hema; Theodorescu, Emanoil

Asymptotic Behavior of the Length of Local Cohomology
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic 0, $R=k[x_1, \ldots, x_d]$ be a polynomial ring,
and $\mm$ its maximal homogeneous ideal. Let $I \subset R$ be a homogeneous ideal in
$R$. Let $\lambda(M)$ denote the length of an $R$module $M$. In this paper, we show
that
$$
\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{\l\bigl(H^0_{\mathfrak{m}}(R/I^n)\bigr)}{n^d}
=\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{\l\bigl(\Ext^d_R\bigl(R/I^n,R(d)\bigr)\bigr)}{n^d}
$$
always exists. This limit has been shown to be ${e(I)}/{d!}$ for $m$primary ideals
$I$ in a local CohenMacaulay ring, where $e(I)$ denotes the multiplicity
of $I$. But we find that this limit may not be rational in general. We give an example
for which the limit is an irrational number thereby showing that the lengths of these
extention modules may not have polynomial growth.
Keywords:powers of ideals, local cohomology, Hilbert function, linear growth Categories:13D40, 14B15, 13D45 

32. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 724)
 Purnaprajna, B. P.

Some Results on Surfaces of General Type
In this article we prove some new results on projective normality, normal
presentation and higher syzygies for surfaces of general type, not
necessarily smooth, embedded by adjoint linear series. Some of the
corollaries of more general results include: results on property $N_p$
associated to $K_S \otimes B^{\otimes n}$ where $B$ is basepoint free and
ample divisor with $B\otimes K^*$ {\it nef}, results for pluricanonical
linear systems and results giving effective bounds for adjoint linear series
associated to ample bundles. Examples in the last section show that the results
are optimal.
Categories:13D02, 14C20, 14J29 

33. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 400)
 Sabourin, Sindi

Generalized $k$Configurations
In this paper, we find configurations of points in $n$dimensional
projective space ($\proj ^n$) which simultaneously generalize both
$k$configurations and reduced 0dimensional complete intersections.
Recall that $k$configurations in $\proj ^2$ are disjoint unions of
distinct points on lines and in $\proj ^n$ are inductively disjoint
unions of $k$configurations on hyperplanes, subject to certain
conditions. Furthermore, the Hilbert function of a $k$configuration
is determined from those of the smaller $k$configurations. We call
our generalized constructions $k_D$configurations, where $D=\{ d_1,
\ldots ,d_r\}$ (a set of $r$ positive integers with repetition
allowed) is the type of a given complete intersection in $\proj ^n$.
We show that the Hilbert function of any $k_D$configuration can be
obtained from those of smaller $k_D$configurations. We then provide
applications of this result in two different directions, both of which
are motivated by corresponding results about $k$configurations.
Categories:13D40, 14M10 

34. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 716)
 Guardo, Elena; Van Tuyl, Adam

Fat Points in $\mathbb{P}^1 \times \mathbb{P}^1$ and Their Hilbert Functions
We study the Hilbert functions of fat points in $\popo$.
If $Z \subseteq \popo$ is an arbitrary fat point scheme, then
it can be shown that for every $i$ and $j$ the values of the Hilbert
function $_{Z}(l,j)$ and $H_{Z}(i,l)$ eventually become constant for
$l \gg 0$. We show how to determine these eventual values
by using only the multiplicities of the points, and the
relative positions of the points in $\popo$. This enables
us to compute all but a finite number values of $H_{Z}$
without using the coordinates of points.
We also characterize the ACM fat point schemes
sing our description of the eventual behaviour. In fact,
n the case that $Z \subseteq \popo$ is ACM, then
the entire Hilbert function and its minimal free resolution
depend solely on knowing the eventual values of the Hilbert function.
Keywords:Hilbert function, points, fat points, CohenMacaulay, multiprojective space Categories:13D40, 13D02, 13H10, 14A15 

35. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 742)
 Jiang, Chunlan

Similarity Classification of CowenDouglas Operators
Let $\cal H$ be a complex separable Hilbert space
and ${\cal L}({\cal H})$ denote the collection of
bounded linear operators on ${\cal H}$.
An operator $A$ in ${\cal L}({\cal H})$
is said to be strongly irreducible, if
${\cal A}^{\prime}(T)$, the commutant of $A$, has no nontrivial idempotent.
An operator $A$ in ${\cal L}({\cal H})$ is said to a CowenDouglas
operator, if there exists $\Omega$, a connected open subset of
$C$, and $n$, a positive integer, such that
(a) ${\Omega}{\subset}{\sigma}(A)=\{z{\in}C; Az {\text {not invertible}}\};$
(b) $\ran(Az)={\cal H}$, for $z$ in $\Omega$;
(c) $\bigvee_{z{\in}{\Omega}}$\ker$(Az)={\cal H}$ and
(d) $\dim \ker(Az)=n$ for $z$ in $\Omega$.
In the paper, we give a similarity classification of strongly
irreducible CowenDouglas operators by using the $K_0$group of
the commutant algebra as an invariant.
Categories:47A15, 47C15, 13E05, 13F05 

36. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1019)
 Handelman, David

More Eventual Positivity for Analytic Functions
Eventual positivity problems for real convergent Maclaurin series lead
to density questions for sets of harmonic functions. These are solved
for large classes of series, and in so doing, asymptotic estimates are
obtained for the values of the series near the radius of convergence
and for the coefficients of convolution powers.
Categories:30B10, 30D15, 30C50, 13A99, 41A58, 42A16 

37. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 711)
 Broughan, Kevin A.

Adic Topologies for the Rational Integers
A topology on $\mathbb{Z}$, which gives a nice proof that the
set of prime integers is infinite, is characterised and examined.
It is found to be homeomorphic to $\mathbb{Q}$, with a compact
completion homeomorphic to the Cantor set. It has a natural place
in a family of topologies on $\mathbb{Z}$, which includes the
$p$adics, and one in which the set of rational primes $\mathbb{P}$
is dense. Examples from number theory are given, including the
primes and squares, Fermat numbers, Fibonacci numbers and $k$free
numbers.
Keywords:$p$adic, metrizable, quasivaluation, topological ring,, completion, inverse limit, diophantine equation, prime integers,, Fermat numbers, Fibonacci numbers Categories:11B05, 11B25, 11B50, 13J10, 13B35 

38. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 750)
 Göbel, Rüdiger; Shelah, Saharon; Strüngmann, Lutz

AlmostFree $E$Rings of Cardinality $\aleph_1$
An $E$ring is a unital ring $R$ such that every endomorphism of
the underlying abelian group $R^+$ is multiplication by some
ring element. The existence of almostfree $E$rings of
cardinality greater than $2^{\aleph_0}$ is undecidable in $\ZFC$.
While they exist in G\"odel's universe, they do not exist in other
models of set theory. For a regular cardinal $\aleph_1 \leq
\lambda \leq 2^{\aleph_0}$ we construct $E$rings of cardinality
$\lambda$ in $\ZFC$ which have $\aleph_1$free additive structure.
For $\lambda=\aleph_1$ we therefore obtain the existence of
almostfree $E$rings of cardinality $\aleph_1$ in $\ZFC$.
Keywords:$E$rings, almostfree modules Categories:20K20, 20K30, 13B10, 13B25 

39. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1319)
 Yekutieli, Amnon

The Continuous Hochschild Cochain Complex of a Scheme
Let $X$ be a separated finite type scheme over a noetherian base ring
$\mathbb{K}$. There is a complex $\widehat{\mathcal{C}}^{\cdot} (X)$
of topological $\mathcal{O}_X$modules, called the complete Hochschild
chain complex of $X$. To any $\mathcal{O}_X$module
$\mathcal{M}$not necessarily quasicoherentwe assign the complex
$\mathcal{H}om^{\cont}_{\mathcal{O}_X} \bigl(
\widehat{\mathcal{C}}^{\cdot} (X), \mathcal{M} \bigr)$ of continuous
Hochschild cochains with values in $\mathcal{M}$. Our first main
result is that when $X$ is smooth over $\mathbb{K}$ there is a
functorial isomorphism
$$
\mathcal{H}om^{\cont}_{\mathcal{O}_X} \bigl(
\widehat{\mathcal{C}}^{\cdot} (X), \mathcal{M} \bigr) \cong \R
\mathcal{H}om_{\mathcal{O}_{X^2}} (\mathcal{O}_X, \mathcal{M})
$$
in the derived category $\mathsf{D} (\Mod \mathcal{O}_{X^2})$, where
$X^2 := X \times_{\mathbb{K}} X$.
The second main result is that if $X$ is smooth of relative dimension
$n$ and $n!$ is invertible in $\mathbb{K}$, then the standard maps
$\pi \colon \widehat{\mathcal{C}}^{q} (X) \to \Omega^q_{X/
\mathbb{K}}$ induce a quasiisomorphism
$$
\mathcal{H}om_{\mathcal{O}_X} \Bigl( \bigoplus_q \Omega^q_{X/
\mathbb{K}} [q], \mathcal{M} \Bigr) \to
\mathcal{H}om^{\cont}_{\mathcal{O}_X} \bigl(
\widehat{\mathcal{C}}^{\cdot} (X), \mathcal{M} \bigr).
$$
When $\mathcal{M} = \mathcal{O}_X$ this is the quasiisomorphism
underlying the Kontsevich Formality Theorem.
Combining the two results above we deduce a decomposition of the
global Hochschild cohomology
$$
\Ext^i_{\mathcal{O}_{X^2}} (\mathcal{O}_X, \mathcal{M}) \cong
\bigoplus_q \H^{iq} \Bigl( X, \bigl( \bigwedge^q_{\mathcal{O}_X}
\mathcal{T}_{X/\mathbb{K}} \bigr) \otimes_{\mathcal{O}_X} \mathcal{M}
\Bigr),
$$
where $\mathcal{T}_{X/\mathbb{K}}$ is the relative tangent sheaf.
Keywords:Hochschild cohomology, schemes, derived categories Categories:16E40, 14F10, 18G10, 13H10 

40. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1100)
 Wood, Peter J.

The Operator Biprojectivity of the Fourier Algebra
In this paper, we investigate projectivity in the category of operator
spaces. In particular, we show that the Fourier algebra of a locally
compact group $G$ is operator biprojective if and only if $G$ is
discrete.
Keywords:locally compact group, Fourier algebra, operator space, projective Categories:13D03, 18G25, 43A95, 46L07, 22D99 

41. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 897)
 Fortuny Ayuso, Pedro

The Valuative Theory of Foliations
This paper gives a characterization of valuations that follow the
singular infinitely near points of plane vector fields, using the
notion of L'H\^opital valuation, which generalizes a well known classical
condition. With that tool, we give a valuative description of vector
fields with infinite solutions, singularities with rational quotient
of eigenvalues in its linear part, and polynomial vector fields with
transcendental solutions, among other results.
Categories:12J20, 13F30, 16W60, 37F75, 34M25 

42. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 923)
 Geramita, Anthony V.; Harima, Tadahito; Shin, Yong Su

Decompositions of the Hilbert Function of a Set of Points in $\P^n$
Let $\H$ be the Hilbert function of some set of distinct points
in $\P^n$ and let $\alpha = \alpha (\H)$ be the least degree
of a hypersurface of $\P^n$ containing these points. Write $\alpha
= d_s + d_{s1} + \cdots + d_1$ (where $d_i > 0$). We canonically
decompose $\H$ into $s$ other Hilbert functions $\H
\leftrightarrow (\H_s^\prime, \dots, \H_1^\prime)$ and show
how to find sets of distinct points $\Y_s, \dots, \Y_1$,
lying on reduced hypersurfaces of degrees $d_s, \dots, d_1$
(respectively) such that the Hilbert function of $\Y_i$ is
$\H_i^\prime$ and the Hilbert function of $\Y = \bigcup_{i=1}^s
\Y_i$ is $\H$. Some extremal properties of this canonical
decomposition are also explored.
Categories:13D40, 14M10 

43. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 123)
 Harbourne, Brian

An Algorithm for Fat Points on $\mathbf{P}^2
Let $F$ be a divisor on the blowup $X$ of $\pr^2$ at $r$ general
points $p_1, \dots, p_r$ and let $L$ be the total transform of a
line on $\pr^2$. An approach is presented for reducing the
computation of the dimension of the cokernel of the natural map
$\mu_F \colon \Gamma \bigl( \CO_X(F) \bigr) \otimes \Gamma \bigl(
\CO_X(L) \bigr) \to \Gamma \bigl( \CO_X(F) \otimes \CO_X(L) \bigr)$
to the case that $F$ is ample. As an application, a formula for
the dimension of the cokernel of $\mu_F$ is obtained when $r = 7$,
completely solving the problem of determining the modules in
minimal free resolutions of fat point subschemes\break
$m_1 p_1 + \cdots + m_7 p_7 \subset \pr^2$. All results hold for
an arbitrary algebraically closed ground field~$k$.
Keywords:Generators, syzygies, resolution, fat points, maximal rank, plane, Weyl group Categories:13P10, 14C99, 13D02, 13H15 

44. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 616)
 Panyushev, Dmitri I.

Parabolic Subgroups with Abelian Unipotent Radical as a Testing Site for Invariant Theory
Let $L$ be a simple algebraic group and $P$ a parabolic subgroup
with Abelian unipotent radical $P^u$. Many familiar varieties
(determinantal varieties, their symmetric and skewsymmetric
analogues) arise as closures of $P$orbits in $P^u$. We give a
unified invarianttheoretic treatment of various properties of
these orbit closures. We also describe the closures of the
conormal bundles of these orbits as the irreducible components of
some commuting variety and show that the polynomial algebra
$k[P^u]$ is a free module over the algebra of covariants.
Categories:14L30, 13A50 

45. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 3)
 Allday, C.; Puppe, V.

On a Conjecture of Goresky, Kottwitz and MacPherson
We settle a conjecture of Goresky, Kottwitz and MacPherson related
to Koszul duality, \ie, to the correspondence between differential
graded modules over the exterior algebra and those over the
symmetric algebra.
Keywords:Koszul duality, HirschBrown model Categories:13D25, 18E30, 18G35, 55U15 

46. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 719)
 Göbel, Rüdiger; Shelah, Saharon

Indecomposable almost free modulesthe local case
Let $R$ be a countable, principal ideal domain which is not a field and
$A$ be a countable $R$algebra which is free as an $R$module. Then we
will construct an $\aleph_1$free $R$module $G$ of rank $\aleph_1$
with endomorphism algebra End$_RG = A$. Clearly the result does not
hold for fields. Recall that an $R$module is $\aleph_1$free if all
its countable submodules are free, a condition closely related to
Pontryagin's theorem. This result has many consequences, depending on
the algebra $A$ in use. For instance, if we choose $A = R$, then
clearly $G$ is an indecomposable `almost free' module. The existence of
such modules was unknown for rings with only finitely many primes like
$R = \hbox{\Bbbvii Z}_{(p)}$, the integers localized at some prime $p$. The result
complements a classical realization theorem of Corner's showing that
any such algebra is an endomorphism algebra of some torsionfree,
reduced $R$module $G$ of countable rank. Its proof is based on new
combinatorialalgebraic techniques related with what we call {\it rigid
treeelements\/} coming from a module generated over a forest of trees.
Keywords:indecomposable modules of local rings, $\aleph_1$free modules of rank $\aleph_1$, realizing rings as endomorphism rings Categories:20K20, 20K26, 20K30, 13C10 

47. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 499)
 Fitzgerald, Robert W.

Gorenstein Witt rings II
The abstract Witt rings which are Gorenstein have been classified
when the dimension is one and the classification problem for those of
dimension zero has been reduced to the case of socle degree three. Here we
classifiy the Gorenstein Witt rings of fields with dimension zero and
socle degree three. They are of elementary type.
Categories:11E81, 13H10 
