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1. CJM Online first

Hajir, Farshid; Maire, Christian
On the invariant factors of class groups in towers of number fields
For a finite abelian $p$-group $A$ of rank $d=\dim A/pA$, let $\mathbb{M}_A := \log_p |A|^{1/d}$ be its \emph{(logarithmic) mean exponent}. We study the behavior of the mean exponent of $p$-class groups in pro-$p$ towers $\mathrm{L}/K$ of number fields. Via a combination of results from analytic and algebraic number theory, we construct infinite tamely ramified pro-$p$ towers in which the mean exponent of $p$-class groups remains bounded. Several explicit examples are given with $p=2$. Turning to group theory, we introduce an invariant $\underline{\mathbb{M}}(G)$ attached to a finitely generated pro-$p$ group $G$; when $G=\operatorname{Gal}(\mathrm{L}/\mathrm{K})$, where $\mathrm{L}$ is the Hilbert $p$-class field tower of a number field $K$, $\underline{\mathbb{M}}(G)$ measures the asymptotic behavior of the mean exponent of $p$-class groups inside $\mathrm{L}/\mathrm{K}$. We compare and contrast the behavior of this invariant in analytic versus non-analytic groups. We exploit the interplay of group-theoretical and number-theoretical perspectives on this invariant and explore some open questions that arise as a result, which may be of independent interest in group theory.

Keywords:class field tower, ideal class group, pro-p group, p-adic analytic group, Brauer-Siegel Theorem
Categories:11R29, 11R37

2. CJM 2017 (vol 69 pp. 992)

Bremner, Murray; Dotsenko, Vladimir
Classification of Regular Parametrized One-relation Operads
Jean-Louis Loday introduced a class of symmetric operads generated by one bilinear operation subject to one relation making each left-normed product of three elements equal to a linear combination of right-normed products: \[ (a_1a_2)a_3=\sum_{\sigma\in S_3}x_\sigma\, a_{\sigma(1)}(a_{\sigma(2)}a_{\sigma(3)})\ ; \] such an operad is called a parametrized one-relation operad. For a particular choice of parameters $\{x_\sigma\}$, this operad is said to be regular if each of its components is the regular representation of the symmetric group; equivalently, the corresponding free algebra on a vector space $V$ is, as a graded vector space, isomorphic to the tensor algebra of $V$. We classify, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero, all regular parametrized one-relation operads. In fact, we prove that each such operad is isomorphic to one of the following five operads: the left-nilpotent operad defined by the relation $((a_1a_2)a_3)=0$, the associative operad, the Leibniz operad, the dual Leibniz (Zinbiel) operad, and the Poisson operad. Our computational methods combine linear algebra over polynomial rings, representation theory of the symmetric group, and Gröbner bases for determinantal ideals and their radicals.

Keywords:parametrized one-relation algebra, algebraic operad, Koszul duality, representation theory of the symmetric group, determinantal ideal, Gröbner basis
Categories:18D50, 13B25, 13P10, 13P15, 15A54, 17-04, , , , , 17A30, 17A50, 20C30, 68W30

3. CJM Online first

Pasnicu, Cornel; Phillips, N. Christopher
The weak ideal property and topological dimension zero
Following up on previous work, we prove a number of results for C*-algebras with the weak ideal property or topological dimension zero, and some results for C*-algebras with related properties. Some of the more important results include: $\bullet$ The weak ideal property implies topological dimension zero. $\bullet$ For a separable C*-algebra~$A$, topological dimension zero is equivalent to ${\operatorname{RR}} ({\mathcal{O}}_2 \otimes A) = 0$, to $D \otimes A$ having the ideal property for some (or any) Kirchberg algebra~$D$, and to $A$ being residually hereditarily in the class of all C*-algebras $B$ such that ${\mathcal{O}}_{\infty} \otimes B$ contains a nonzero projection. $\bullet$ Extending the known result for ${\mathbb{Z}}_2$, the classes of C*-algebras with residual (SP), which are residually hereditarily (properly) infinite, or which are purely infinite and have the ideal property, are closed under crossed products by arbitrary actions of abelian $2$-groups. $\bullet$ If $A$ and $B$ are separable, one of them is exact, $A$ has the ideal property, and $B$ has the weak ideal property, then $A \otimes_{\mathrm{min}} B$ has the weak ideal property. $\bullet$ If $X$ is a totally disconnected locally compact Hausdorff space and $A$ is a $C_0 (X)$-algebra all of whose fibers have one of the weak ideal property, topological dimension zero, residual (SP), or the combination of pure infiniteness and the ideal property, then $A$ also has the corresponding property (for topological dimension zero, provided $A$ is separable). $\bullet$ Topological dimension zero, the weak ideal property, and the ideal property are all equivalent for a substantial class of separable C*-algebras including all separable locally AH~algebras. $\bullet$ The weak ideal property does not imply the ideal property for separable $Z$-stable C*-algebras. We give other related results, as well as counterexamples to several other statements one might hope for.

Keywords:ideal property, weak ideal property, topological dimension zero, $C_0 (X)$-algebra, purely infinite C*-algebra
Category:46L05

4. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 625)

Giambruno, Antonio; Mattina, Daniela La; Zaicev, Mikhail
Classifying the Minimal Varieties of Polynomial Growth
Let $\mathcal{V}$ be a variety of associative algebras generated by an algebra with $1$ over a field of characteristic zero. This paper is devoted to the classification of the varieties $\mathcal{V}$ which are minimal of polynomial growth (i.e., their sequence of codimensions growth like $n^k$ but any proper subvariety grows like $n^t$ with $t\lt k$). These varieties are the building blocks of general varieties of polynomial growth. It turns out that for $k\le 4$ there are only a finite number of varieties of polynomial growth $n^k$, but for each $k \gt 4$, the number of minimal varieties is at least $|F|$, the cardinality of the base field and we give a recipe of how to construct them.

Keywords:T-ideal, polynomial identity, codimension, polynomial growth,
Categories:16R10, 16P90

5. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 961)

Aholt, Chris; Sturmfels, Bernd; Thomas, Rekha
A Hilbert Scheme in Computer Vision
Multiview geometry is the study of two-dimensional images of three-dimensional scenes, a foundational subject in computer vision. We determine a universal Gröbner basis for the multiview ideal of $n$ generic cameras. As the cameras move, the multiview varieties vary in a family of dimension $11n-15$. This family is the distinguished component of a multigraded Hilbert scheme with a unique Borel-fixed point. We present a combinatorial study of ideals lying on that Hilbert scheme.

Keywords:multigraded Hilbert Scheme, computer vision, monomial ideal, Groebner basis, generic initial ideal
Categories:14N, 14Q, 68

6. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 381)

Ji, Kui ; Jiang, Chunlan
A Complete Classification of AI Algebras with the Ideal Property
Let $A$ be an AI algebra; that is, $A$ is the $\mbox{C}^{*}$-algebra inductive limit of a sequence $$ A_{1}\stackrel{\phi_{1,2}}{\longrightarrow}A_{2}\stackrel{\phi_{2,3}}{\longrightarrow}A_{3} \longrightarrow\cdots\longrightarrow A_{n}\longrightarrow\cdots, $$ where $A_{n}=\bigoplus_{i=1}^{k_n}M_{[n,i]}(C(X^{i}_n))$, $X^{i}_n$ are $[0,1]$, $k_n$, and $[n,i]$ are positive integers. Suppose that $A$ has the ideal property: each closed two-sided ideal of $A$ is generated by the projections inside the ideal, as a closed two-sided ideal. In this article, we give a complete classification of AI algebras with the ideal property.

Keywords:AI algebras, K-group, tracial state, ideal property, classification
Categories:46L35, 19K14, 46L05, 46L08

7. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 124)

Dijkstra, Jan J.; Mill, Jan van
Characterizing Complete Erd\H os Space
The space now known as {\em complete Erd\H os space\/} $\cerdos$ was introduced by Paul Erd\H os in 1940 as the closed subspace of the Hilbert space $\ell^2$ consisting of all vectors such that every coordinate is in the convergent sequence $\{0\}\cup\{1/n:n\in\N\}$. In a solution to a problem posed by Lex G. Oversteegen we present simple and useful topological characterizations of $\cerdos$. As an application we determine the class of factors of $\cerdos$. In another application we determine precisely which of the spaces that can be constructed in the Banach spaces $\ell^p$ according to the `Erd\H os method' are homeomorphic to $\cerdos$. A novel application states that if $I$ is a Polishable $F_\sigma$-ideal on $\omega$, then $I$ with the Polish topology is homeomorphic to either $\Z$, the Cantor set $2^\omega$, $\Z\times2^\omega$, or $\cerdos$. This last result answers a question that was asked by Stevo Todor{\v{c}}evi{\'c}.

Keywords:Complete Erd\H os space, Lelek fan, almost zero-dimensional, nowhere zero-dimensional, Polishable ideals, submeasures on $\omega$, $\R$-trees, line-free groups in Banach spaces
Categories:28C10, 46B20, 54F65

8. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 109)

Jayanthan, A. V.; Puthenpurakal, Tony J.; Verma, J. K.
On Fiber Cones of $\m$-Primary Ideals
Two formulas for the multiplicity of the fiber cone $F(I)=\bigoplus_{n=0}^{\infty} I^n/\m I^n$ of an $\m$-primary ideal of a $d$-dimensional Cohen--Macaulay local ring $(R,\m)$ are derived in terms of the mixed multiplicity $e_{d-1}(\m | I)$, the multiplicity $e(I)$, and superficial elements. As a consequence, the Cohen--Macaulay property of $F(I)$ when $I$ has minimal mixed multiplicity or almost minimal mixed multiplicity is characterized in terms of the reduction number of $I$ and lengths of certain ideals. We also characterize the Cohen--Macaulay and Gorenstein properties of fiber cones of $\m$-primary ideals with a $d$-generated minimal reduction $J$ satisfying $\ell(I^2/JI)=1$ or $\ell(I\m/J\m)=1.$

Keywords:fiber cones, mixed multiplicities, joint reductions, Cohen--Macaulay fiber cones, Gorenstein fiber cones, ideals having minimal and almost minimal mixed multiplicities
Categories:13H10, 13H15, 13A30, 13C15, 13A02

9. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 859)

Read, C. J.
Nonstandard Ideals from Nonstandard Dual Pairs for $L^1(\omega)$ and $l^1(\omega)$
The Banach convolution algebras $l^1(\omega)$ and their continuous counterparts $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$ are much studied, because (when the submultiplicative weight function $\omega$ is radical) they are pretty much the prototypic examples of commutative radical Banach algebras. In cases of ``nice'' weights $\omega$, the only closed ideals they have are the obvious, or ``standard'', ideals. But in the general case, a brilliant but very difficult paper of Marc Thomas shows that nonstandard ideals exist in $l^1(\omega)$. His proof was successfully exported to the continuous case $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$ by Dales and McClure, but remained difficult. In this paper we first present a small improvement: a new and easier proof of the existence of nonstandard ideals in $l^1(\omega)$ and $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$. The new proof is based on the idea of a ``nonstandard dual pair'' which we introduce. We are then able to make a much larger improvement: we find nonstandard ideals in $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$ containing functions whose supports extend all the way down to zero in $\bR^+$, thereby solving what has become a notorious problem in the area.

Keywords:Banach algebra, radical, ideal, standard ideal, semigroup
Categories:46J45, 46J20, 47A15

10. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1178)

Cutkosky, Steven Dale; Hà, Huy Tài; Srinivasan, Hema; Theodorescu, Emanoil
Asymptotic Behavior of the Length of Local Cohomology
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic 0, $R=k[x_1, \ldots, x_d]$ be a polynomial ring, and $\mm$ its maximal homogeneous ideal. Let $I \subset R$ be a homogeneous ideal in $R$. Let $\lambda(M)$ denote the length of an $R$-module $M$. In this paper, we show that $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{\l\bigl(H^0_{\mathfrak{m}}(R/I^n)\bigr)}{n^d} =\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{\l\bigl(\Ext^d_R\bigl(R/I^n,R(-d)\bigr)\bigr)}{n^d} $$ always exists. This limit has been shown to be ${e(I)}/{d!}$ for $m$-primary ideals $I$ in a local Cohen--Macaulay ring, where $e(I)$ denotes the multiplicity of $I$. But we find that this limit may not be rational in general. We give an example for which the limit is an irrational number thereby showing that the lengths of these extention modules may not have polynomial growth.

Keywords:powers of ideals, local cohomology, Hilbert function, linear growth
Categories:13D40, 14B15, 13D45

11. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 897)

Berezhnoĭ, Evgenii I.; Maligranda, Lech
Representation of Banach Ideal Spaces and Factorization of Operators
Representation theorems are proved for Banach ideal spaces with the Fatou property which are built by the Calder{\'o}n--Lozanovski\u\i\ construction. Factorization theorems for operators in spaces more general than the Lebesgue $L^{p}$ spaces are investigated. It is natural to extend the Gagliardo theorem on the Schur test and the Rubio de~Francia theorem on factorization of the Muckenhoupt $A_{p}$ weights to reflexive Orlicz spaces. However, it turns out that for the scales far from $L^{p}$-spaces this is impossible. For the concrete integral operators it is shown that factorization theorems and the Schur test in some reflexive Orlicz spaces are not valid. Representation theorems for the Calder{\'o}n--Lozanovski\u\i\ construction are involved in the proofs.

Keywords:Banach ideal spaces, weighted spaces, weight functions,, Calderón--Lozanovski\u\i\ spaces, Orlicz spaces, representation of, spaces, uniqueness problem, positive linear operators, positive sublinear, operators, Schur test, factorization of operators, f
Categories:46E30, 46B42, 46B70

12. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 225)

Blower, Gordon; Ransford, Thomas
Complex Uniform Convexity and Riesz Measure
The norm on a Banach space gives rise to a subharmonic function on the complex plane for which the distributional Laplacian gives a Riesz measure. This measure is calculated explicitly here for Lebesgue $L^p$ spaces and the von~Neumann-Schatten trace ideals. Banach spaces that are $q$-uniformly $\PL$-convex in the sense of Davis, Garling and Tomczak-Jaegermann are characterized in terms of the mass distribution of this measure. This gives a new proof that the trace ideals $c^p$ are $2$-uniformly $\PL$-convex for $1\leq p\leq 2$.

Keywords:subharmonic functions, Banach spaces, Schatten trace ideals
Categories:46B20, 46L52

13. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 3)

Amini, Massoud
Locally Compact Pro-$C^*$-Algebras
Let $X$ be a locally compact non-compact Hausdorff topological space. Consider the algebras $C(X)$, $C_b(X)$, $C_0(X)$, and $C_{00}(X)$ of respectively arbitrary, bounded, vanishing at infinity, and compactly supported continuous functions on $X$. Of these, the second and third are $C^*$-algebras, the fourth is a normed algebra, whereas the first is only a topological algebra (it is indeed a pro-$C^\ast$-algebra). The interesting fact about these algebras is that if one of them is given, the others can be obtained using functional analysis tools. For instance, given the $C^\ast$-algebra $C_0(X)$, one can get the other three algebras by $C_{00}(X)=K\bigl(C_0(X)\bigr)$, $C_b(X)=M\bigl(C_0(X)\bigr)$, $C(X)=\Gamma\bigl( K(C_0(X))\bigr)$, where the right hand sides are the Pedersen ideal, the multiplier algebra, and the unbounded multiplier algebra of the Pedersen ideal of $C_0(X)$, respectively. In this article we consider the possibility of these transitions for general $C^\ast$-algebras. The difficult part is to start with a pro-$C^\ast$-algebra $A$ and to construct a $C^\ast$-algebra $A_0$ such that $A=\Gamma\bigl(K(A_0)\bigr)$. The pro-$C^\ast$-algebras for which this is possible are called {\it locally compact\/} and we have characterized them using a concept similar to that of an approximate identity.

Keywords:pro-$C^\ast$-algebras, projective limit, multipliers of Pedersen's ideal
Categories:46L05, 46M40

14. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 1221)

Hopenwasser, Alan; Peters, Justin R.; Power, Stephen C.
Nest Representations of TAF Algebras
A nest representation of a strongly maximal TAF algebra $A$ with diagonal $D$ is a representation $\pi$ for which $\lat \pi(A)$ is totally ordered. We prove that $\ker \pi$ is a meet irreducible ideal if the spectrum of $A$ is totally ordered or if (after an appropriate similarity) the von Neumann algebra $\pi(D)''$ contains an atom.

Keywords:nest representation, meet irreducible ideal, strongly maximal TAF algebra
Categories:47L40, 47L35

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