1. CJM 2016 (vol 69 pp. 687)
 Ovchinnikov, Alexey; Wibmer, Michael

Tannakian Categories with Semigroup Actions
Ostrowski's theorem implies that $\log(x),\log(x+1),\dots$ are
algebraically independent over $\mathbb{C}(x)$. More generally, for
a linear differential or difference equation, it is an important
problem to find all algebraic dependencies among a nonzero solution
$y$ and particular transformations of $y$, such as derivatives
of $y$ with respect to parameters, shifts of the arguments, rescaling,
etc. In the present paper, we develop a theory of Tannakian categories
with semigroup actions, which will be used to attack such questions
in full generality, as each linear differential equation gives
rise to a Tannakian category.
Deligne studied actions of braid groups on categories and obtained
a finite collection of axioms that characterizes such actions
to apply it to various geometric constructions. In this paper,
we find a finite set of axioms that characterizes actions of
semigroups that are finite free products of semigroups of the
form $\mathbb{N}^n\times
\mathbb{Z}/{n_1}\mathbb{Z}\times\cdots\times\mathbb{Z}/{n_r}\mathbb{Z}$
on Tannakian categories. This is the class of semigroups that
appear in many applications.
Keywords:semigroup actions on categories, Tannakian categories, difference algebraic groups, differential and difference equations with parameters Categories:18D10, 12H10, 20G05, 33C05, 33C80, 34K06 

2. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 1362)
 Papikian, Mihran; Rabinoff, Joseph

Optimal Quotients of Jacobians with Toric Reduction and Component Groups
Let $J$ be a Jacobian variety with toric reduction
over a local field $K$.
Let $J \to E$ be an optimal quotient defined over $K$, where
$E$ is an elliptic curve.
We give examples in which the functorially induced map $\Phi_J
\to \Phi_E$
on component groups of the NÃ©ron models is not surjective.
This answers a question of Ribet and Takahashi.
We also give various criteria under which $\Phi_J \to \Phi_E$
is surjective, and discuss
when these criteria hold for the Jacobians of modular curves.
Keywords:Jacobians with toric reduction, component groups, modular curves Categories:11G18, 14G22, 14G20 

3. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 481)
 Bacher, Roland; Reutenauer, Christophe

Number of Right Ideals and a $q$analogue of Indecomposable Permutations
We prove that the number of right ideals of codimension $n$ in
the algebra of noncommutative Laurent polynomials in two variables over the finite field $\mathbb F_q$ is equal to
$(q1)^{n+1} q^{\frac{(n+1)(n2)}{2}}\sum_\theta q^{inv(\theta)}$,
where the
sum is over all indecomposable permutations in $S_{n+1}$ and
where $inv(\theta)$
stands for the number of inversions of $\theta$.
Keywords:permutation, indecomposable permutation, subgroups of free groups Categories:05A15, 05A19 

4. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 395)
 Garibaldi, Skip; Nakano, Daniel K.

Bilinear and Quadratic Forms on Rational Modules of Split Reductive Groups
The representation theory of semisimple algebraic groups over
the complex numbers (equivalently, semisimple complex Lie algebras
or Lie groups, or real compact Lie groups) and the question of
whether a
given complex representation is symplectic or orthogonal has
been solved since at least the 1950s. Similar results for Weyl
modules of split reductive groups over fields of characteristic
different from 2 hold by
using similar proofs. This paper considers analogues of these
results for simple, induced and tilting modules of split reductive
groups over fields of prime characteristic as well as a complete
answer for Weyl modules over fields of characteristic 2.
Keywords:orthogonal representations, symmetric tensors, alternating forms, characteristic 2, split reductive groups Categories:20G05, 11E39, 11E88, 15A63, 20G15 

5. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 655)
 Klartag, Bo'az; Kozma, Gady; Ralli, Peter; Tetali, Prasad

Discrete Curvature and Abelian Groups
We study a natural discrete Bochnertype inequality on graphs,
and explore its merit as a notion of ``curvature'' in discrete
spaces.
An appealing feature of this discrete version of the socalled
$\Gamma_2$calculus (of BakryÃmery) seems to be that it is
fairly
straightforward to compute this notion of curvature parameter
for
several specific graphs of interest  particularly, abelian
groups, slices of the hypercube, and the symmetric group under
various sets of generators.
We further develop this notion by deriving Busertype inequalities
(Ã la Ledoux), relating functional and isoperimetric constants
associated with a graph.
Our derivations provide a tight bound on the Cheeger constant
(i.e., the edgeisoperimetric constant) in terms of
the spectral gap, for graphs with nonnegative curvature, particularly,
the class of abelian Cayley graphs  a result of independent
interest.
Keywords:Ricci curvature, graph theory, abelian groups Categories:53C21, 57M15 

6. CJM 2015 (vol 68 pp. 179)
 Takeda, Shuichiro

Metaplectic Tensor Products for Automorphic Representation of $\widetilde{GL}(r)$
Let $M=\operatorname{GL}_{r_1}\times\cdots\times\operatorname{GL}_{r_k}\subseteq\operatorname{GL}_r$ be a Levi
subgroup of $\operatorname{GL}_r$, where $r=r_1+\cdots+r_k$, and $\widetilde{M}$ its metaplectic preimage
in the $n$fold metaplectic cover $\widetilde{\operatorname{GL}}_r$ of $\operatorname{GL}_r$. For automorphic
representations $\pi_1,\dots,\pi_k$ of $\widetilde{\operatorname{GL}}_{r_1}(\mathbb{A}),\dots,\widetilde{\operatorname{GL}}_{r_k}(\mathbb{A})$,
we construct (under a certain
technical assumption, which is always satisfied when $n=2$) an
automorphic representation $\pi$
of $\widetilde{M}(\mathbb{A})$ which can be considered as the ``tensor product'' of the
representations $\pi_1,\dots,\pi_k$. This is
the global analogue of the metaplectic tensor product
defined by P. Mezo in the sense that locally at each place $v$,
$\pi_v$ is equivalent to the local metaplectic tensor product of
$\pi_{1,v},\dots,\pi_{k,v}$ defined by Mezo. Then we show that if all
of $\pi_i$ are cuspidal (resp. squareintegrable modulo center), then
the metaplectic tensor product is cuspidal (resp. squareintegrable
modulo center). We also show that (both
locally and globally) the metaplectic tensor product behaves in the
expected way under the action of a Weyl group element, and show the
compatibility with parabolic inductions.
Keywords:automorphic forms, representations of covering groups Category:11F70 

7. CJM 2015 (vol 68 pp. 334)
 Demchenko, Oleg; Gurevich, Alexander

Kernels in the Category of Formal Group Laws
Fontaine described the category of formal groups over the ring
of Witt vectors over a finite field
of characteristic $p$ with the aid of triples consisting of the
module of logarithms,
the DieudonnÃ© module and the morphism from the former to the
latter. We propose
an explicit construction for the kernels in this category in
term of Fontaine's triples.
The construction is applied to the formal norm homomorphism in
the case of an unramified extension
of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and of a totally ramified extension of degree less
or equal than $p$. A similar
consideration applied to a global extension allows us to establish
the existence of a strict
isomorphism between the formal norm torus and a formal group
law coming from $L$series.
Keywords:formal groups, $p$divisible groups, Dieudonne modules, norm tori Category:14L05 

8. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 315)
 Bellaïche, Joël

Unitary Eigenvarieties at Isobaric Points
In this article we
study the geometry of the eigenvarieties of unitary groups at points
corresponding to tempered nonstable representations with an
antiordinary (a.k.a evil) refinement. We prove that, except in the
case the Galois representation attached to the automorphic form is a
sum of characters, the eigenvariety is nonsmooth at such a point,
and that (under some additional hypotheses) its tangent space is big
enough to account for all the relevant Selmer group. We also study the
local reducibility locus
at those points, proving that in general, in contrast with the case of
the eigencurve, it is a proper subscheme of the fiber of the
eigenvariety over the weight space.
Keywords:eigenvarieties, Galois representations, Selmer groups 

9. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 369)
 Graham, Robert; Pichot, Mikael

A Free Product Formula for the Sofic Dimension
It is proved that if $G=G_1*_{G_3}G_2$ is free product of probability
measure preserving $s$regular ergodic discrete groupoids amalgamated
over an amenable subgroupoid $G_3$, then the sofic dimension $s(G)$
satisfies the equality
\[
s(G)=\mathfrak{h}(G_1^0)s(G_1)+\mathfrak{h}(G_2^0)s(G_2)\mathfrak{h}(G_3^0)s(G_3)
\]
where $\mathfrak{h}$ is the normalized Haar measure on $G$.
Keywords:sofic groups, dynamical systems, orbit equivalence, free entropy Category:20E06 

10. CJM 2014 (vol 66 pp. 993)
 BeuzartPlessis, Raphaël

Expression d'un facteur epsilon de paire par une formule intÃ©grale
Let $E/F$ be a quadratic extension of $p$adic fields and
let $d$, $m$ be nonnegative integers of distinct parities. Fix
admissible irreducible tempered representations $\pi$ and $\sigma$ of
$GL_d(E)$ and $GL_m(E)$ respectively. We assume that $\pi$ and
$\sigma$ are conjugatedual. That is to say $\pi\simeq \pi^{\vee,c}$
and $\sigma\simeq \sigma^{\vee,c}$ where $c$ is the non trivial
$F$automorphism of $E$. This implies, we can extend $\pi$ to an
unitary representation $\tilde{\pi}$ of a nonconnected group
$GL_d(E)\rtimes \{1,\theta\}$. Define $\tilde{\sigma}$ the same
way. We state and prove an integral formula for
$\epsilon(1/2,\pi\times \sigma,\psi_E)$ involving the characters of
$\tilde{\pi}$ and $\tilde{\sigma}$. This formula is related to the
local GanGrossPrasad conjecture for unitary groups.
Keywords:epsilon factor, twisted groups Categories:22E50, 11F85 

11. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 795)
 Di Nasso, Mauro; Goldbring, Isaac; Jin, Renling; Leth, Steven; Lupini, Martino; Mahlburg, Karl

On a Sumset Conjecture of ErdÅs
ErdÅs conjectured that for any set $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$
with positive
lower asymptotic density, there are infinite sets $B,C\subseteq
\mathbb{N}$
such that $B+C\subseteq A$. We verify ErdÅs' conjecture in
the case that $A$ has Banach density exceeding $\frac{1}{2}$.
As a consequence, we prove that, for $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$
with
positive Banach density (a much weaker assumption than positive
lower density), we can find infinite $B,C\subseteq \mathbb{N}$
such
that $B+C$ is contained in the union of $A$ and a translate of
$A$. Both of the aforementioned
results are generalized to arbitrary countable
amenable groups. We also provide a positive solution to ErdÅs'
conjecture for subsets of the natural numbers that are pseudorandom.
Keywords:sumsets of integers, asymptotic density, amenable groups, nonstandard analysis Categories:11B05, 11B13, 11P70, 28D15, 37A45 

12. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 184)
 McReynolds, D. B.

Geometric Spectra and Commensurability
The work of Reid, ChinburgHamiltonLongReid,
PrasadRapinchuk, and the author with Reid have demonstrated that
geodesics or totally geodesic submanifolds can sometimes be used to
determine the commensurability class of an arithmetic manifold. The
main results of this article show that generalizations of these
results to other arithmetic manifolds will require a wide range of
data. Specifically, we prove that certain incommensurable arithmetic
manifolds arising from the semisimple Lie groups of the form
$(\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{R}))^r \times
(\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{C}))^s$ have the same commensurability
classes of totally geodesic submanifolds coming from a fixed
field. This construction is algebraic and shows the failure of
determining, in general, a central simple algebra from subalgebras
over a fixed field. This, in turn, can be viewed in terms of forms of
$\operatorname{SL}_d$ and the failure of determining the form via certain classes of
algebraic subgroups.
Keywords:arithmetic groups, Brauer groups, arithmetic equivalence, locally symmetric manifolds Category:20G25 

13. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 1250)
 Feigin, Evgeny; Finkelberg, Michael; Littelmann, Peter

Symplectic Degenerate Flag Varieties
A simple finite dimensional module $V_\lambda$ of a simple complex
algebraic group $G$ is naturally endowed with a filtration induced by the PBWfiltration
of $U(\mathrm{Lie}\, G)$. The associated graded space $V_\lambda^a$ is a module
for the group $G^a$, which can be roughly described as a semidirect product of a
Borel subgroup of $G$ and a large commutative unipotent group $\mathbb{G}_a^M$. In analogy
to the flag variety $\mathcal{F}_\lambda=G.[v_\lambda]\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda)$,
we call the closure
$\overline{G^a.[v_\lambda]}\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda^a)$
of the $G^a$orbit through the highest weight line the degenerate flag variety $\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$.
In general this is a
singular variety, but we conjecture that it has many nice properties similar to
that of Schubert varieties. In this paper we consider the case of $G$ being the symplectic group.
The symplectic case is important for the conjecture
because it is the first known case where even for fundamental weights $\omega$ the varieties
$\mathcal{F}^a_\omega$ differ from $\mathcal{F}_\omega$. We give an explicit
construction of the varieties $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$ and construct desingularizations,
similar to the BottSamelson resolutions in the classical case. We prove that $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$
are normal locally complete intersections with terminal and rational singularities.
We also show that these varieties are Frobenius split. Using the above mentioned results, we
prove an analogue of the BorelWeil theorem and obtain a $q$character formula
for the characters of irreducible $Sp_{2n}$modules via the AtiyahBottLefschetz fixed
points formula.
Keywords:Lie algebras, flag varieties, symplectic groups, representations Categories:14M15, 22E46 

14. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 1287)
 Henniart, Guy; Sécherre, Vincent

Types et contragrÃ©dientes
Soit $\mathrm{G}$ un groupe rÃ©ductif $p$adique, et soit $\mathrm{R}$
un corps algÃ©briquement clos.
Soit $\pi$ une reprÃ©sentation lisse de $\mathrm{G}$ dans un espace
vectoriel $\mathrm{V}$ sur
$\mathrm{R}$.
Fixons un sousgroupe ouvert et compact $\mathrm{K}$ de $\mathrm{G}$ et une reprÃ©sentation
lisse irrÃ©ductible $\tau$ de $\mathrm{K}$ dans un espace vectoriel
$\mathrm{W}$ de dimension
finie sur $\mathrm{R}$.
Sur l'espace $\mathrm{Hom}_{\mathrm{K}(\mathrm{W},\mathrm{V})}$ agit l'algÃ¨bre
d'entrelacement $\mathscr{H}(\mathrm{G},\mathrm{K},\mathrm{W})$.
Nous examinons la compatibilitÃ© de ces constructions avec le passage aux
reprÃ©sentations contragrÃ©dientes $\mathrm{V}^Äe$ et $\mathrm{W}^Äe$, et donnons en
particulier des conditions sur $\mathrm{W}$ ou sur la caractÃ©ristique
de $\mathrm{R}$ pour que
le comportement soit semblable au cas des reprÃ©sentations complexes.
Nous prenons un point de vue abstrait, n'utilisant que des propriÃ©tÃ©s
gÃ©nÃ©rales de $\mathrm{G}$.
Nous terminons par une application Ã la thÃ©orie des types pour le groupe
$\mathrm{GL}_n$ et ses formes intÃ©rieures sur un corps local non archimÃ©dien.
Keywords:modular representations of padic reductive groups, types, contragredient, intertwining Category:22E50 

15. CJM 2013 (vol 67 pp. 450)
 Santoprete, Manuele; Scheurle, Jürgen; Walcher, Sebastian

Motion in a Symmetric Potential on the Hyperbolic Plane
We study the motion of a particle in the hyperbolic plane (embedded in Minkowski space), under the action of a potential that depends only on one variable. This problem is the analogous to the spherical pendulum in a unidirectional force field. However, for the discussion of the hyperbolic plane one has to distinguish three inequivalent cases, depending on the direction of the force field. Symmetry reduction, with respect to groups that are not necessarily compact or even reductive, is carried out by way of Poisson varieties and Hilbert maps. For each case the dynamics is discussed, with special attention to linear potentials.
Keywords:Hamiltonian systems with symmetry, symmetries, noncompact symmetry groups, singular reduction Categories:37J15, 70H33, 70F99, 37C80, 34C14, , 20G20 

16. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 241)
 Broussous, P.

Transfert du pseudocoefficient de Kottwitz et formules de caractÃ¨re pour la sÃ©rie discrÃ¨te de $\mathrm{GL}(N)$ sur un corps local
Soit $G$ le groupe $\mathrm{GL}(N,F)$, oÃ¹ $F$ est un corps
localement compact et non archimÃ©dien.
En utilisant la thÃ©orie des types simples de Bushnell et Kutzko,
ainsi qu'une idÃ©e originale d'Henniart, nous construisons des pseudocoefficients
explicites pour les reprÃ©sentations de la sÃ©rie discrÃ¨te de $G$.
Comme application, nous en dÃ©duisons des formules
inÃ©dites pour la valeur du charactÃ¨re d'HarishChandra de certaines
telles reprÃ©sentations en certains Ã©lÃ©ments elliptiques
rÃ©guliers.
Keywords:reductive padic groups , discrete series, HarishChandra character, pseudocoefficient Category:22E50 

17. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 82)
 Félix, Yves; Halperin, Steve; Thomas, JeanClaude

The Ranks of the Homotopy Groups of a Finite Dimensional Complex
Let $X$ be an
$n$dimensional, finite, simply connected CW complex and set
$\alpha_X =\limsup_i \frac{\log\mbox{ rank}\, \pi_i(X)}{i}$. When
$0\lt \alpha_X\lt \infty$, we give upper and lower bound for $
\sum_{i=k+2}^{k+n} \textrm{rank}\, \pi_i(X) $ for $k$ sufficiently
large. We show also for any $r$ that $\alpha_X$ can be estimated
from the integers rk$\,\pi_i(X)$, $i\leq nr$ with an error bound
depending explicitly on $r$.
Keywords:homotopy groups, graded Lie algebra, exponential growth, LS category Categories:55P35, 55P62, , , , 17B70 

18. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1043)
 Hu, Zhiguo; Neufang, Matthias; Ruan, ZhongJin

Convolution of Trace Class Operators over Locally Compact Quantum Groups
We study locally compact quantum groups $\mathbb{G}$ through the
convolution algebras $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})),
\triangleright)$. We prove that the reduced quantum group
$C^*$algebra $C_0(\mathbb{G})$ can be recovered from the convolution
$\triangleright$ by showing that the right $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$module
$\langle K(L_2(\mathbb{G}) \triangleright T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ is
equal to $C_0(\mathbb{G})$. On the other hand, we show that the left
$T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$module $\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright
K(L_2(\mathbb{G})\rangle$ is isomorphic to the reduced crossed product
$C_0(\widehat{\mathbb{G}}) \,_r\!\ltimes C_0(\mathbb{G})$, and hence is
a much larger $C^*$subalgebra of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$.
We establish a natural isomorphism between the completely bounded
right multiplier algebras of $L_1(\mathbb{G})$ and
$(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})), \triangleright)$, and settle two invariance
problems associated with the representation theorem of
JungeNeufangRuan (2009). We characterize regularity and discreteness
of the quantum group $\mathbb{G}$ in terms of continuity properties of
the convolution $\triangleright$ on $T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We prove
that if $\mathbb{G}$ is semiregular, then the space
$\langle T(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\triangleright B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))\rangle$ of right
$\mathbb{G}$continuous operators on $L_2(\mathbb{G})$, which was
introduced by Bekka (1990) for $L_{\infty}(G)$, is a unital $C^*$subalgebra
of $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. In the representation framework formulated by
NeufangRuanSpronk (2008) and JungeNeufangRuan, we show that the
dual properties of compactness and discreteness can be characterized
simultaneously via automatic normality of quantum group bimodule maps
on $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$. We also characterize some commutation
relations of completely bounded multipliers of $(T(L_2(\mathbb{G})),
\triangleright)$ over $B(L_2(\mathbb{G}))$.
Keywords:locally compact quantum groups and associated Banach algebras Categories:22D15, 43A30, 46H05 

19. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 66)
 Deng, Shaoqiang; Hu, Zhiguang

On Flag Curvature of Homogeneous Randers Spaces
In this paper we give an explicit formula for the flag curvature of
homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type and apply this formula to
obtain some interesting results. We first deduce an explicit formula
for the flag curvature of an arbitrary left invariant Randers metric
on a twostep nilpotent Lie group. Then we obtain a classification of
negatively curved homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type. This
results, in particular, in many examples of homogeneous nonRiemannian
Finsler spaces with negative flag curvature. Finally, we prove a
rigidity result that a homogeneous Randers space of Berwald type whose
flag curvature is everywhere nonzero must be Riemannian.
Keywords:homogeneous Randers manifolds, flag curvature, Douglas spaces, twostep nilpotent Lie groups Categories:22E46, 53C30 

20. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1075)
 Raja, Chandiraraj Robinson Edward

A Stochastic Difference Equation with Stationary Noise on Groups
We consider the stochastic difference equation $$\eta _k = \xi _k
\phi (\eta _{k1}), \quad k \in \mathbb Z $$ on a locally compact group $G$
where $\phi$ is an automorphism of $G$, $\xi _k$ are given $G$valued
random variables and $\eta _k$ are unknown $G$valued random variables.
This equation was considered by Tsirelson and Yor on
onedimensional torus. We consider the case when $\xi _k$ have a
common law $\mu$ and prove that if $G$ is a distal group and $\phi$
is a distal automorphism of $G$ and if the equation has a solution,
then extremal solutions of the equation are in oneone
correspondence with points on the coset space $K\backslash G$ for
some compact subgroup $K$ of $G$ such that $\mu$ is supported on
$Kz= z\phi (K)$ for any $z$ in the support of $\mu$. We also provide
a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of solutions
to the equation.
Keywords:dissipating, distal automorphisms, probability measures, pointwise distal groups, shifted convolution powers Categories:60B15, 60G20 

21. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 588)
22. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 481)
 Chamorro, Diego

Some Functional Inequalities on Polynomial Volume Growth Lie Groups
In this article we study some Sobolevtype inequalities on polynomial volume growth Lie groups.
We show in particular that improved Sobolev inequalities can be extended to this general framework
without the use of the LittlewoodPaley decomposition.
Keywords:Sobolev inequalities, polynomial volume growth Lie groups Category:22E30 

23. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1058)
 Easton, Robert W.

$S_3$covers of Schemes
We analyze flat $S_3$covers of schemes, attempting to create
structures parallel to those found in the abelian and triple cover
theories. We use an initial local analysis as a guide in finding a
global description.
Keywords:nonabelian groups, permutation group, group covers, schemes Category:14L30 

24. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 481)
 Baragar, Arthur

The Ample Cone for a K3 Surface
In this paper, we give several pictorial fractal
representations of the ample or KÃ¤hler cone for surfaces in a
certain class of $K3$ surfaces. The class includes surfaces
described by smooth $(2,2,2)$ forms in ${\mathbb P^1\times\mathbb P^1\times \mathbb P^1}$ defined over a
sufficiently large number field $K$ that have a line parallel to
one of the axes and have Picard number four. We relate the
Hausdorff dimension of this fractal to the asymptotic growth of
orbits of curves under the action of the surface's group of
automorphisms. We experimentally estimate the Hausdorff dimension
of the fractal to be $1.296 \pm .010$.
Keywords:Fractal, Hausdorff dimension, K3 surface, Kleinian groups, dynamics Categories:14J28, , , , 14J50, 11D41, 11D72, 11H56, 11G10, 37F35, 37D05 

25. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1116)
 Jin, Yongyang; Zhang, Genkai

Degenerate pLaplacian Operators and Hardy Type Inequalities on
HType Groups
Let $\mathbb G$ be a steptwo nilpotent group of Htype with Lie algebra $\mathfrak G=V\oplus \mathfrak t$. We define a class of vector fields $X=\{X_j\}$ on $\mathbb G$ depending on a real parameter $k\ge 1$, and we consider the corresponding $p$Laplacian operator $L_{p,k} u= \operatorname{div}_X (\nabla_{X} u^{p2} \nabla_X u)$. For $k=1$ the vector fields $X=\{X_j\}$ are the left invariant vector fields corresponding to an orthonormal basis of $V$; for $\mathbb G$ being the Heisenberg group the vector fields are the Greiner fields. In this paper we obtain the fundamental solution for the operator $L_{p,k}$ and as an application, we get a Hardy type inequality associated with $X$.
Keywords:fundamental solutions, degenerate Laplacians, Hardy inequality, Htype groups Categories:35H30, 26D10, 22E25 
