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1. CJM 2016 (vol 69 pp. 258)

Brandes, Julia; Parsell, Scott T.
 Simultaneous Additive Equations: Repeated and Differing Degrees We obtain bounds for the number of variables required to establish Hasse principles, both for existence of solutions and for asymptotic formulÃ¦, for systems of additive equations containing forms of differing degree but also multiple forms of like degree. Apart from the very general estimates of Schmidt and Browning--Heath-Brown, which give weak results when specialized to the diagonal situation, this is the first result on such "hybrid" systems. We also obtain specialised results for systems of quadratic and cubic forms, where we are able to take advantage of some of the stronger methods available in that setting. In particular, we achieve essentially square root cancellation for systems consisting of one cubic and $r$ quadratic equations. Keywords:equations in many variables, counting solutions of Diophantine equations, applications of the Hardy-Littlewood methodCategories:11D72, 11D45, 11P55

2. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1201)

Aistleitner, Christoph; Elsholtz, Christian
 The Central Limit Theorem for Subsequences in Probabilistic Number Theory Let $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ be an increasing sequence of positive integers, and let $f(x)$ be a real function satisfying $$\tag{1} f(x+1)=f(x), \qquad \int_0^1 f(x) ~dx=0,\qquad \operatorname{Var_{[0,1]}} f \lt \infty.$$ If $\lim_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = \infty$ the distribution of $$\tag{2} \frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(n_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}$$ converges to a Gaussian distribution. In the case $$1 \lt \liminf_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k}, \qquad \limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \lt \infty$$ there is a complex interplay between the analytic properties of the function $f$, the number-theoretic properties of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$, and the limit distribution of (2). In this paper we prove that any sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = 1$ contains a nontrivial subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ such that for any function satisfying (1) the distribution of $$\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(m_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}$$ converges to a Gaussian distribution. This result is best possible: for any $\varepsilon\gt 0$ there exists a sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \leq 1 + \varepsilon$ such that for every nontrivial subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the distribution of (2) does not converge to a Gaussian distribution for some $f$. Our result can be viewed as a Ramsey type result: a sufficiently dense increasing integer sequence contains a subsequence having a certain requested number-theoretic property. Keywords:central limit theorem, lacunary sequences, linear Diophantine equations, Ramsey type theoremCategories:60F05, 42A55, 11D04, 05C55, 11K06

3. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 282)

Dahmen, Sander R.; Yazdani, Soroosh
 Level Lowering Modulo Prime Powers and Twisted Fermat Equations We discuss a clean level lowering theorem modulo prime powers for weight $2$ cusp forms. Furthermore, we illustrate how this can be used to completely solve certain twisted Fermat equations $ax^n+by^n+cz^n=0$. Keywords:modular forms, level lowering, Diophantine equationsCategories:11D41, 11F33, 11F11, 11F80, 11G05

4. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 38)

Brüdern, Jörg; Wooley, Trevor D.
 Asymptotic Formulae for Pairs of Diagonal Cubic Equations We investigate the number of integral solutions possessed by a pair of diagonal cubic equations in a large box. Provided that the number of variables in the system is at least fourteen, and in addition the number of variables in any non-trivial linear combination of the underlying forms is at least eight, we obtain an asymptotic formula for the number of integral solutions consistent with the product of local densities associated with the system. Keywords:exponential sums, Diophantine equationsCategories:11D72, 11P55

5. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 491)

Bugeaud, Yann; Mignotte, Maurice; Siksek, Samir
 A Multi-Frey Approach to Some Multi-Parameter Families of Diophantine Equations We solve several multi-parameter families of binomial Thue equations of arbitrary degree; for example, we solve the equation $5^u x^n-2^r 3^s y^n= \pm 1,$ in non-zero integers $x$, $y$ and positive integers $u$, $r$, $s$ and $n \geq 3$. Our approach uses several Frey curves simultaneously, Galois representations and level-lowering, new lower bounds for linear forms in $3$ logarithms due to Mignotte and a famous theorem of Bennett on binomial Thue equations. Keywords:Diophantine equations, Frey curves, level-lowering, linear forms in logarithms, Thue equationCategories:11F80, 11D61, 11D59, 11J86, 11Y50

6. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 711)

Broughan, Kevin A.
 Adic Topologies for the Rational Integers A topology on $\mathbb{Z}$, which gives a nice proof that the set of prime integers is infinite, is characterised and examined. It is found to be homeomorphic to $\mathbb{Q}$, with a compact completion homeomorphic to the Cantor set. It has a natural place in a family of topologies on $\mathbb{Z}$, which includes the $p$-adics, and one in which the set of rational primes $\mathbb{P}$ is dense. Examples from number theory are given, including the primes and squares, Fermat numbers, Fibonacci numbers and $k$-free numbers. Keywords:$p$-adic, metrizable, quasi-valuation, topological ring,, completion, inverse limit, diophantine equation, prime integers,, Fermat numbers, Fibonacci numbersCategories:11B05, 11B25, 11B50, 13J10, 13B35
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