Canadian Mathematical Society
Canadian Mathematical Society


Please send your solution to

Edward J. Barbeau
Department of Mathematics
University of Toronto
Toronto, ON M5S 3G3
no later than September 30, 2003. It is important that your complete mailing address and your email address appear on the front page.

[Since the original statement of this problem in May was incorrect and not everyone picked up the correction, it is reposed.] Let n be an integer exceeding 2 and let a0, a1, a2, , an, an+1 be positive real numbers for which a0 = an, a1 = an+1 and
ai-1 + ai+1 = ki ai
for some positive integers ki, where 1 i n.
Prove that
2n k1 + k2 + + kn 3n .

[Corrected.] Determine
sec40 + sec80 + sec160 .

Find all real solutions to the equation

x + 3 - 4

x - 1

x + 8 - 6

x - 1
= 1 .

The non-isosceles right triangle ABC has CAB = 90. Its inscribed circle with centre T touches the sides AB and AC at U and V respectively. The tangent through A of the circumscribed circle of triangle ABC meets UV in S. Prove that:

(a) ST || BC;

(b) |d1 - d2 | = r , where r is the radius of the inscribed circle, and d1 and d2 are the respective distances from S to AC and AB.

In a convex polygon \frakP, some diagonals have been drawn so that no two have an intersection in the interior of \frakP. Show that there exists at least two vertices of \frak P, neither of which is an enpoint of any of these diagonals.

Prove that there are infinitely many positive integers n for which the numbers { 1, 2, 3, , 3n } can be arranged in a rectangular array with three rows and n columns for which (a) each row has the same sum, a multiple of 6, and (b) each column has the same sum, a multiple of 6.

Suppose that a and b are the roots of the quadratic x2 + px + 1 and that c and d are the roots of the quadratic x2 + qx + 1. Determine (a - c)(b - c)(a + d)(b + d) as a function of p and q.

Let n be a positive integer and let q = p/(2n+1). Prove that cot2 q, cot2 2q, , cot2 nq are the solutions of the equation

2n + 1

xn -
2n + 1

xn-1 +

xn-2 - = 0 .

Determine the set of all triples (x, y, z) of integers with 1 x, y, z 1000 for which x2 + y2 + z2 is a multiple of xyz.

© Canadian Mathematical Society, 2017 :