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Characterizations of Operator Birkhoff--James Orthogonality

  Published:2017-03-08
 Printed: Dec 2017
  • Mohammad Sal Moslehian,
    Department of Pure Mathematics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1159, Mashhad 91775, Iran
  • Ali Zamani,
    Department of Mathematics, Farhangian University, Iran
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Abstract

In this paper, we obtain some characterizations of the (strong) Birkhoff--James orthogonality for elements of Hilbert $C^*$-modules and certain elements of $\mathbb{B}(\mathscr{H})$. Moreover, we obtain a kind of Pythagorean relation for bounded linear operators. In addition, for $T\in \mathbb{B}(\mathscr{H})$ we prove that if the norm attaining set $\mathbb{M}_T$ is a unit sphere of some finite dimensional subspace $\mathscr{H}_0$ of $\mathscr{H}$ and $\|T\|_{{{\mathscr{H}}_0}^\perp} \lt \|T\|$, then for every $S\in\mathbb{B}(\mathscr{H})$, $T$ is the strong Birkhoff--James orthogonal to $S$ if and only if there exists a unit vector $\xi\in {\mathscr{H}}_0$ such that $\|T\|\xi = |T|\xi$ and $S^*T\xi = 0$. Finally, we introduce a new type of approximate orthogonality and investigate this notion in the setting of inner product $C^*$-modules.
Keywords: Hilbert $C^*$-module, Birkhoff--James orthogonality, strong Birkhoff--James orthogonality, approximate orthogonality Hilbert $C^*$-module, Birkhoff--James orthogonality, strong Birkhoff--James orthogonality, approximate orthogonality
MSC Classifications: 46L05, 46L08, 46B20 show english descriptions General theory of $C^*$-algebras
$C^*$-modules
Geometry and structure of normed linear spaces
46L05 - General theory of $C^*$-algebras
46L08 - $C^*$-modules
46B20 - Geometry and structure of normed linear spaces
 

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