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On the Curves Associated to Certain Rings of Automorphic Forms

Open Access article
 Printed: Feb 2001
  • Kamal Khuri-Makdisi
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In a 1987 paper, Gross introduced certain curves associated to a definite quaternion algebra $B$ over $\Q$; he then proved an analog of his result with Zagier for these curves. In Gross' paper, the curves were defined in a somewhat {\it ad hoc\/} manner. In this article, we present an interpretation of these curves as projective varieties arising from graded rings of automorphic forms on $B^\times$, analogously to the construction in the Satake compactification. To define such graded rings, one needs to introduce a ``multiplication'' of automorphic forms that arises from the representation ring of $B^\times$. The resulting curves are unions of projective lines equipped with a collection of Hecke correspondences. They parametrize two-dimensional complex tori with quaternionic multiplication. In general, these complex tori are not abelian varieties; they are algebraic precisely when they correspond to $\CM$ points on these curves, and are thus isogenous to a product $E \times E$, where $E$ is an elliptic curve with complex multiplication. For these $\CM$ points one can make a relation between the action of the $p$-th Hecke operator and Frobenius at $p$, similar to the well-known congruence relation of Eichler and Shimura.
MSC Classifications: 11F show english descriptions unknown classification 11F 11F - unknown classification 11F

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