The following papers are the latest research papers available from the
Canadian Mathematical Bulletin.

The papers below are all fully peer-reviewed and we vouch for the research inside.
Some items are labelled Author's Draft,
and others are identified as Published.
As a service to our readers, we post new papers as soon as the science is right, but before official publication; these are the papers marked Author's Draft.
When our copy editing process is complete and the paper now has our official form, we replace the
Author's Draft
with the Published version.
All the papers below are scheduled for inclusion in a Print issue. When that issue goes to press, the paper is moved from this Online First web page over to the main CMB Digital Archive.

The precise condition on a completely regular space $X$ for every character on
$C(X) $ to be an evaluation at some point in $X$ is that $X$ be
realcompact. Usually, this classical result is obtained relying heavily on
involved (and even nonconstructive) extension arguments. This note provides a
direct proof that is accessible to a large audience.

Let $C$ be a curve over a complete valued field with infinite
residue field whose skeleton is a chain of loops with generic
edge lengths. We prove that
any divisor on the chain of loops that is rational over the value
group lifts to a divisor of the same rank on $C$, confirming
a conjecture of Cools,
Draisma, Robeva, and the third author.

We examine spectral behavior of irreducible tuples which do not
admit boundary property. In particular, we prove under some mild
assumption that the spectral radius of such an $m$-tuple $(T_1,
\dots, T_m)$ must be the operator norm of $T^*_1T_1 + \cdots +
T^*_mT_m$. We use this simple observation to ensure boundary
property for an irreducible, essentially normal joint $q$-isometry provided it
is not a joint isometry.
We further exhibit a family of
reproducing Hilbert $\mathbb{C}[z_1, \dots, z_m]$-modules (of which
the Drury-Arveson Hilbert module is a prototype) with the property that any
two nested unitarily equivalent submodules are indeed equal.

Let $b\in \mathrm{BMO}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $T_{\Omega}$ be the singular
integral operator with kernel $\frac{\Omega(x)}{|x|^n}$, where
$\Omega$ is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable and has mean
value zero on the unit sphere $S^{n-1}$. In this paper, by Fourier
transform estimates and approximation to the operator $T_{\Omega}$
by integral operators with smooth kernels, it is proved that if
$b\in \mathrm{CMO}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $\Omega$ satisfies a certain
minimal size condition, then the commutator generated by $b$ and
$T_{\Omega}$ is a compact operator on $L^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$ for
appropriate index $p$. The associated maximal operator is also
considered.

Let $G$ be a group and $\mathbb K=\mathbb C$ or $\mathbb
R$.
In this article, as a generalization of the result of Albert
and Baker,
we investigate the behavior of bounded
and unbounded functions $f\colon G\to \mathbb K$ satisfying the inequality
$
\Bigl|f
\Bigl(\sum_{k=1}^n x_k
\Bigr)-\prod_{k=1}^n f(x_k)
\Bigr|\le \phi(x_2, \dots, x_n),\quad \forall\, x_1, \dots,
x_n\in G,
$
where $\phi\colon G^{n-1}\to [0, \infty)$. Also, as a distributional
version of the above inequality we consider the stability of
the functional equation
\begin{equation*}
u\circ S - \overbrace{u\otimes \cdots \otimes u}^{n-\text {times}}=0,
\end{equation*}
where $u$ is a Schwartz distribution or Gelfand hyperfunction,
$\circ$ and $\otimes$ are the pullback and tensor product of
distributions, respectively, and $S(x_1, \dots, x_n)=x_1+ \dots
+x_n$.

Given an essentially unitary contraction and an arbitrary unitary
dilation of it, there is a naturally associated spectral flow which is
shown to be equal to the index of the operator. This result is
interpreted in terms of the $K$-theory of an associated mapping
cone. It is then extended to connect $\mathbb{Z}_2$ indices of odd symmetric
Fredholm operators to a $\mathbb{Z}_2$-valued spectral flow.

The Theorem below is a correction to Theorem
3.5 in the article
entitled " Infinite Dimensional DeWitt Supergroups and Their
Bodies" published
in Canad. Math. Bull. Vol. 57 (2) 2014 pp. 283-288. Only part
(iii) of that Theorem
requires correction. The proof of Theorem 3.5 in the original
article failed to separate
the proof of (ii) from the proof of (iii). The proof of (ii)
is complete once it is established
that $ad_a$ is quasi-nilpotent for each $a$ since it immediately
follows that $K$
is quasi-nilpotent. The proof of (iii) is not complete
in the original article. The revision appears as the proof of
(iii) of the revised Theorem below.

Let $G$ be a complex semisimple linear algebraic group and let
$Pet$ be the associated Peterson variety in the flag
variety $G/B$.
The main theorem of this note gives an efficient presentation
of the equivariant cohomology ring $H^*_S(Pet)$ of the
Peterson variety as a quotient of a polynomial ring by an ideal
$J$ generated by quadratic polynomials, in the spirit of the
Borel presentation of the cohomology of the flag variety. Here
the group $S \cong \mathbb{C}^*$ is a certain subgroup of a maximal
torus $T$ of $G$.
Our description of the ideal $J$ uses the Cartan matrix and is
uniform across Lie types. In our arguments we use the Monk formula
and Giambelli formula for the equivariant cohomology rings of
Peterson varieties for all Lie types, as obtained in the work
of Drellich. Our result generalizes a previous theorem of Fukukawa-Harada-Masuda,
which was only for Lie type $A$.

Let $\alpha\colon G\curvearrowright M$ be a spatial action of countable
abelian group on a "spatial" von Neumann algebra $M$ and $S$ be its
unital subsemigroup with $G=S^{-1}S$. We explicitly compute the
essential commutant and the essential fixed-points, modulo the
Schatten $p$-class or the compact operators, of the w$^*$-semicrossed
product of $M$ by $S$ when $M'$ contains no non-zero compact
operators. We also prove a weaker result when $M$ is a von Neumann
algebra on a finite dimensional Hilbert space and
$(G,S)=(\mathbb{Z},\mathbb{Z}_+)$, which extends a famous result due
to Davidson (1977) for the classical analytic Toeplitz operators.

The prime vertex graph, $\Delta (X)$, and the common divisor graph,
$\Gamma (X)$, are two graphs that have been defined on a set of
positive integers $X$.
Some
properties of these graphs have been studied in the cases where either
$X$ is the set of character degrees of a group or $X$ is the set of
conjugacy class sizes of a group. In this paper, we gather some
results on these graphs arising in the context of direct product of
two groups.

There exist injective Tauberian operators on $L_1(0,1)$ that have
dense, nonclosed range. This gives injective, nonsurjective
operators on $\ell_\infty$ that have dense range. Consequently, there
are two quasi-complementary, noncomplementary subspaces of
$\ell_\infty$ that are isometric to $\ell_\infty$.

It is well known that a discrete group which is both amenable and
has Kazhdan's Property T must be finite. In this note we generalize
the above statement to the case of transformation groups. We show
that if $G$ is a discrete amenable group acting on a compact
Hausdorff space $X$, then the transformation group $C^*$-algebra
$C^*(X, G)$ has Property T if and only if both $X$ and $G$ are finite. Our
approach does not rely on the use of tracial states on $C^*(X, G)$.

In this paper, we investigate the common
approximate fixed point sequences of nonexpansive semigroups of
nonlinear mappings $\{T_t\}_{t \geq 0}$, i.e., a family such that
$T_0(x)=x$, $T_{s+t}=T_s(T_t(x))$, where the domain is a metric space
$(M,d)$. In particular we prove that under suitable conditions, the
common approximate fixed point sequences set is the same as the common
approximate fixed point sequences set of two mappings from the family.
Then we use the Ishikawa iteration to construct a common approximate
fixed point sequence of nonexpansive semigroups of nonlinear
mappings.

Inspired by the invariant of a number field given by its zeta
function, we define the notion of weak arithmetic equivalence and show
that under certain ramification hypotheses, this equivalence
determines the local root numbers of the number field. This is
analogous to a result of Rohrlich on the local root numbers of a
rational elliptic curve. Additionally, we prove that for tame
non-totally real number fields, the integral trace form is invariant
under arithmetic equivalence.

For the Bergman projection operator $P$ we prove that
\begin{equation*}
\|P\colon L^1(B,d\lambda)\rightarrow B_1\| = \frac {(2n+1)!}{n!}.
\end{equation*}
Here $\lambda$ stands for the hyperbolic metric in the unit ball $B$ of
$\mathbb{C}^n$, and $B_1$ denotes the Besov space with an adequate
semi--norm. We also consider a generalization of this result. This generalizes
some recent results due to Perälä.

Parts of the Brunn-Minkowski theory can be extended to hedgehogs, which are
envelopes of families of affine hyperplanes parametrized by their Gauss map.
F. Fillastre introduced Fuchsian convex bodies, which are the
closed convex sets of Lorentz-Minkowski space that are globally invariant
under the action of a Fuchsian group. In this paper, we undertake a study of
plane Lorentzian and Fuchsian hedgehogs. In particular, we prove the
Fuchsian analogues of classical geometrical inequalities (analogues which
are reversed as compared to classical ones).

We show that, for a coanalytic subspace $X$ of $2^\omega$, the
countable dense homogeneity of $X^\omega$ is equivalent to $X$
being Polish. This strengthens a result of Hrušák and Zamora
Avilés. Then, inspired by results of Hernández-Gutiérrez,
Hrušák and van Mill, using a technique of Medvedev, we
construct a non-Polish subspace $X$ of $2^\omega$ such that $X^\omega$
is countable dense homogeneous. This gives the first $\mathsf{ZFC}$ answer
to a question of Hrušák and Zamora Avilés. Furthermore,
since our example is consistently analytic, the equivalence result
mentioned above is sharp. Our results also answer a question
of Medini and Milovich. Finally, we show that if every countable
subset of a zero-dimensional separable metrizable space $X$ is
included in a Polish subspace of $X$ then $X^\omega$ is countable
dense homogeneous.

We fix the coefficients in the inequality (4.1) in the Theorem 4.1(i) from
A. Mihai and C. -zgür, "Chen inequalities for
submanifolds of real space forms with a semi-symmetric non-metric
connection" Canad. Math. Bull. 55 (2012), no. 3, 611-622.

Extending the notion of parallelism we introduce the concept of
approximate parallelism in normed spaces and then substantially
restrict ourselves to the setting of Hilbert space operators endowed
with the operator norm. We present several characterizations of the
exact and approximate operator parallelism in the algebra
$\mathbb{B}(\mathscr{H})$ of bounded linear operators acting on a
Hilbert space $\mathscr{H}$. Among other things, we investigate the
relationship between approximate parallelism and norm of inner
derivations on $\mathbb{B}(\mathscr{H})$. We also characterize the
parallel elements of a $C^*$-algebra by using states. Finally we
utilize the linking algebra to give some equivalence assertions
regarding parallel elements in a Hilbert $C^*$-module.

We show under some conditions that a Gorenstein ring $R$ satisfies the
Generalized Auslander-Reiten Conjecture if and only if so does
$R[x]$. When $R$ is a local ring we prove the same result for some
localizations of $R[x]$.

We show under some conditions that a Gorenstein ring $R$ satisfies the
Generalized Auslander-Reiten Conjecture if and only if so does
$R[x]$. When $R$ is a local ring we prove the same result for some
localizations of $R[x]$.

Johnson and Schechtman (2009)
characterized superreflexivity in terms of finite diamond graphs.
The present author characterized the Radon-Nikodým property
(RNP) for dual spaces in terms of the infinite diamond. This
paper
is devoted to further study of relations between metric
characterizations of superreflexivity and the RNP for dual spaces.
The main result is that finite subsets of any set $M$ whose
embeddability characterizes the RNP for dual spaces, characterize
superreflexivity. It is also observed that the converse statement
does not hold, and that $M=\ell_2$ is a counterexample.

Let $g \geq 2$. A real number is said to be $g$-normal if its base $g$ expansion contains every finite sequence of digits with the expected limiting frequency. Let $\phi$ denote Euler's totient function, let $\sigma$ be the sum-of-divisors function, and let $\lambda$ be Carmichael's lambda-function. We show that if $f$ is any function formed by composing $\phi$, $\sigma$, or $\lambda$, then the number
\[ 0. f(1) f(2) f(3) \dots \]
obtained by concatenating the base $g$ digits of successive $f$-values is $g$-normal. We also prove the same result if the inputs $1, 2, 3, \dots$ are replaced with the primes $2, 3, 5, \dots$. The proof is an adaptation of a method introduced by Copeland and Erdős in 1946 to prove the $10$-normality of $0.235711131719\ldots$.

Let $g \geq 2$. A real number is said to be $g$-normal if its base $g$ expansion contains every finite sequence of digits with the expected limiting frequency. Let $\phi$ denote Euler's totient function, let $\sigma$ be the sum-of-divisors function, and let $\lambda$ be Carmichael's lambda-function. We show that if $f$ is any function formed by composing $\phi$, $\sigma$, or $\lambda$, then the number
\[ 0. f(1) f(2) f(3) \dots \]
obtained by concatenating the base $g$ digits of successive $f$-values is $g$-normal. We also prove the same result if the inputs $1, 2, 3, \dots$ are replaced with the primes $2, 3, 5, \dots$. The proof is an adaptation of a method introduced by Copeland and Erdős in 1946 to prove the $10$-normality of $0.235711131719\ldots$.

Using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, we deduce
the existence of periodic solutions of nonlinear system of integro-dynamic
equations on periodic time scales. These equations are
studied under a set of assumptions on the functions involved
in the
equations. The equations will be called almost linear when these
assumptions hold. The results of this papers are new for the
continuous and discrete time scales.

In this note, we identify, in the Grothendieck group of complex
varieties $K_0(\mathrm Var_\mathbf{C})$, the classes of $\mathbf{Q}$-homological
planes. Precisely, we prove that a connected smooth affine complex
algebraic surface $X$ is a $\mathbf{Q}$-homological plane if
and only if $[X]=[\mathbf{A}^2_\mathbf{C}]$ in the ring $K_0(\mathrm Var_\mathbf{C})$
and $\mathrm{Pic}(X)_\mathbf{Q}:=\mathrm{Pic}(X)\otimes_\mathbf{Z}\mathbf{Q}=0$.

There are at the most seven classes of finite indecomposable $RA$ loops upto isomorphism. In this paper, we completely characterize the structure of the unit loop of loop algebras of these seven classes of loops over finite fields of characteristic greater than $2$.

We examine the ranks of operators in semi-finite $\mathrm{C}^*$-algebras
as measured by their densely defined lower semicontinuous traces.
We first prove that a unital simple $\mathrm{C}^*$-algebra whose
extreme tracial boundary is nonempty and finite contains positive
operators of every possible rank, independent of the property
of strict comparison. We then turn to nonunital simple algebras
and establish criteria that imply that the Cuntz semigroup is
recovered functorially from the Murray-von Neumann semigroup
and the space of densely defined lower semicontinuous traces.
Finally, we prove that these criteria are satisfied by not-necessarily-unital
approximately subhomogeneous algebras of slow dimension growth.
Combined with results of the first-named author, this shows that
slow dimension growth coincides with $\mathcal Z$-stability,
for approximately subhomogeneous algebras.

Let $A:=-(\nabla-i\vec{a})\cdot(\nabla-i\vec{a})+V$ be a
magnetic Schrödinger operator on $\mathbb{R}^n$,
where $\vec{a}:=(a_1,\dots, a_n)\in L^2_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n,\mathbb{R}^n)$
and $0\le V\in L^1_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ satisfy some reverse
Hölder conditions.
Let $\varphi\colon \mathbb{R}^n\times[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$ be such that
$\varphi(x,\cdot)$ for any given $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is an Orlicz function,
$\varphi(\cdot,t)\in {\mathbb A}_{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ for all $t\in (0,\infty)$
(the class of uniformly Muckenhoupt weights) and its uniformly critical upper type index
$I(\varphi)\in(0,1]$. In this article, the authors prove that
second-order Riesz transforms $VA^{-1}$ and
$(\nabla-i\vec{a})^2A^{-1}$ are bounded from the
Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space $H_{\varphi,\,A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, associated with $A$,
to the Musielak-Orlicz space $L^{\varphi}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Moreover, the authors
establish the boundedness of $VA^{-1}$ on $H_{\varphi, A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. As applications, some
maximal inequalities associated with $A$ in the scale of $H_{\varphi,
A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ are obtained.

In this paper we prove that there is only one conjugacy class of
dihedral group of order $2p$ in the $2(p-1)\times 2(p-1)$ integral
symplectic group can be realized by an analytic automorphism
group
of compact connected Riemann surfaces of genus $p-1$. A pair of
representative generators of the realizable class is also given.

We provide an explicit formula for the generalized cyclic shuffle map for cylindrical modules.
Using this formula we give a combinatorial proof of the generalized
cyclic Eilenberg-Zilber theorem.