51. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 598)
 Moreno, M. A.; Nicola, J.; Pardo, E.; Thomas, H.

Numerical Semigroups That Are Not Intersections of $d$Squashed Semigroups
We say that a numerical semigroup is \emph{$d$squashed} if it can
be written in the form
$$ S=\frac 1 N \langle a_1,\dots,a_d \rangle \cap \mathbb{Z}$$
for $N,a_1,\dots,a_d$ positive integers with
$\gcd(a_1,\dots, a_d)=1$.
Rosales and Urbano have shown that a numerical semigroup is
2squashed if and only if it is proportionally modular.
Recent works by Rosales \emph{et al.} give a concrete example of a
numerical semigroup that cannot be written as an intersection of
$2$squashed semigroups. We will show the existence of infinitely
many numerical semigroups that cannot be written as an
intersection of $2$squashed semigroups. We also will prove the
same result for $3$squashed semigroups. We conjecture that there
are numerical semigroups that cannot be written as the
intersection of $d$squashed semigroups for any fixed $d$, and we
prove some partial results towards this conjecture.
Keywords:numerical semigroup, squashed semigroup, proportionally modular semigroup Categories:20M14, 06F05, 46L80 

52. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 435)
 Monson, B.; Schulte, Egon

Modular Reduction in Abstract Polytopes
The paper studies modular reduction techniques for abstract regular
and chiral polytopes, with two purposes in mind:\ first, to survey the
literature about modular reduction in polytopes; and second, to apply
modular reduction, with moduli given by primes in $\mathbb{Z}[\tau]$
(with $\tau$ the golden ratio), to construct new regular $4$polytopes
of hyperbolic types $\{3,5,3\}$ and $\{5,3,5\}$ with automorphism
groups given by finite orthogonal groups.
Keywords:abstract polytopes, regular and chiral, Coxeter groups, modular reduction Categories:51M20, 20F55 

53. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 245)
 Goodaire, Edgar G.; Milies, César Polcino

Involutions of RA Loops
Let $L$ be an RA loop, that is, a loop whose loop ring
over any coefficient ring $R$
is an alternative, but not associative, ring. Let
$\ell\mapsto\ell^\theta$ denote an involution on $L$ and extend
it linearly to the loop ring $RL$. An element $\alpha\in RL$ is
\emph{symmetric} if $\alpha^\theta=\alpha$ and \emph{skewsymmetric}
if $\alpha^\theta=\alpha$. In this paper, we show that
there exists an involution making
the symmetric elements of $RL$ commute if and only if
the characteristic of $R$ is $2$ or $\theta$ is the
canonical involution on $L$,
and an involution making the skewsymmetric elements of $RL$
commute if and only if
the characteristic of $R$ is $2$ or $4$.
Categories:20N05, 17D05 

54. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 273)
 MacDonald, John; Scull, Laura

Amalgamations of Categories
We consider the pushout of embedding functors in $\Cat$, the
category of small categories.
We show that if the embedding functors satisfy a 3for2
property, then the induced functors to the pushout category are
also embeddings. The result follows from the connectedness of
certain associated slice categories. The condition is motivated
by a similar result for maps of semigroups. We show that our
theorem can be applied to groupoids and to inclusions of full
subcategories. We also give an example to show that the theorem
does not hold when the
property only holds for one of the inclusion functors, or when it
is weakened to a onesided condition.
Keywords:category, pushout, amalgamation Categories:18A30, 18B40, 20L17 

55. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 9)
 Chassé, Dominique; SaintAubin, Yvan

On the Spectrum of an $n!\times n!$ Matrix Originating from Statistical Mechanics
Let $R_n(\alpha)$ be the $n!\times n!$ matrix whose matrix elements
$[R_n(\alpha)]_{\sigma\rho}$, with $\sigma$ and $\rho$ in the
symmetric group $\sn$, are $\alpha^{\ell(\sigma\rho^{1})}$ with
$0<\alpha<1$, where $\ell(\pi)$ denotes the number of cycles in $\pi\in
\sn$. We give the spectrum of $R_n$ and show that the ratio of the
largest eigenvalue $\lambda_0$ to the second largest one (in absolute
value) increases as a positive power of $n$ as $n\rightarrow \infty$.
Keywords:symmetric group, representation theory, eigenvalue, statistical physics Categories:20B30, 20C30, 15A18, 82B20, 82B28 

56. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 584)
 Purbhoo, Kevin; Willigenburg, Stephanie van

On Tensor Products of Polynomial Representations
We determine the necessary and sufficient combinatorial
conditions for which the tensor product of two irreducible polynomial
representations of $\GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ is isomorphic to another.
As a consequence we discover families of LittlewoodRichardson
coefficients that are nonzero, and a condition on Schur nonnegativity.
Keywords:polynomial representation, symmetric function, LittlewoodRichardson coefficient, Schur nonnegative Categories:05E05, 05E10, 20C30 

57. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 134)
58. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 114)
 Petrov, V.; Semenov, N.; Zainoulline, K.

Zero Cycles on a Twisted Cayley Plane
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic not $2,3$.
Let $G$ be an exceptional simple algebraic group over $k$
of type $\F$, $^1{\E_6}$ or $\E_7$ with trivial Tits algebras.
Let $X$ be a projective $G$homogeneous variety.
If $G$ is of type $\E_7$, we assume in addition
that the respective
parabolic subgroup is of type $P_7$.
The main result of the paper says that
the degree map on the group of zero cycles of $X$
is injective.
Categories:20G15, 14C15 

59. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 81)
 Kassel, Christian

Homotopy Formulas for Cyclic Groups Acting on Rings
The positive cohomology groups of a finite group acting on a ring
vanish when the ring has a norm one element. In this note we give
explicit homotopies on the level of cochains when the group is cyclic,
which allows us to express any cocycle of a cyclic group
as the coboundary of an explicit cochain.
The formulas in this note are closely related to the effective problems considered in previous joint work
with Eli Aljadeff.
Keywords:group cohomology, norm map, cyclic group, homotopy Categories:20J06, 20K01, 16W22, 18G35 

60. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 535)
 Hohlweg, Christophe

Generalized Descent Algebras
If $A$ is a subset of the set of reflections of a finite Coxeter
group $W$, we define a sub$\ZM$module $\DC_A(W)$ of the group
algebra $\ZM W$. We discuss cases where this submodule is a
subalgebra. This family of subalgebras includes strictly the
Solomon descent algebra, the group algebra and, if $W$ is of type
$B$, the MantaciReutenauer algebra.
Keywords:Coxeter group, Solomon descent algebra, descent set Categories:20F55, 05E15 

61. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 632)
 Zelenyuk, Yevhen; Zelenyuk, Yuliya

Transformations and Colorings of Groups
Let $G$ be a compact topological group and let $f\colon G\to G$ be a
continuous transformation of $G$. Define $f^*\colon G\to G$ by
$f^*(x)=f(x^{1})x$ and let $\mu=\mu_G$ be Haar measure on $G$. Assume
that $H=\Imag f^*$ is a subgroup of $G$ and for every
measurable $C\subseteq H$,
$\mu_G((f^*)^{1}(C))=\mu_H(C)$. Then for every measurable
$C\subseteq G$, there exist $S\subseteq C$ and $g\in G$ such that
$f(Sg^{1})\subseteq Cg^{1}$ and $\mu(S)\ge(\mu(C))^2$.
Keywords:compact topological group, continuous transformation, endomorphism, Ramsey theoryinversion, Categories:05D10, 20D60, 22A10 

62. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 206)
 Golasiński, Marek; Gonçalves, Daciberg Lima

Spherical Space Forms: Homotopy Types and SelfEquivalences for the Group $({\mathbb Z}/a\rtimes{\mathbb Z}/b) \times SL_2\,(\mathbb{F}_p)$
Let $G=({\mathbb Z}/a\rtimes{\mathbb Z}/b) \times
\SL_2(\mathbb{F}_p)$, and let $X(n)$ be an $n$dimensional
$CW$complex of the homotopy type of an $n$sphere. We study the
automorphism group $\Aut (G)$ in order to compute the number of
distinct homotopy types of spherical space forms with respect to free
and cellular $G$actions on all $CW$complexes $X(2dn1)$, where $2d$
is the period of $G$. The groups ${\mathcal E}(X(2dn1)/\mu)$ of self
homotopy equivalences of space forms $X(2dn1)/\mu$ associated with
free and cellular $G$actions $\mu$ on $X(2dn1)$ are determined as
well.
Keywords:automorphism group, $CW$complex, free and cellular $G$action, group of self homotopy equivalences, LyndonHochschildSerre spectral sequence, special (linear) group, spherical space form Categories:55M35, 55P15, 20E22, 20F28, 57S17 

63. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 268)
 Manuilov, V.; Thomsen, K.

On the Lack of Inverses to $C^*$Extensions Related to Property T Groups
Using ideas of S. Wassermann on nonexact $C^*$algebras and
property T groups, we show that one of his examples of noninvertible
$C^*$extensions is not semiinvertible. To prove this, we
show that a certain element vanishes in the asymptotic tensor
product. We also show that a modification of the example gives
a $C^*$extension which is not even invertible up to homotopy.
Keywords:$C^*$algebra extension, property T group, asymptotic tensor $C^*$norm, homotopy Categories:19K33, 46L06, 46L80, 20F99 

64. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 347)
 Ecker, Jürgen

Affine Completeness of Generalised Dihedral Groups
In this paper we study affine completeness of generalised dihedral
groups. We give a formula for the number of unary compatible
functions on these groups, and we characterise for every $k \in~\N$
the $k$affine complete generalised dihedral groups. We find that
the direct product of a $1$affine complete group with itself need not
be $1$affine complete. Finally, we give an example of a nonabelian
solvable affine complete group. For nilpotent groups we find a
strong necessary condition for $2$affine completeness.
Categories:08A40, 16Y30, 20F05 

65. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 285)
 Riedl, Jeffrey M.

Orbits and Stabilizers for Solvable Linear Groups
We extend a result of Noritzsch,
which describes the orbit sizes in the action of a
Frobenius group $G$ on a finite vector space $V$ under
certain conditions, to a more general class of finite
solvable groups $G$.
This result has applications in computing
irreducible character degrees of finite groups.
Another application, proved here, is a result
concerning the structure of certain groups with
few complex irreducible character degrees.
Categories:20B99, 20C15, 20C20 

66. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 296)
 Sch"utt, Matthias

On the Modularity of Three CalabiYau Threefolds With Bad Reduction at 11
This paper investigates the modularity of three
nonrigid CalabiYau threefolds with bad reduction at 11. They are
constructed as fibre products of rational elliptic surfaces,
involving the modular elliptic surface of level 5. Their middle
$\ell$adic cohomology groups are shown to split into
twodimensional pieces, all but one of which can be interpreted in
terms of elliptic curves. The remaining pieces are associated to
newforms of weight 4 and level 22 or 55, respectively. For this
purpose, we develop a method by Serre to compare the corresponding
twodimensional 2adic Galois representations with uneven trace.
Eventually this method is also applied to a self fibre product of
the Hessepencil, relating it to a newform of weight 4 and level
27.
Categories:14J32, 11F11, 11F23, 20C12 

67. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 196)
68. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 127)
 Lewis, Mark L.

Character Degree Graphs of Solvable Groups of Fitting Height $2$
Given a finite group $G$, we attach to the character degrees
of $G$ a graph whose vertex set is the set of primes dividing the degrees of
irreducible characters of $G$, and with an edge between $p$ and $q$ if
$pq$ divides the degree of some irreducible character of $G$.
In this paper, we describe which graphs occur when $G$ is
a solvable group of Fitting height $2$.
Category:20C15 

69. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 96)
 Külshammer, Burkhard

Roots of Simple Modules
We introduce roots of indecomposable modules over group algebras of finite groups,
and we investigate some of their properties. This allows us to correct an error
in Landrock's book which has to do with roots of simple modules.
Categories:20C20, 20C05 

70. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 460)
 Sommers, Eric N.

$B$Stable Ideals in the Nilradical of a Borel Subalgebra
We count the number of strictly positive $B$stable ideals in the
nilradical of a Borel subalgebra and prove that
the minimal roots of any $B$stable ideal are conjugate
by an element of the Weyl group to a subset of the simple roots.
We also count the number of ideals whose minimal roots are conjugate
to a fixed subset of simple roots.
Categories:20F55, 17B20, 05E99 

71. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 211)
 Germain, Jam

The Distribution of Totatives
The integers coprime to $n$ are called the {\it totatives} \rm of $n$.
D. H. Lehmer and Paul Erd\H{o}s were interested in understanding when
the number of totatives between $in/k$ and $(i+1)n/k$ are $1/k$th of
the total number of totatives up to $n$. They provided criteria in
various cases. Here we give an ``if and only if'' criterion which
allows us to recover most of the previous results in this literature
and to go beyond, as well to reformulate the problem in terms of
combinatorial group theory. Our criterion is that the above holds if
and only if for every odd character $\chi \pmod \kappa$ (where
$\kappa:=k/\gcd(k,n/\prod_{pn} p)$) there exists a prime $p=p_\chi$
dividing $n$ for which $\chi(p)=1$.
Categories:11A05, 11A07, 11A25, 20C99 

72. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 32)
 Dąbkowski, Mieczysław K.; Przytycki, Józef H.; Togha, Amir A.

NonLeftOrderable 3Manifold Groups
We show that several torsion free 3manifold groups
are not leftorderable.
Our examples are groups of cyclic branched coverings of $S^3$
branched along links.
The figure eight knot provides simple
nontrivial examples. The groups arising in these examples are known
as Fibonacci groups which we show not to be leftorderable.
Many other examples of nonorderable groups are obtained by taking
3fold branched covers of $S^3$ branched along various hyperbolic
2bridge knots.
%with various hyperbolic 2bridge knots as branched sets.
The manifold obtained in such a way from the $5_2$ knot
is of special interest as it is conjectured to be the hyperbolic
3manifold with the smallest volume.
Categories:57M25, 57M12, 20F60 

73. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 80)
 Herman, Allen; Li, Yuanlin; Parmenter, M. M.

Trivial Units for Group Rings with $G$adapted Coefficient Rings
For each finite group $G$ for which the integral group ring
$\mathbb{Z}G$ has only trivial units, we give ringtheoretic
conditions for a commutative ring $R$ under which the group ring
$RG$ has nontrivial units. Several examples of rings satisfying
the conditions and rings not satisfying the conditions are given.
In addition, we extend a wellknown result for fields by showing
that if $R$ is a ring of finite characteristic and $RG$ has only
trivial units, then $G$ has order at most 3.
Categories:16S34, 16U60, 20C05 

74. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 41)
 Dixon, John D.; Barghi, A. Rahnamai

Degree Homogeneous Subgroups
Let $G$ be a finite group and $H$ be a subgroup. We say that $H$
is \emph{degree homogeneous }if, for each $\chi\in \Irr(G)$, all
the irreducible constituents of the restriction $\chi_{H}$ have
the same degree. Subgroups which are either normal or abelian are
obvious examples of degree homogeneous subgroups. Following a
question by E.~M. Zhmud', we investigate general properties of
such subgroups. It appears unlikely that degree homogeneous
subgroups can be characterized entirely by abstract group
properties, but we provide mixed criteria (involving both group
structure and character properties) which are both necessary and
sufficient. For example, $H$ is degree homogeneous in $G$ if and
only if the derived subgroup $H^{\prime}$ is normal in $G$ and,
for every pair $\alpha,\beta$ of irreducible $G$conjugate
characters of $H^{\prime}$, all irreducible constituents of
$\alpha^{H}$ and $\beta^{H}$ have the same degree.
Category:20C15 

75. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 530)
 Iranmanesh, A.; Khosravi, B.

A Characterization of $ PSU_{11}(q)$
Order components of a finite simple group were introduced in [4].
It was proved that some nonabelian simple groups are uniquely determined
by their order components. As the main result of this paper, we
show that groups $PSU_{11}(q)$ are also uniquely determined by
their order components. As corollaries of this result, the
validity of a conjecture of J. G. Thompson and a conjecture of W.
Shi and J. Bi both on $PSU_{11}(q)$ are obtained.
Keywords:Prime graph, order component, finite group,simple group Categories:20D08, 20D05, 20D60 
