A Representation Theorem for Archimedean Quadratic Modules on $*$-Rings We present a new approach to noncommutative real algebraic geometry based on the representation theory of $C^\ast$-algebras. An important result in commutative real algebraic geometry is Jacobi's representation theorem for archimedean quadratic modules on commutative rings. We show that this theorem is a consequence of the Gelfand--Naimark representation theorem for commutative $C^\ast$-algebras. A noncommutative version of Gelfand--Naimark theory was studied by I. Fujimoto. We use his results to generalize Jacobi's theorem to associative rings with involution. Keywords:Ordered rings with involution, $C^\ast$-algebras and their representations, noncommutative convexity theory, real algebraic geometryCategories:16W80, 46L05, 46L89, 14P99