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126. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 428)

Miyamoto, Roland; Top, Jaap
Reduction of Elliptic Curves in Equal Characteristic~3 (and~2)
and fibre type for elliptic curves over discrete valued fields of equal characteristic~3. Along the same lines, partial results are obtained in equal characteristic~2.

Categories:14H52, 14K15, 11G07, 11G05, 12J10

127. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 333)

Alzer, Horst
Monotonicity Properties of the Hurwitz Zeta Function
Let $$ \zeta(s,x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{(n+x)^s} \quad{(s>1,\, x>0)} $$ be the Hurwitz zeta function and let $$ Q(x)=Q(x;\alpha,\beta;a,b)=\frac{(\zeta(\alpha,x))^a}{(\zeta(\beta,x))^b}, $$ where $\alpha, \beta>1$ and $a,b>0$ are real numbers. We prove: (i) The function $Q$ is decreasing on $(0,\infty)$ if{}f $\alpha a-\beta b\geq \max(a-b,0)$. (ii) $Q$ is increasing on $(0,\infty)$ if{}f $\alpha a-\beta b\leq \min(a-b,0)$. An application of part (i) reveals that for all $x>0$ the function $s\mapsto [(s-1)\zeta(s,x)]^{1/(s-1)}$ is decreasing on $(1,\infty)$. This settles a conjecture of Bastien and Rogalski.

Categories:11M35, 26D15

128. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 394)

Đoković, D. Ž.; Szechtman, F.; Zhao, K.
Diagonal Plus Tridiagonal Representatives for Symplectic Congruence Classes of Symmetric Matrices
Let $n=2m$ be even and denote by $\Sp_n(F)$ the symplectic group of rank $m$ over an infinite field $F$ of characteristic different from $2$. We show that any $n\times n$ symmetric matrix $A$ is equivalent under symplectic congruence transformations to the direct sum of $m\times m$ matrices $B$ and $C$, with $B$ diagonal and $C$ tridiagonal. Since the $\Sp_n(F)$-module of symmetric $n\times n$ matrices over $F$ is isomorphic to the adjoint module $\sp_n(F)$, we infer that any adjoint orbit of $\Sp_n(F)$ in $\sp_n(F)$ has a representative in the sum of $3m-1$ root spaces, which we explicitly determine.

Categories:11E39, 15A63, 17B20

129. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 211)

Germain, Jam
The Distribution of Totatives
The integers coprime to $n$ are called the {\it totatives} \rm of $n$. D. H. Lehmer and Paul Erd\H{o}s were interested in understanding when the number of totatives between $in/k$ and $(i+1)n/k$ are $1/k$th of the total number of totatives up to $n$. They provided criteria in various cases. Here we give an ``if and only if'' criterion which allows us to recover most of the previous results in this literature and to go beyond, as well to reformulate the problem in terms of combinatorial group theory. Our criterion is that the above holds if and only if for every odd character $\chi \pmod \kappa$ (where $\kappa:=k/\gcd(k,n/\prod_{p|n} p)$) there exists a prime $p=p_\chi$ dividing $n$ for which $\chi(p)=1$.

Categories:11A05, 11A07, 11A25, 20C99

130. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 121)

Mollin, R. A.
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Central Norm to Equal $2^h$ in the Simple Continued Fraction Expansion of $\sqrt{2^hc}$ for Any Odd $c>1$
We look at the simple continued fraction expansion of $\sqrt{D}$ for any $D=2^hc $ where $c>1$ is odd with a goal of determining necessary and sufficient conditions for the central norm (as determined by the infrastructure of the underlying real quadratic order therein) to be $2^h$. At the end of the paper, we also address the case where $D=c$ is odd and the central norm of $\sqrt{D}$ is equal to $2$.

Keywords:quadratic Diophantine equations, simple continued fractions,, norms of ideals, infrastructure of real quadratic fields
Categories:11A55, 11D09, 11R11

131. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 147)

Väänänen, Keijo; Zudilin, Wadim
Baker-Type Estimates for Linear Forms in the Values of $q$-Series
We obtain lower estimates for the absolute values of linear forms of the values of generalized Heine series at non-zero points of an imaginary quadratic field~$\II$, in particular of the values of $q$-exponential function. These estimates depend on the individual coefficients, not only on the maximum of their absolute values. The proof uses a variant of classical Siegel's method applied to a system of functional Poincar\'e-type equations and the connection between the solutions of these functional equations and the generalized Heine series.

Keywords:measure of linear independence, $q$-series
Categories:11J82, 33D15

132. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 16)

Cojocaru, Alina Carmen
On the Surjectivity of the Galois Representations Associated to Non-CM Elliptic Curves
Let $ E $ be an elliptic curve defined over $\Q,$ of conductor $N$ and without complex multiplication. For any positive integer $l$, let $\phi_l$ be the Galois representation associated to the $l$-division points of~$E$. From a celebrated 1972 result of Serre we know that $\phi_l$ is surjective for any sufficiently large prime $l$. In this paper we find conditional and unconditional upper bounds in terms of $N$ for the primes $l$ for which $\phi_l$ is {\emph{not}} surjective.

Categories:11G05, 11N36, 11R45

133. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 573)

Liu, Yu-Ru
A Generalization of the Turán Theorem and Its Applications
We axiomatize the main properties of the classical Turán Theorem in order to apply it to a general context. We provide applications in the cases of number fields, function fields, and geometrically irreducible varieties over a finite field.

Categories:11N37, 11N80

134. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 589)

Liu, Yu-Ru
A Generalization of the Erdös-Kac Theorem and its Applications
We axiomatize the main properties of the classical Erd\"os-Kac Theorem in order to apply it to a general context. We provide applications in the cases of number fields, function fields, and geometrically irreducible varieties over a finite field.

Categories:11N60, 11N80

135. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 431)

Osburn, Robert
A Note on $4$-Rank Densities
For certain real quadratic number fields, we prove density results concerning $4$-ranks of tame kernels. We also discuss a relationship between $4$-ranks of tame kernels and %% $4$-class ranks of narrow ideal class groups. Additionally, we give a product formula for a local Hilbert symbol.

Categories:11R70, 19F99, 11R11, 11R45

136. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 468)

Soundararajan, K.
Strong Multiplicity One for the Selberg Class
We investigate the problem of determining elements in the Selberg class by means of their Dirichlet series coefficients at primes.

Categories:11M41, 11M26, 11M06

137. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 398)

McKinnon, David
A Reduction of the Batyrev-Manin Conjecture for Kummer Surfaces
Let $V$ be a $K3$ surface defined over a number field $k$. The Batyrev-Manin conjecture for $V$ states that for every nonempty open subset $U$ of $V$, there exists a finite set $Z_U$ of accumulating rational curves such that the density of rational points on $U-Z_U$ is strictly less than the density of rational points on $Z_U$. Thus, the set of rational points of $V$ conjecturally admits a stratification corresponding to the sets $Z_U$ for successively smaller sets $U$. In this paper, in the case that $V$ is a Kummer surface, we prove that the Batyrev-Manin conjecture for $V$ can be reduced to the Batyrev-Manin conjecture for $V$ modulo the endomorphisms of $V$ induced by multiplication by $m$ on the associated abelian surface $A$. As an application, we use this to show that given some restrictions on $A$, the set of rational points of $V$ which lie on rational curves whose preimages have geometric genus 2 admits a stratification of

Keywords:rational points, Batyrev-Manin conjecture, Kummer, surface, rational curve, abelian surface, height
Categories:11G35, 14G05

138. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 358)

Ford, Kevin
A Strong Form of a Problem of R. L. Graham
If $A$ is a set of $M$ positive integers, let $G(A)$ be the maximum of $a_i/\gcd(a_i,a_j)$ over $a_i,a_j\in A$. We show that if $G(A)$ is not too much larger than $M$, then $A$ must have a special structure.


139. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 373)

Győry, K.; Hajdu, L.; Saradha, N.
On the Diophantine Equation $n(n+d)\cdots(n+(k-1)d)=by^l$
We show that the product of four or five consecutive positive terms in arithmetic progression can never be a perfect power whenever the initial term is coprime to the common difference of the arithmetic progression. This is a generalization of the results of Euler and Obl\'ath for the case of squares, and an extension of a theorem of Gy\H ory on three terms in arithmetic progressions. Several other results concerning the integral solutions of the equation of the title are also obtained. We extend results of Sander on the rational solutions of the equation in $n,y$ when $b=d=1$. We show that there are only finitely many solutions in $n,d,b,y$ when $k\geq 3$, $l\geq 2$ are fixed and $k+l>6$.


140. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 264)

McKinnon, David
Counting Rational Points on Ruled Varieties
In this paper, we prove a general result computing the number of rational points of bounded height on a projective variety $V$ which is covered by lines. The main technical result used to achieve this is an upper bound on the number of rational points of bounded height on a line. This upper bound is such that it can be easily controlled as the line varies, and hence is used to sum the counting functions of the lines which cover the original variety $V$.

Categories:11G50, 11D45, 11D04, 14G05

141. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 237)

Laubie, François
Ramification des séries formelles
Let $p$ be a prime number. Let $k$ be a finite field of characteristic $p$. The subset $X+X^2 k[[X]]$ of the ring $k[[X]]$ is a group under the substitution law $\circ $ sometimes called the Nottingham group of $k$; it is denoted by $\mathcal{R}_k$. The ramification of one series $\gamma\in\mathcal{R}_k$ is caracterized by its lower ramification numbers: $i_m(\gamma)=\ord_X \bigl(\gamma^{p^m} (X)/X - 1\bigr)$, as well as its upper ramification numbers: $$ u_m (\gamma) = i_0 (\gamma) + \frac{i_1 (\gamma) - i_0(\gamma)}{p} + \cdots + \frac{i_m (\gamma) - i_{m-1} (\gamma)}{p^m} , \quad (m \in \mathbb{N}). $$ By Sen's theorem, the $u_m(\gamma)$ are integers. In this paper, we determine the sequences of integers $(u_m)$ for which there exists $\gamma\in\mathcal{R}_k$ such that $u_m(\gamma)=u_m$ for all integer $m \geq 0$.

Keywords:ramification, Nottingham group
Categories:11S15, 20E18

142. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 271)

Naumann, Niko
Linear Relations Among the Values of Canonical Heights from the Existence of Non-Trivial Endomorphisms
We study the interplay between canonical heights and endomorphisms of an abelian variety $A$ over a number field $k$. In particular we show that whenever the ring of endomorphisms defined over $k$ is strictly larger than $\Z$ there will be $\Q$-linear relations among the values of a canonical height pairing evaluated at a basis modulo torsion of $A(k)$.

Categories:11G10, 14K15

143. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 12)

Burger, Edward B.
On Newton's Method and Rational Approximations to Quadratic Irrationals
In 1988 Rieger exhibited a differentiable function having a zero at the golden ratio\break $(-1+\sqrt5)/2$ for which when Newton's method for approximating roots is applied with an initial value $x_0=0$, all approximates are so-called ``best rational approximates''---in this case, of the form $F_{2n}/F_{2n+1}$, where $F_n$ denotes the $n$-th Fibonacci number. Recently this observation was extended by Komatsu to the class of all quadratic irrationals whose continued fraction expansions have period length $2$. Here we generalize these observations by producing an analogous result for all quadratic irrationals and thus provide an explanation for these phenomena.

Categories:11A55, 11B37

144. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 546)

Long, Ling
$L$-Series of Certain Elliptic Surfaces
In this paper, we study the modularity of certain elliptic surfaces by determining their $L$-series through their monodromy groups.

Categories:14J27, 11M06

145. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 495)

Baragar, Arthur
Canonical Vector Heights on Algebraic K3 Surfaces with Picard Number Two
Let $V$ be an algebraic K3 surface defined over a number field $K$. Suppose $V$ has Picard number two and an infinite group of automorphisms $\mathcal{A} = \Aut(V/K)$. In this paper, we introduce the notion of a vector height $\mathbf{h} \colon V \to \Pic(V) \otimes \mathbb{R}$ and show the existence of a canonical vector height $\widehat{\mathbf{h}}$ with the following properties: \begin{gather*} \widehat{\mathbf{h}} (\sigma P) = \sigma_* \widehat{\mathbf{h}} (P) \\ h_D (P) = \widehat{\mathbf{h}} (P) \cdot D + O(1), \end{gather*} where $\sigma \in \mathcal{A}$, $\sigma_*$ is the pushforward of $\sigma$ (the pullback of $\sigma^{-1}$), and $h_D$ is a Weil height associated to the divisor $D$. The bounded function implied by the $O(1)$ does not depend on $P$. This allows us to attack some arithmetic problems. For example, we show that the number of rational points with bounded logarithmic height in an $\mathcal{A}$-orbit satisfies $$ N_{\mathcal{A}(P)} (t,D) = \# \{Q \in \mathcal{A}(P) : h_D (Q)
Categories:11G50, 14J28, 14G40, 14J50, 14G05

146. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 473)

Yeats, Karen
A Multiplicative Analogue of Schur's Tauberian Theorem
A theorem concerning the asymptotic behaviour of partial sums of the coefficients of products of Dirichlet series is proved using properties of regularly varying functions. This theorem is a multiplicative analogue of Schur's Tauberian theorem for power series.


147. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 344)

Gurak, S.
Gauss and Eisenstein Sums of Order Twelve
Let $q=p^{r}$ with $p$ an odd prime, and $\mathbf{F}_{q}$ denote the finite field of $q$ elements. Let $\Tr\colon\mathbf{F}_{q} \to\mathbf{F}_{p} $ be the usual trace map and set $\zeta_{p} =\exp(2\pi i/p)$. For any positive integer $e$, define the (modified) Gauss sum $g_{r}(e)$ by $$ g_{r}(e) =\sum_{x\in \mathbf{F}_{q}}\zeta_{p}^{\Tr x^{e}} $$ Recently, Evans gave an elegant determination of $g_{1}(12)$ in terms of $g_{1}(3)$, $g_{1}(4)$ and $g_{1}(6)$ which resolved a sign ambiguity present in a previous evaluation. Here I generalize Evans' result to give a complete determination of the sum $g_{r}(12)$.

Categories:11L05, 11T24

148. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 229)

Lin, Ke-Pao; Yau, Stephen S.-T.
Counting the Number of Integral Points in General $n$-Dimensional Tetrahedra and Bernoulli Polynomials
Recently there has been tremendous interest in counting the number of integral points in $n$-dimen\-sional tetrahedra with non-integral vertices due to its applications in primality testing and factoring in number theory and in singularities theory. The purpose of this note is to formulate a conjecture on sharp upper estimate of the number of integral points in $n$-dimensional tetrahedra with non-integral vertices. We show that this conjecture is true for low dimensional cases as well as in the case of homogeneous $n$-dimensional tetrahedra. We also show that the Bernoulli polynomials play a role in this counting.

Categories:11B75, 11H06, 11P21, 11Y99

149. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 178)

Jaulent, Jean-François; Maire, Christian
Sur les invariants d'Iwasawa des tours cyclotomiques
We carry out the computation of the Iwasawa invariants $\rho^T_S$, $\mu^T_S$, $\lambda^T_S$ associated to abelian $T$-ramified over the finite steps $K_n$ of the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_\ell$-extension $K_\infty/K$ of a number field of $\CM$-type. Nous d\'eterminons explicitement les param\'etres d'Iwasawa $\rho^T_S$, $\mu^T_S$, $\lambda^T_S$ des $\ell$-groupes de $S$-classes $T$-infinit\'esimales $\Cl^T_S (K_n)$ attach\'es aux \'etages finis de la $\mathbb{Z}_\ell$-extension cyclotomique $K_\infty/K$ d'un corps de nombres \`a conjugaison complexe.

Categories:11R23, 11R37

150. CMB 2003 (vol 46 pp. 26)

Bernardi, D.; Halberstadt, E.; Kraus, A.
Remarques sur les points rationnels des variétés de Fermat
Soit $K$ un corps de nombres de degr\'e sur $\mathbb{Q}$ inf\'erieur ou \'egal \`a $2$. On se propose dans ce travail de faire quelques remarques sur la question de l'existence de deux \'el\'ements non nuls $a$ et $b$ de $K$, et d'un entier $n\geq 4$, tels que l'\'equation $ax^n + by^n = 1$ poss\`ede au moins trois points distincts non triviaux. Cette \'etude se ram\`ene \`a la recherche de points rationnels sur $K$ d'une vari\'et\'e projective dans $\mathbb{P}^5$ de dimension $3$, ou d'une surface de $\mathbb{P}^3$.

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