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26. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 723)

Bérczes, Attila; Luca, Florian
On the Sum of Digits of Numerators of Bernoulli Numbers
Let $b\gt 1$ be an integer. We prove that for almost all $n$, the sum of the digits in base $b$ of the numerator of the Bernoulli number $B_{2n}$ exceeds $c\log n$, where $c:=c(b)\gt 0$ is some constant depending on $b$.

Keywords:Bernoulli numbers, sums of digits

27. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 814)

Petridis, Yiannis N.; Raulf, Nicole; Risager, Morten S.
Quantum Limits of Eisenstein Series and Scattering States
We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak.

Keywords:quantum limits, Eisenstein series, scattering poles
Categories:11F72, 58G25, 35P25

28. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 520)

Elbasraoui, Abdelkrim; Sebbar, Abdellah
Equivariant Forms: Structure and Geometry
In this paper we study the notion of equivariant forms introduced in the authors' previous works. In particular, we completely classify all the equivariant forms for a subgroup of $\operatorname{SL}_2(\mathbb{Z})$ by means of the cross-ratio, the weight 2 modular forms, the quasimodular forms, as well as differential forms of a Riemann surface and sections of a canonical line bundle.

Keywords:equivariant forms, modular forms, Schwarz derivative, cross-ratio, differential forms

29. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 544)

Gauthier, P. M.
Universally Overconvergent Power Series via the Riemann Zeta-function
The Riemann zeta-function is employed to generate universally overconvergent power series.

Keywords:overconvergence, zeta-function
Categories:30K05, 11M06

30. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 225)

Agashe, Amod
On the Notion of Visibility of Torsors
Let $J$ be an abelian variety and $A$ be an abelian subvariety of $J$, both defined over $\mathbf{Q}$. Let $x$ be an element of $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A)$. Then there are at least two definitions of $x$ being visible in $J$: one asks that the torsor corresponding to $x$ be isomorphic over $\mathbf{Q}$ to a subvariety of $J$, and the other asks that $x$ be in the kernel of the natural map $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A) \to H^1(\mathbf{Q},J)$. In this article, we clarify the relation between the two definitions.

Keywords:torsors, principal homogeneous spaces, visibility, Shafarevich-Tate group
Categories:11G35, 14G25

31. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 510)

Dubickas, Artūras
Linear Forms in Monic Integer Polynomials
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the list of nonzero integers $u_1,\dots,u_k$, $k \geq 2$, under which a monic polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ is expressible by a linear form $u_1f_1+\dots+u_kf_k$ in monic polynomials $f_1,\dots,f_k \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$. This condition is independent of $f$. We also show that if this condition holds, then the monic polynomials $f_1,\dots,f_k$ can be chosen to be irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$.

Keywords:irreducible polynomial, height, linear form in polynomials, Eisenstein's criterion
Categories:11R09, 11C08, 11B83

32. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 412)

Sanders, T.
Structure in Sets with Logarithmic Doubling
Suppose that $G$ is an abelian group, $A \subset G$ is finite with $|A+A| \leq K|A|$ and $\eta \in (0,1]$ is a parameter. Our main result is that there is a set $\mathcal{L}$ such that \begin{equation*} |A \cap \operatorname{Span}(\mathcal{L})| \geq K^{-O_\eta(1)}|A| \quad\text{and}\quad |\mathcal{L}| = O(K^\eta\log |A|). \end{equation*} We include an application of this result to a generalisation of the Roth--Meshulam theorem due to Liu and Spencer.

Keywords:Fourier analysis, Freiman's theorem, capset problem

33. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 251)

Borwein, Peter; Choi, Stephen K. K.; Ganguli, Himadri
Sign Changes of the Liouville Function on Quadratics
Let $\lambda (n)$ denote the Liouville function. Complementary to the prime number theorem, Chowla conjectured that \begin{equation*} \label{a.1} \sum_{n\le x} \lambda (f(n)) =o(x)\tag{$*$} \end{equation*} for any polynomial $f(x)$ with integer coefficients which is not of form $bg(x)^2$. When $f(x)=x$, $(*)$ is equivalent to the prime number theorem. Chowla's conjecture has been proved for linear functions, but for degree greater than 1, the conjecture seems to be extremely hard and remains wide open. One can consider a weaker form of Chowla's conjecture. Conjecture 1. [Cassaigne et al.] If $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z} [x]$ and is not in the form of $bg^2(x)$ for some $g(x)\in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, then $\lambda (f(n))$ changes sign infinitely often. Clearly, Chowla's conjecture implies Conjecture 1. Although weaker, Conjecture 1 is still wide open for polynomials of degree $\gt 1$. In this article, we study Conjecture 1 for quadratic polynomials. One of our main theorems is the following. Theorem 1 Let $f(x) = ax^2+bx +c $ with $a\gt 0$ and $l$ be a positive integer such that $al$ is not a perfect square. If the equation $f(n)=lm^2 $ has one solution $(n_0,m_0) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$, then it has infinitely many positive solutions $(n,m) \in \mathbb{N}^2$. As a direct consequence of Theorem 1, we prove the following. Theorem 2 Let $f(x)=ax^2+bx+c$ with $a \in \mathbb{N}$ and $b,c \in \mathbb{Z}$. Let \[ A_0=\Bigl[\frac{|b|+(|D|+1)/2}{2a}\Bigr]+1. \] Then either the binary sequence $\{ \lambda (f(n)) \}_{n=A_0}^\infty$ is a constant sequence or it changes sign infinitely often. Some partial results of Conjecture 1 for quadratic polynomials are also proved using Theorem 1.

Keywords:Liouville function, Chowla's conjecture, prime number theorem, binary sequences, changes sign infinitely often, quadratic polynomials, Pell equation
Categories:11N60, 11B83, 11D09

34. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 258)

Chandoul, A.; Jellali, M.; Mkaouar, M.
The Smallest Pisot Element in the Field of Formal Power Series Over a Finite Field
Dufresnoy and Pisot characterized the smallest Pisot number of degree $n \geq 3$ by giving explicitly its minimal polynomial. In this paper, we translate Dufresnoy and Pisot's result to the Laurent series case. The aim of this paper is to prove that the minimal polynomial of the smallest Pisot element (SPE) of degree $n$ in the field of formal power series over a finite field is given by $P(Y)=Y^{n}-\alpha XY^{n-1}-\alpha^n,$ where $\alpha$ is the least element of the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{q}\backslash\{0\}$ (as a finite total ordered set). We prove that the sequence of SPEs of degree $n$ is decreasing and converges to $\alpha X.$ Finally, we show how to obtain explicit continued fraction expansion of the smallest Pisot element over a finite field.

Keywords:Pisot element, continued fraction, Laurent series, finite fields
Categories:11A55, 11D45, 11D72, 11J61, 11J66

35. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 500)

Browning, T. D.
The Lang--Weil Estimate for Cubic Hypersurfaces
An improved estimate is provided for the number of $\mathbb{F}_q$-rational points on a geometrically irreducible, projective, cubic hypersurface that is not equal to a cone.

Keywords:cubic hypersurface, rational points, finite fields
Categories:11G25, 14G15

36. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 148)

Oukhaba, Hassan; Viguié, Stéphane
On the Gras Conjecture for Imaginary Quadratic Fields
In this paper we extend K. Rubin's methods to prove the Gras conjecture for abelian extensions of a given imaginary quadratic field $k$ and prime numbers $p$ that divide the number of roots of unity in $k$.

Keywords:elliptic units, Stark units, Gras conjecture, Euler systems
Categories:11R27, 11R29, 11G16

37. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 161)

Rêgo, L. C.; Cintra, R. J.
An Extension of the Dirichlet Density for Sets of Gaussian Integers
Several measures for the density of sets of integers have been proposed, such as the asymptotic density, the Schnirelmann density, and the Dirichlet density. There has been some work in the literature on extending some of these concepts of density to higher dimensional sets of integers. In this work, we propose an extension of the Dirichlet density for sets of Gaussian integers and investigate some of its properties.

Keywords:Gaussian integers, Dirichlet density
Categories:11B05, 11M99, 11N99

38. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 842)

Sairaiji, Fumio; Yamauchi, Takuya
The Rank of Jacobian Varieties over the Maximal Abelian Extensions of Number Fields: Towards the Frey-Jarden Conjecture
Frey and Jarden asked if any abelian variety over a number field $K$ has the infinite Mordell-Weil rank over the maximal abelian extension $K^{\operatorname{ab}}$. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to their conjecture for the Jacobian variety of any smooth projective curve $C$ over $K$ such that $\sharp C(K^{\operatorname{ab}})=\infty$ and for any abelian variety of $\operatorname{GL}_2$-type with trivial character.

Keywords:Mordell-Weil rank, Jacobian varieties, Frey-Jarden conjecture, abelian points
Categories:11G05, 11D25, 14G25, 14K07

39. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 283)

Coons, Michael
Transcendental Solutions of a Class of Minimal Functional Equations
We prove a result concerning power series $f(z)\in\mathbb{C}[\mkern-3mu[z]\mkern-3mu]$ satisfying a functional equation of the form $$ f(z^d)=\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{A_k(z)}{B_k(z)}f(z)^k, $$ where $A_k(z),B_k(z)\in \mathbb{C}[z]$. In particular, we show that if $f(z)$ satisfies a minimal functional equation of the above form with $n\geqslant 2$, then $f(z)$ is necessarily transcendental. Towards a more complete classification, the case $n=1$ is also considered.

Keywords:transcendence, generating functions, Mahler-type functional equation
Categories:11B37, 11B83, , 11J91

40. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 70)

Hrubeš, P.; Wigderson, A.; Yehudayoff, A.
An Asymptotic Bound on the Composition Number of Integer Sums of Squares Formulas
Let $\sigma_{\mathbb Z}(k)$ be the smallest $n$ such that there exists an identity \[ (x_1^2 + x_2^2 + \cdots + x_k^2) \cdot (y_1^2 + y_2^2 + \cdots + y_k^2) = f_1^2 + f_2^2 + \cdots + f_n^2, \] with $f_1,\dots,f_n$ being polynomials with integer coefficients in the variables $x_1,\dots,x_k$ and $y_1,\dots,y_k$. We prove that $\sigma_{\mathbb Z}(k) \geq \Omega(k^{6/5})$.

Keywords:composition formulas, sums of squares, Radon-Hurwitz number

41. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 850)

Shparlinski, Igor E.; Stange, Katherine E.
Character Sums with Division Polynomials
We obtain nontrivial estimates of quadratic character sums of division polynomials $\Psi_n(P)$, $n=1,2, \dots$, evaluated at a given point $P$ on an elliptic curve over a finite field of $q$ elements. Our bounds are nontrivial if the order of $P$ is at least $q^{1/2 + \varepsilon}$ for some fixed $\varepsilon > 0$. This work is motivated by an open question about statistical indistinguishability of some cryptographically relevant sequences that was recently brought up by K. Lauter and the second author.

Keywords:division polynomial, character sum
Categories:11L40, 14H52

42. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 774)

Mollin, R. A.; Srinivasan, A.
Pell Equations: Non-Principal Lagrange Criteria and Central Norms
We provide a criterion for the central norm to be any value in the simple continued fraction expansion of $\sqrt{D}$ for any non-square integer $D>1$. We also provide a simple criterion for the solvability of the Pell equation $x^2-Dy^2=-1$ in terms of congruence conditions modulo $D$.

Keywords:Pell's equation, continued fractions, central norms
Categories:11D09, 11A55, 11R11, 11R29

43. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 435)

Zelator, Konstantine
A Note on the Diophantine Equation $x^2 + y^6 = z^e$, $e \geq 4$
We consider the diophantine equation $x^2 + y^6 = z^e$, $e \geq 4$. We show that, when $e$ is a multiple of $4$ or $6$, this equation has no solutions in positive integers with $x$ and $y$ relatively prime. As a corollary, we show that there exists no primitive Pythagorean triangle one of whose leglengths is a perfect cube, while the hypotenuse length is an integer square.

Keywords:diophantine equation

44. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 400)

Sebbar, Abdellah; Sebbar, Ahmed
Eisenstein Series and Modular Differential Equations
The purpose of this paper is to solve various differential equations having Eisenstein series as coefficients using various tools and techniques. The solutions are given in terms of modular forms, modular functions, and equivariant forms.

Keywords:differential equations, modular forms, Schwarz derivative, equivariant forms
Categories:11F11, 34M05

45. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 26)

Bertin, Marie José
A Mahler Measure of a $K3$ Surface Expressed as a Dirichlet $L$-Series
We present another example of a $3$-variable polynomial defining a $K3$-hypersurface and having a logarithmic Mahler measure expressed in terms of a Dirichlet $L$-series.

Keywords:modular Mahler measure, Eisenstein-Kronecker series, $L$-series of $K3$-surfaces, $l$-adic representations, Livné criterion, Rankin-Cohen brackets
Categories:11, 14D, 14J

46. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 67)

Cummins, C. J.; Duncan, J. F.
An $E_8$ Correspondence for Multiplicative Eta-Products
We describe an $E_8$ correspondence for the multiplicative eta-products of weight at least $4$.

Keywords:We describe an E8 correspondence for the multiplicative eta-products of weight at least 4.
Categories:11F20, 11F12, 17B60

47. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 193)

Ulas, Maciej
Rational Points in Arithmetic Progressions on $y^2=x^n+k$
Let $C$ be a hyperelliptic curve given by the equation $y^2=f(x)$ for $f\in\mathbb{Z}[x]$ without multiple roots. We say that points $P_{i}=(x_{i}, y_{i})\in C(\mathbb{Q})$ for $i=1,2,\dots, m$ are in arithmetic progression if the numbers $x_{i}$ for $i=1,2,\dots, m$ are in arithmetic progression. In this paper we show that there exists a polynomial $k\in\mathbb{Z}[t]$ with the property that on the elliptic curve $\mathcal{E}': y^2=x^3+k(t)$ (defined over the field $\mathbb{Q}(t)$) we can find four points in arithmetic progression that are independent in the group of all $\mathbb{Q}(t)$-rational points on the curve $\mathcal{E}'$. In particular this result generalizes earlier results of Lee and V\'{e}lez. We also show that if $n\in\mathbb{N}$ is odd, then there are infinitely many $k$'s with the property that on curves $y^2=x^n+k$ there are four rational points in arithmetic progressions. In the case when $n$ is even we can find infinitely many $k$'s such that on curves $y^2=x^n+k$ there are six rational points in arithmetic progression.

Keywords:arithmetic progressions, elliptic curves, rational points on hyperelliptic curves

48. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 748)

Shparlinski, Igor E.
On the Distribution of Irreducible Trinomials
We obtain new results about the number of trinomials $t^n + at + b$ with integer coefficients in a box $(a,b) \in [C, C+A] \times [D, D+B]$ that are irreducible modulo a prime $p$. As a by-product we show that for any $p$ there are irreducible polynomials of height at most $p^{1/2+o(1)}$, improving on the previous estimate of $p^{2/3+o(1)}$ obtained by the author in 1989.

Keywords:irreducible trinomials, character sums
Categories:11L40, 11T06

49. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 38)

Butske, William
Endomorphisms of Two Dimensional Jacobians and Related Finite Algebras
Zarhin proves that if $C$ is the curve $y^2=f(x)$ where $\textrm{Gal}_{\mathbb{Q}}(f(x))=S_n$ or $A_n$, then ${\textrm{End}}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}}(J)=\mathbb{Z}$. In seeking to examine his result in the genus $g=2$ case supposing other Galois groups, we calculate $\textrm{End}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}}(J)\otimes_{\mathbb{Z}} \mathbb{F}_2$ for a genus $2$ curve where $f(x)$ is irreducible. In particular, we show that unless the Galois group is $S_5$ or $A_5$, the Galois group does not determine ${\textrm{End}}_{\overline{\mathbb{Q}}}(J)$.

Categories:11G10, 20C20

50. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 60)

Coons, Michael
Extension of Some Theorems of W. Schwarz
In this paper, we prove that a non--zero power series $F(z)\in\mathbb{C} [\mkern-3mu[ z]\mkern-3mu] $ satisfying $$F(z^d)=F(z)+\frac{A(z)}{B(z)},$$ where $d\geq 2$, $A(z),B(z)\in\mathbb{C}[z]$ with $A(z)\neq 0$ and $\deg A(z),\deg B(z)
Keywords:functional equations, transcendence, power series
Categories:11B37, 11J81
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