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26. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 410)

Service, Robert
A Ramsey Theorem with an Application to Sequences in Banach Spaces
The notion of a maximally conditional sequence is introduced for sequences in a Banach space. It is then proved using Ramsey theory that every basic sequence in a Banach space has a subsequence which is either an unconditional basic sequence or a maximally conditional sequence. An apparently novel, purely combinatorial lemma in the spirit of Galvin's theorem is used in the proof. An alternative proof of the dichotomy result for sequences in Banach spaces is also sketched, using the Galvin-Prikry theorem.

Keywords:Banach spaces, Ramsey theory
Categories:46B15, 05D10

27. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 255)

Dehaye, Paul-Olivier
On an Identity due to Bump and Diaconis, and Tracy and Widom
A classical question for a Toeplitz matrix with given symbol is how to compute asymptotics for the determinants of its reductions to finite rank. One can also consider how those asymptotics are affected when shifting an initial set of rows and columns (or, equivalently, asymptotics of their minors). Bump and Diaconis obtained a formula for such shifts involving Laguerre polynomials and sums over symmetric groups. They also showed how the Heine identity extends for such minors, which makes this question relevant to Random Matrix Theory. Independently, Tracy and Widom used the Wiener-Hopf factorization to express those shifts in terms of products of infinite matrices. We show directly why those two expressions are equal and uncover some structure in both formulas that was unknown to their authors. We introduce a mysterious differential operator on symmetric functions that is very similar to vertex operators. We show that the Bump-Diaconis-Tracy-Widom identity is a differentiated version of the classical Jacobi-Trudi identity.

Keywords:Toeplitz matrices, Jacobi-Trudi identity, Szegő limit theorem, Heine identity, Wiener-Hopf factorization
Categories:47B35, 05E05, 20G05

28. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 217)

Chen, William Y. C.; Wang, Larry X. W.; Yang, Arthur L. B.
Recurrence Relations for Strongly $q$-Log-Convex Polynomials
We consider a class of strongly $q$-log-convex polynomials based on a triangular recurrence relation with linear coefficients, and we show that the Bell polynomials, the Bessel polynomials, the Ramanujan polynomials and the Dowling polynomials are strongly $q$-log-convex. We also prove that the Bessel transformation preserves log-convexity.

Keywords:log-concavity, $q$-log-convexity, strong $q$-log-convexity, Bell polynomials, Bessel polynomials, Ramanujan polynomials, Dowling polynomials
Categories:05A20, 05E99

29. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 757)

Woo, Alexander
Interval Pattern Avoidance for Arbitrary Root Systems
We extend the idea of interval pattern avoidance defined by Yong and the author for $S_n$ to arbitrary Weyl groups using the definition of pattern avoidance due to Billey and Braden, and Billey and Postnikov. We show that, as previously shown by Yong and the author for $\operatorname{GL}_n$, interval pattern avoidance is a universal tool for characterizing which Schubert varieties have certain local properties, and where these local properties hold.

Categories:14M15, 05E15

30. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 425)

Chapoton, Frédéric
Free Pre-Lie Algebras are Free as Lie Algebras
We prove that the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $\operatorname{PreLie}$ is a free Lie algebra in the category of $\mathfrak{S}$-modules and can therefore be written as the composition of the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $\operatorname{Lie}$ with a new $\mathfrak{S}$-module $X$. This implies that free pre-Lie algebras in the category of vector spaces, when considered as Lie algebras, are free on generators that can be described using $X$. Furthermore, we define a natural filtration on the $\mathfrak{S}$-module $X$. We also obtain a relationship between $X$ and the $\mathfrak{S}$-module coming from the anticyclic structure of the $\operatorname{PreLie}$ operad.

Categories:18D50, 17B01, 18G40, 05C05

31. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 453)

Desgroseilliers, Marc; Larose, Benoit; Malvenuto, Claudia; Vincent, Christelle
Some Results on Two Conjectures of Schützenberger
We present some partial results concerning two conjectures of Schützenberger on evacuations of Young tableaux.

Keywords:Evacuation of Standard Young tableaux
Categories:05E10, 05A99

32. CMB 2009 (vol 53 pp. 3)

Athanasiadis, Christos A.
A Combinatorial Reciprocity Theorem for Hyperplane Arrangements
Given a nonnegative integer $m$ and a finite collection $\mathcal A$ of linear forms on $\mathcal Q^d$, the arrangement of affine hyperplanes in $\mathcal Q^d$ defined by the equations $\alpha(x) = k$ for $\alpha \in \mathcal A$ and integers $k \in [-m, m]$ is denoted by $\mathcal A^m$. It is proved that the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of $\mathcal A^m$ are quasi-polynomials in $m$ and that they satisfy a simple combinatorial reciprocity law.

Categories:52C35, 05E99

33. CMB 2009 (vol 53 pp. 378)

Zhou, Sizhong
A New Sufficient Condition for a Graph To Be $(g,f,n)$-Critical
Let $G$ be a graph of order $p$, let $a$, $b$, and $n$ be nonnegative integers with $1\leq a\lt b$, and let $g$ and $f$ be two integer-valued functions defined on $V(G)$ such that $a\leq g(x)\lt f(x)\leq b$ for all $x\in V(G)$. A $(g,f)$-factor of graph $G$ is a spanning subgraph $F$ of $G$ such that $g(x)\leq d_F(x)\leq f(x)$ for each $x\in V(F)$. Then a graph $G$ is called $(g,f,n)$-critical if after deleting any $n$ vertices of $G$ the remaining graph of $G$ has a $(g,f)$-factor. The binding number $\operatorname{bind}(G)$ of $G$ is the minimum value of ${|N_G(X)|}/{|X|}$ taken over all non-empty subsets $X$ of $V(G)$ such that $N_G(X)\neq V(G)$. In this paper, it is proved that $G$ is a $(g,f,n)$-critical graph if \[ \operatorname{bind}(G)\gt \frac{(a+b-1)(p-1)}{(a+1)p-(a+b)-bn+2} \quad\text{and}\quad p\geq \frac{(a+b-1)(a+b-2)}{a+1}+\frac{bn}{a}. \] Furthermore, it is shown that this result is best possible in some sense.

Keywords:graph, $(g,f)$-factor, $(g,f,n)$-critical graph, binding number
Category:05C70

34. CMB 2009 (vol 53 pp. 171)

Thomas, Hugh; Yong, Alexander
Multiplicity-Free Schubert Calculus
Multiplicity-free algebraic geometry is the study of subvarieties $Y\subseteq X$ with the ``smallest invariants'' as witnessed by a multiplicity-free Chow ring decomposition of $[Y]\in A^{\star}(X)$ into a predetermined linear basis. This paper concerns the case of Richardson subvarieties of the Grassmannian in terms of the Schubert basis. We give a nonrecursive combinatorial classification of multiplicity-free Richardson varieties, i.e., we classify multiplicity-free products of Schubert classes. This answers a question of W. Fulton.

Categories:14M15, 14M05, 05E99

35. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 451)

Pach, János; Tardos, Gábor; Tóth, Géza
Indecomposable Coverings
We prove that for every $k>1$, there exist $k$-fold coverings of the plane (i) with strips, (ii) with axis-parallel rectangles, and (iii) with homothets of any fixed concave quadrilateral, that cannot be decomposed into two coverings. We also construct for every $k>1$ a set of points $P$ and a family of disks $\cal D$ in the plane, each containing at least $k$ elements of $P$, such that, no matter how we color the points of $P$ with two colors, there exists a disk $D\in{\cal D}$ all of whose points are of the same color.

Categories:52C15, 05C15

36. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 416)

Malik, Shabnam; Qureshi, Ahmad Mahmood; Zamfirescu, Tudor
Hamiltonian Properties of Generalized Halin Graphs
A Halin graph is a graph $H=T\cup C$, where $T$ is a tree with no vertex of degree two, and $C$ is a cycle connecting the end-vertices of $T$ in the cyclic order determined by a plane embedding of $T$. In this paper, we define classes of generalized Halin graphs, called $k$-Halin graphs, and investigate their Hamiltonian properties.

Keywords:$k$-Halin graph, Hamiltonian, Hamiltonian connected, traceable
Categories:05C45, 05C38

37. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 535)

Csorba, Péter
On the Simple $\Z_2$-homotopy Types of Graph Complexes and Their Simple $\Z_2$-universality
We prove that the neighborhood complex $\N(G)$, the box complex $\B(G)$, the homomorphism complex $\Hom(K_2,G)$and the Lov\'{a}sz complex $\L(G)$ have the same simple $\Z_2$-homotopy type in the sense of Whitehead. We show that these graph complexes are simple $\Z_2$-universal.

Keywords:graph complexes, simple $\Z_2$-homotopy, universality
Categories:57Q10, 05C10, 55P10

38. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 584)

Purbhoo, Kevin; Willigenburg, Stephanie van
On Tensor Products of Polynomial Representations
We determine the necessary and sufficient combinatorial conditions for which the tensor product of two irreducible polynomial representations of $\GL(n,\mathbb{C})$ is isomorphic to another. As a consequence we discover families of Littlewood--Richardson coefficients that are non-zero, and a condition on Schur non-negativity.

Keywords:polynomial representation, symmetric function, Littlewood--Richardson coefficient, Schur non-negative
Categories:05E05, 05E10, 20C30

39. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 413)

Thé, L. Nguyen Van
Big Ramsey Degrees and Divisibility in Classes of Ultrametric Spaces
Given a countable set $S$ of positive reals, we study finite-dimensional Ramsey-theoretic properties of the countable ultrametric Urysohn space $\textbf{Q} _S$ with distances in $S$.

Keywords:Ramsey theory, Urysohn metric spaces, ultrametric spaces
Categories:05C50, 54E35

40. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 424)

Novelli, Jean-Christophe; Thibon, Jean-Yves
Noncommutative Symmetric Bessel Functions
The consideration of tensor products of $0$-Hecke algebra modules leads to natural analogs of the Bessel $J$-functions in the algebra of noncommutative symmetric functions. This provides a simple explanation of various combinatorial properties of Bessel functions.

Categories:05E05, 16W30, 05A15

41. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 47)

Croot, Ernie
The Minimal Number of Three-Term Arithmetic Progressions Modulo a Prime Converges to a Limit
How few three-term arithmetic progressions can a subset $S \subseteq \Z_N := \Z/N\Z$ have if $|S| \geq \upsilon N$ (that is, $S$ has density at least $\upsilon$)? Varnavides %\cite{varnavides} showed that this number of arithmetic progressions is at least $c(\upsilon)N^2$ for sufficiently large integers $N$. It is well known that determining good lower bounds for $c(\upsilon)> 0$ is at the same level of depth as Erd\" os's famous conjecture about whether a subset $T$ of the naturals where $\sum_{n \in T} 1/n$ diverges, has a $k$-term arithmetic progression for $k=3$ (that is, a three-term arithmetic progression). We answer a question posed by B. Green %\cite{AIM} about how this minimial number of progressions oscillates for a fixed density $\upsilon$ as $N$ runs through the primes, and as $N$ runs through the odd positive integers.

Category:05D99

42. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 504)

Dukes, Peter; Ling, Alan C. H.
Asymptotic Existence of Resolvable Graph Designs
Let $v \ge k \ge 1$ and $\lam \ge 0$ be integers. A \emph{block design} $\BD(v,k,\lambda)$ is a collection $\cA$ of $k$-subsets of a $v$-set $X$ in which every unordered pair of elements from $X$ is contained in exactly $\lambda$ elements of $\cA$. More generally, for a fixed simple graph $G$, a \emph{graph design} $\GD(v,G,\lambda)$ is a collection $\cA$ of graphs isomorphic to $G$ with vertices in $X$ such that every unordered pair of elements from $X$ is an edge of exactly $\lambda$ elements of $\cA$. A famous result of Wilson says that for a fixed $G$ and $\lambda$, there exists a $\GD(v,G,\lambda)$ for all sufficiently large $v$ satisfying certain necessary conditions. A block (graph) design as above is \emph{resolvable} if $\cA$ can be partitioned into partitions of (graphs whose vertex sets partition) $X$. Lu has shown asymptotic existence in $v$ of resolvable $\BD(v,k,\lambda)$, yet for over twenty years the analogous problem for resolvable $\GD(v,G,\lambda)$ has remained open. In this paper, we settle asymptotic existence of resolvable graph designs.

Keywords:graph decomposition, resolvable designs
Categories:05B05, 05C70, 05B10

43. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 632)

Zelenyuk, Yevhen; Zelenyuk, Yuliya
Transformations and Colorings of Groups
Let $G$ be a compact topological group and let $f\colon G\to G$ be a continuous transformation of $G$. Define $f^*\colon G\to G$ by $f^*(x)=f(x^{-1})x$ and let $\mu=\mu_G$ be Haar measure on $G$. Assume that $H=\Imag f^*$ is a subgroup of $G$ and for every measurable $C\subseteq H$, $\mu_G((f^*)^{-1}(C))=\mu_H(C)$. Then for every measurable $C\subseteq G$, there exist $S\subseteq C$ and $g\in G$ such that $f(Sg^{-1})\subseteq Cg^{-1}$ and $\mu(S)\ge(\mu(C))^2$.

Keywords:compact topological group, continuous transformation, endomorphism, Ramsey theoryinversion,
Categories:05D10, 20D60, 22A10

44. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 535)

Hohlweg, Christophe
Generalized Descent Algebras
If $A$ is a subset of the set of reflections of a finite Coxeter group $W$, we define a sub-$\ZM$-module $\DC_A(W)$ of the group algebra $\ZM W$. We discuss cases where this submodule is a subalgebra. This family of subalgebras includes strictly the Solomon descent algebra, the group algebra and, if $W$ is of type $B$, the Mantaci--Reutenauer algebra.

Keywords:Coxeter group, Solomon descent algebra, descent set
Categories:20F55, 05E15

45. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 281)

Ragnarsson, Carl Johan; Suen, Wesley Wai; Wagner, David G.
Correction to a Theorem on Total Positivity
A well-known theorem states that if $f(z)$ generates a PF$_r$ sequence then $1/f(-z)$ generates a PF$_r$ sequence. We give two counterexamples which show that this is not true, and give a correct version of the theorem. In the infinite limit the result is sound: if $f(z)$ generates a PF sequence then $1/f(-z)$ generates a PF sequence.

Keywords:total positivity, Toeplitz matrix, Pólya frequency sequence, skew Schur function
Categories:15A48, 15A45, 15A57, 05E05

46. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 445)

Patras, Frédéric; Reutenauer, Christophe; Schocker, Manfred
On the Garsia Lie Idempotent
The orthogonal projection of the free associative algebra onto the free Lie algebra is afforded by an idempotent in the rational group algebra of the symmetric group $S_n$, in each homogenous degree $n$. We give various characterizations of this Lie idempotent and show that it is uniquely determined by a certain unit in the group algebra of $S_{n-1}$. The inverse of this unit, or, equivalently, the Gram matrix of the orthogonal projection, is described explicitly. We also show that the Garsia Lie idempotent is not constant on descent classes (in fact, not even on coplactic classes) in $S_n$.

Categories:17B01, 05A99, 16S30, 17B60

47. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 460)

Sommers, Eric N.
$B$-Stable Ideals in the Nilradical of a Borel Subalgebra
We count the number of strictly positive $B$-stable ideals in the nilradical of a Borel subalgebra and prove that the minimal roots of any $B$-stable ideal are conjugate by an element of the Weyl group to a subset of the simple roots. We also count the number of ideals whose minimal roots are conjugate to a fixed subset of simple roots.

Categories:20F55, 17B20, 05E99

48. CMB 2005 (vol 48 pp. 244)

McLeod, Alice; Moser, William
Counting Multiple Cyclic Choices Without Adjacencies
We give a particularly elementary solution to the following well-known problem. What is the number of $k$-subsets $X \subseteq I_n=\{1,2,3,\dots,n\}$ satisfying ``no two elements of $X$ are adjacent in the circular display of $I_n$''? Then we investigate a new generalization (multiple cyclic choices without adjacencies) and apply it to enumerating a class of 3-line latin rectangles.

Categories:05A19, 05A05

49. CMB 2004 (vol 47 pp. 161)

Alspach, Brian; Du, Shaofei
Suborbit Structure of Permutation $p$-Groups and an Application to Cayley Digraph Isomorphism
Let $P$ be a transitive permutation group of order $p^m$, $p$ an odd prime, containing a regular cyclic subgroup. The main result of this paper is a determination of the suborbits of $P$. The main result is used to give a simple proof of a recent result by J.~Morris on Cayley digraph isomorphisms.

Categories:20B25, 05C60

50. CMB 2002 (vol 45 pp. 537)

Chapoton, Frédéric; Fomin, Sergey; Zelevinsky, Andrei
Polytopal Realizations of Generalized Associahedra
No abstract.

Categories:05E15, 20F55, 52C07
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