Sharp Inequalities for Differentially Subordinate Harmonic Functions and Martingales We determine the best constants $C_{p,\infty}$ and $C_{1,p}$, $1 < p < \infty$, for which the following holds. If $u$, $v$ are orthogonal harmonic functions on a Euclidean domain such that $v$ is differentially subordinate to $u$, then $$\|v\|_p \leq C_{p,\infty} \|u\|_\infty,\quad \|v\|_1 \leq C_{1,p} \|u\|_p.$$ In particular, the inequalities are still sharp for the conjugate harmonic functions on the unit disc of $\mathbb R^2$. Sharp probabilistic versions of these estimates are also studied. As an application, we establish a sharp version of the classical logarithmic inequality of Zygmund. Keywords: harmonic function, conjugate harmonic functions, orthogonal harmonic functions, martingale, orthogonal martingales, norm inequality, optimal stopping problemCategories:31B05, 60G44, 60G40