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1. CMB Online first

Louder, Larsen; Wilton, Henry
Stackings and the $W$-cycles conjecture
We prove Wise's $W$-cycles conjecture: Consider a compact graph $\Gamma'$ immersing into another graph $\Gamma$. For any immersed cycle $\Lambda:S^1\to \Gamma$, we consider the map $\Lambda'$ from the circular components $\mathbb{S}$ of the pullback to $\Gamma'$. Unless $\Lambda'$ is reducible, the degree of the covering map $\mathbb{S}\to S^1$ is bounded above by minus the Euler characteristic of $\Gamma'$. As a corollary, any finitely generated subgroup of a one-relator group has finitely generated Schur multiplier.

Keywords:free groups, one-relator groups, right-orderability

2. CMB 2016 (vol 59 pp. 776)

Gauthier, Paul M; Sharifi, Fatemeh
The Carathéodory Reflection Principle and Osgood-Carathéodory Theorem on Riemann Surfaces
The Osgood-Carathéodory theorem asserts that conformal mappings between Jordan domains extend to homeomorphisms between their closures. For multiply-connected domains on Riemann surfaces, similar results can be reduced to the simply-connected case, but we find it simpler to deduce such results using a direct analogue of the Carathéodory reflection principle.

Keywords:bordered Riemann surface, reflection principle, Osgood-Carathéodory
Categories:30C25, 30F99

3. CMB 2016 (vol 59 pp. 472)

Clay, Adam; Desmarais, Colin; Naylor, Patrick
Testing Bi-orderability of Knot Groups
We investigate the bi-orderability of two-bridge knot groups and the groups of knots with 12 or fewer crossings by applying recent theorems of Chiswell, Glass and Wilson. Amongst all knots with 12 or fewer crossings (of which there are 2977), previous theorems were only able to determine bi-orderability of 499 of the corresponding knot groups. With our methods we are able to deal with 191 more.

Keywords:knots, fundamental groups, orderable groups
Categories:57M25, 57M27, 06F15

4. CMB 2016 (vol 59 pp. 564)

Li, Boyu
Normal Extensions of Representations of Abelian Semigroups
A commuting family of subnormal operators need not have a commuting normal extension. We study when a representation on an abelian semigroup can be extended to a normal representation, and show that it suffices to extend the set of generators to commuting normals. We also extend a result due to Athavale to representations on abelian lattice ordered semigroups.

Keywords:subnormal operator, normal extension, regular dilation, lattice ordered semigroup
Categories:47B20, 47A20, 47D03

5. CMB 2016 (vol 59 pp. 449)

Abdallah, Nancy
On Hodge Theory of Singular Plane Curves
The dimensions of the graded quotients of the cohomology of a plane curve complement $U=\mathbb P^2 \setminus C$ with respect to the Hodge filtration are described in terms of simple geometrical invariants. The case of curves with ordinary singularities is discussed in detail. We also give a precise numerical estimate for the difference between the Hodge filtration and the pole order filtration on $H^2(U,\mathbb C)$.

Keywords:plane curves, Hodge and pole order filtrations
Categories:32S35, 32S22, 14H50

6. CMB 2015 (vol 59 pp. 119)

Hu, Pei-Chu; Li, Bao Qin
A Simple Proof and Strengthening of a Uniqueness Theorem for L-functions
We give a simple proof and strengthening of a uniqueness theorem for functions in the extended Selberg class.

Keywords:meromorphic function, Dirichlet series, L-function, zero, order, uniqueness
Categories:30B50, 11M41

7. CMB 2015 (vol 59 pp. 182)

Naylor, Geoff; Rolfsen, Dale
Generalized Torsion in Knot Groups
In a group, a nonidentity element is called a generalized torsion element if some product of its conjugates equals the identity. We show that for many classical knots one can find generalized torsion in the fundamental group of its complement, commonly called the knot group. It follows that such a group is not bi-orderable. Examples include all torus knots, the (hyperbolic) knot $5_2$ and algebraic knots in the sense of Milnor.

Keywords:knot group, generalized torsion, ordered group
Categories:57M27, 32S55, 29F60

8. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 432)

Yang, Dachun; Yang, Sibei
Second-order Riesz Transforms and Maximal Inequalities Associated with Magnetic Schrödinger Operators
Let $A:=-(\nabla-i\vec{a})\cdot(\nabla-i\vec{a})+V$ be a magnetic Schrödinger operator on $\mathbb{R}^n$, where $\vec{a}:=(a_1,\dots, a_n)\in L^2_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n,\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $0\le V\in L^1_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ satisfy some reverse Hölder conditions. Let $\varphi\colon \mathbb{R}^n\times[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$ be such that $\varphi(x,\cdot)$ for any given $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is an Orlicz function, $\varphi(\cdot,t)\in {\mathbb A}_{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ for all $t\in (0,\infty)$ (the class of uniformly Muckenhoupt weights) and its uniformly critical upper type index $I(\varphi)\in(0,1]$. In this article, the authors prove that second-order Riesz transforms $VA^{-1}$ and $(\nabla-i\vec{a})^2A^{-1}$ are bounded from the Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space $H_{\varphi,\,A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, associated with $A$, to the Musielak-Orlicz space $L^{\varphi}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Moreover, the authors establish the boundedness of $VA^{-1}$ on $H_{\varphi, A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. As applications, some maximal inequalities associated with $A$ in the scale of $H_{\varphi, A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ are obtained.

Keywords:Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space, magnetic Schrödinger operator, atom, second-order Riesz transform, maximal inequality
Categories:42B30, 42B35, 42B25, 35J10, 42B37, 46E30

9. CMB 2013 (vol 57 pp. 225)

Adamaszek, Michał
Small Flag Complexes with Torsion
We classify flag complexes on at most $12$ vertices with torsion in the first homology group. The result is moderately computer-aided. As a consequence we confirm a folklore conjecture that the smallest poset whose order complex is homotopy equivalent to the real projective plane (and also the smallest poset with torsion in the first homology group) has exactly $13$ elements.

Keywords:clique complex, order complex, homology, torsion, minimal model
Categories:55U10, 06A11, 55P40, 55-04, 05-04

10. CMB Online first

Left-orderable fundamental group and Dehn surgery on the knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

11. CMB 2013 (vol 57 pp. 631)

Sokić, Miodrag
Indicators, Chains, Antichains, Ramsey Property
We introduce two Ramsey classes of finite relational structures. The first class contains finite structures of the form $(A,(I_{i})_{i=1}^{n},\leq ,(\preceq _{i})_{i=1}^{n})$ where $\leq $ is a total ordering on $A$ and $% \preceq _{i}$ is a linear ordering on the set $\{a\in A:I_{i}(a)\}$. The second class contains structures of the form $(A,\leq ,(I_{i})_{i=1}^{n},\preceq )$ where $(A,\leq )$ is a weak ordering and $% \preceq $ is a linear ordering on $A$ such that $A$ is partitioned by $% \{a\in A:I_{i}(a)\}$ into maximal chains in the partial ordering $\leq $ and each $\{a\in A:I_{i}(a)\}$ is an interval with respect to $\preceq $.

Keywords:Ramsey property, linear orderings
Categories:05C55, 03C15, 54H20

12. CMB Online first

Left-orderable fundamental group and Dehn surgery on the knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

13. CMB 2013 (vol 57 pp. 310)

Hakamata, Ryoto; Teragaito, Masakazu
Left-orderable Fundamental Group and Dehn Surgery on the Knot $5_2$
We show that the resulting manifold by $r$-surgery on the knot $5_2$, which is the two-bridge knot corresponding to the rational number $3/7$, has left-orderable fundamental group if the slope $r$ satisfies $0\le r \le 4$.

Keywords:left-ordering, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

14. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 850)

Teragaito, Masakazu
Left-orderability and Exceptional Dehn Surgery on Twist Knots
We show that any exceptional non-trivial Dehn surgery on a twist knot, except the trefoil, yields a $3$-manifold whose fundamental group is left-orderable. This is a generalization of a result of Clay, Lidman and Watson, and also gives a new supporting evidence for a conjecture of Boyer, Gordon and Watson.

Keywords:left-ordering, twist knot, Dehn surgery
Categories:57M25, 06F15

15. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 39)

Ben Amara, Jamel
Comparison Theorem for Conjugate Points of a Fourth-order Linear Differential Equation
In 1961, J. Barrett showed that if the first conjugate point $\eta_1(a)$ exists for the differential equation $(r(x)y'')''= p(x)y,$ where $r(x)\gt 0$ and $p(x)\gt 0$, then so does the first systems-conjugate point $\widehat\eta_1(a)$. The aim of this note is to extend this result to the general equation with middle term $(q(x)y')'$ without further restriction on $q(x)$, other than continuity.

Keywords:fourth-order linear differential equation, conjugate points, system-conjugate points, subwronskians
Categories:47E05, 34B05, 34C10

16. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 102)

Kong, Qingkai; Wang, Min
Eigenvalue Approach to Even Order System Periodic Boundary Value Problems
We study an even order system boundary value problem with periodic boundary conditions. By establishing the existence of a positive eigenvalue of an associated linear system Sturm-Liouville problem, we obtain new conditions for the boundary value problem to have a positive solution. Our major tools are the Krein-Rutman theorem for linear spectra and the fixed point index theory for compact operators.

Keywords:Green's function, high order system boundary value problems, positive solutions, Sturm-Liouville problem
Categories:34B18, 34B24

17. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 339)

Loring, Terry A.
From Matrix to Operator Inequalities
We generalize Löwner's method for proving that matrix monotone functions are operator monotone. The relation $x\leq y$ on bounded operators is our model for a definition of $C^{*}$-relations being residually finite dimensional. Our main result is a meta-theorem about theorems involving relations on bounded operators. If we can show there are residually finite dimensional relations involved and verify a technical condition, then such a theorem will follow from its restriction to matrices. Applications are shown regarding norms of exponentials, the norms of commutators, and "positive" noncommutative $*$-polynomials.

Keywords:$C*$-algebras, matrices, bounded operators, relations, operator norm, order, commutator, exponential, residually finite dimensional
Categories:46L05, 47B99

18. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 566)

Zhou, Xiang-Jun; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Ding-Xuan
Non-uniform Randomized Sampling for Multivariate Approximation by High Order Parzen Windows
We consider approximation of multivariate functions in Sobolev spaces by high order Parzen windows in a non-uniform sampling setting. Sampling points are neither i.i.d. nor regular, but are noised from regular grids by non-uniform shifts of a probability density function. Sample function values at sampling points are drawn according to probability measures with expected values being values of the approximated function. The approximation orders are estimated by means of regularity of the approximated function, the density function, and the order of the Parzen windows, under suitable choices of the scaling parameter.

Keywords:multivariate approximation, Sobolev spaces, non-uniform randomized sampling, high order Parzen windows, convergence rates
Categories:68T05, 62J02

19. CMB 2011 (vol 54 pp. 277)

Farley, Jonathan David
Maximal Sublattices of Finite Distributive Lattices. III: A Conjecture from the 1984 Banff Conference on Graphs and Order
Let $L$ be a finite distributive lattice. Let $\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)$ be the lattice $$ \{S\mid S\text{ is a sublattice of }L\}\cup\{\emptyset\} $$ and let $\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)]$ be the length of the shortest maximal chain in $\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)$. It is proved that if $K$ and $L$ are non-trivial finite distributive lattices, then $$ \ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(K\times L)]=\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(K)]+\ell_*[\operatorname{Sub}_0(L)]. $$ A conjecture from the 1984 Banff Conference on Graphs and Order is thus proved.

Keywords:(distributive) lattice, maximal sublattice, (partially) ordered set
Categories:06D05, 06D50, 06A07

20. CMB 2010 (vol 54 pp. 270)

Dow, Alan
Sequential Order Under PFA
It is shown that it follows from PFA that there is no compact scattered space of height greater than $\omega$ in which the sequential order and the scattering heights coincide.

Keywords:sequential order, scattered spaces, PFA
Categories:54D55, 03E05, 03E35, 54A20

21. CMB 2010 (vol 54 pp. 381)

Velušček, Dejan
A Short Note on the Higher Level Version of the Krull--Baer Theorem
Klep and Velu\v{s}\v{c}ek generalized the Krull--Baer theorem for higher level preorderings to the non-commutative setting. A $n$-real valuation $v$ on a skew field $D$ induces a group homomorphism $\overline{v}$. A section of $\overline{v}$ is a crucial ingredient of the construction of a complete preordering on the base field $D$ such that its projection on the residue skew field $k_v$ equals the given level $1$ ordering on $k_v$. In the article we give a proof of the existence of the section of $\overline{v}$, which was left as an open problem by Klep and Velu\v{s}\v{c}ek, and thus complete the generalization of the Krull--Baer theorem for preorderings.

Keywords:orderings of higher level, division rings, valuations
Categories:14P99, 06Fxx

22. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 475)

Jankowski, Tadeusz
Nonlinear Multipoint Boundary Value Problems for Second Order Differential Equations
In this paper we shall discuss nonlinear multipoint boundary value problems for second order differential equations when deviating arguments depend on the unknown solution. Sufficient conditions under which such problems have extremal and quasi-solutions are given. The problem of when a unique solution exists is also investigated. To obtain existence results, a monotone iterative technique is used. Two examples are added to verify theoretical results.

Keywords:second order differential equations, deviated arguments, nonlinear boundary conditions, extremal solutions, quasi-solutions, unique solution
Categories:34A45, 34K10

23. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 315)

Yi, Taishan; Zou, Xingfu
Generic Quasi-Convergence for Essentially Strongly Order-Preserving Semiflows
By employing the limit set dichotomy for essentially strongly order-preserving semiflows and the assumption that limit sets have infima and suprema in the state space, we prove a generic quasi-convergence principle implying the existence of an open and dense set of stable quasi-convergent points. We also apply this generic quasi-convergence principle to a model for biochemical feedback in protein synthesis and obtain some results about the model which are of theoretical and realistic significance.

Keywords:Essentially strongly order-preserving semiflow, compactness, quasi-convergence
Categories:34C12, 34K25

24. CMB 2009 (vol 52 pp. 39)

Cimpri\v{c}, Jakob
A Representation Theorem for Archimedean Quadratic Modules on $*$-Rings
We present a new approach to noncommutative real algebraic geometry based on the representation theory of $C^\ast$-algebras. An important result in commutative real algebraic geometry is Jacobi's representation theorem for archimedean quadratic modules on commutative rings. We show that this theorem is a consequence of the Gelfand--Naimark representation theorem for commutative $C^\ast$-algebras. A noncommutative version of Gelfand--Naimark theory was studied by I. Fujimoto. We use his results to generalize Jacobi's theorem to associative rings with involution.

Keywords:Ordered rings with involution, $C^\ast$-algebras and their representations, noncommutative convexity theory, real algebraic geometry
Categories:16W80, 46L05, 46L89, 14P99

25. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 15)

Aqzzouz, Belmesnaoui; Nouira, Redouane; Zraoula, Larbi
The Duality Problem for the Class of AM-Compact Operators on Banach Lattices
We prove the converse of a theorem of Zaanen about the duality problem of positive AM-compact operators.

Keywords:AM-compact operator, order continuous norm, discrete vector lattice
Categories:46A40, 46B40, 46B42
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