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76. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 593)

Liu, Congwen; Zhou, Lifang
On the $p$-norm of an Integral Operator in the Half Plane
We give a partial answer to a conjecture of Dostanić on the determination of the norm of a class of integral operators induced by the weighted Bergman projection in the upper half plane.

Keywords:Bergman projection, integral operator, $L^p$-norm, the upper half plane
Categories:47B38, 47G10, 32A36

77. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 184)

Shen, Zhongmin
On Some Non-Riemannian Quantities in Finsler Geometry
In this paper we study several non-Riemannian quantities in Finsler geometry. These non-Riemannian quantities play an important role in understanding the geometric properties of Finsler metrics. In particular, we study a new non-Riemannian quantity defined by the S-curvature. We show some relationships among the flag curvature, the S-curvature, and the new non-Riemannian quantity.

Keywords:Finsler metric, S-curvature, non-Riemannian quantity
Categories:53C60, 53B40

78. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 225)

Agashe, Amod
On the Notion of Visibility of Torsors
Let $J$ be an abelian variety and $A$ be an abelian subvariety of $J$, both defined over $\mathbf{Q}$. Let $x$ be an element of $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A)$. Then there are at least two definitions of $x$ being visible in $J$: one asks that the torsor corresponding to $x$ be isomorphic over $\mathbf{Q}$ to a subvariety of $J$, and the other asks that $x$ be in the kernel of the natural map $H^1(\mathbf{Q},A) \to H^1(\mathbf{Q},J)$. In this article, we clarify the relation between the two definitions.

Keywords:torsors, principal homogeneous spaces, visibility, Shafarevich-Tate group
Categories:11G35, 14G25

79. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 39)

Ben Amara, Jamel
Comparison Theorem for Conjugate Points of a Fourth-order Linear Differential Equation
In 1961, J. Barrett showed that if the first conjugate point $\eta_1(a)$ exists for the differential equation $(r(x)y'')''= p(x)y,$ where $r(x)\gt 0$ and $p(x)\gt 0$, then so does the first systems-conjugate point $\widehat\eta_1(a)$. The aim of this note is to extend this result to the general equation with middle term $(q(x)y')'$ without further restriction on $q(x)$, other than continuity.

Keywords:fourth-order linear differential equation, conjugate points, system-conjugate points, subwronskians
Categories:47E05, 34B05, 34C10

80. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 395)

Oancea, D.
Coessential Abelianization Morphisms in the Category of Groups
An epimorphism $\phi\colon G\to H$ of groups, where $G$ has rank $n$, is called coessential if every (ordered) generating $n$-tuple of $H$ can be lifted along $\phi$ to a generating $n$-tuple for $G$. We discuss this property in the context of the category of groups, and establish a criterion for such a group $G$ to have the property that its abelianization epimorphism $G\to G/[G,G]$, where $[G,G]$ is the commutator subgroup, is coessential. We give an example of a family of 2-generator groups whose abelianization epimorphism is not coessential. This family also provides counterexamples to the generalized Andrews--Curtis conjecture.

Keywords:coessential epimorphism, Nielsen transformations, Andrew-Curtis transformations
Categories:20F05, 20F99, 20J15

81. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 510)

Dubickas, Artūras
Linear Forms in Monic Integer Polynomials
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the list of nonzero integers $u_1,\dots,u_k$, $k \geq 2$, under which a monic polynomial $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ is expressible by a linear form $u_1f_1+\dots+u_kf_k$ in monic polynomials $f_1,\dots,f_k \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$. This condition is independent of $f$. We also show that if this condition holds, then the monic polynomials $f_1,\dots,f_k$ can be chosen to be irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$.

Keywords:irreducible polynomial, height, linear form in polynomials, Eisenstein's criterion
Categories:11R09, 11C08, 11B83

82. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 412)

Sanders, T.
Structure in Sets with Logarithmic Doubling
Suppose that $G$ is an abelian group, $A \subset G$ is finite with $|A+A| \leq K|A|$ and $\eta \in (0,1]$ is a parameter. Our main result is that there is a set $\mathcal{L}$ such that \begin{equation*} |A \cap \operatorname{Span}(\mathcal{L})| \geq K^{-O_\eta(1)}|A| \quad\text{and}\quad |\mathcal{L}| = O(K^\eta\log |A|). \end{equation*} We include an application of this result to a generalisation of the Roth--Meshulam theorem due to Liu and Spencer.

Keywords:Fourier analysis, Freiman's theorem, capset problem
Category:11B25

83. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 442)

Zelenyuk, Yevhen
Closed Left Ideal Decompositions of $U(G)$
Let $G$ be an infinite discrete group and let $\beta G$ be the Stone--Čech compactification of $G$. We take the points of $ėta G$ to be the ultrafilters on $G$, identifying the principal ultrafilters with the points of $G$. The set $U(G)$ of uniform ultrafilters on $G$ is a closed two-sided ideal of $\beta G$. For every $p\in U(G)$, define $I_p\subseteq\beta G$ by $I_p=\bigcap_{A\in p}\operatorname{cl} (GU(A))$, where $U(A)=\{p\in U(G):A\in p\}$. We show that if $|G|$ is a regular cardinal, then $\{I_p:p\in U(G)\}$ is the finest decomposition of $U(G)$ into closed left ideals of $\beta G$ such that the corresponding quotient space of $U(G)$ is Hausdorff.

Keywords:Stone--Čech compactification, uniform ultrafilter, closed left ideal, decomposition
Categories:22A15, 54H20, 22A30, 54D80

84. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 400)

Prunaru, Bebe
A Factorization Theorem for Multiplier Algebras of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces
Let $(X,\mathcal B,\mu)$ be a $\sigma$-finite measure space and let $H\subset L^2(X,\mu)$ be a separable reproducing kernel Hilbert space on $X$. We show that the multiplier algebra of $H$ has property $(A_1(1))$.

Keywords:reproducing kernel Hilbert space, Berezin transform, dual algebra
Categories:46E22, 47B32, 47L45

85. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 326)

Erdoğan, M. Burak; Oberlin, Daniel M.
Restricting Fourier Transforms of Measures to Curves in $\mathbb R^2$
We establish estimates for restrictions to certain curves in $\mathbb R^2$ of the Fourier transforms of some fractal measures.

Keywords:Fourier transforms of fractal measures, Fourier restriction
Categories:42B10, 28A12

86. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 272)

Cheng, Lixin; Luo, Zhenghua; Zhou, Yu
On Super Weakly Compact Convex Sets and Representation of the Dual of the Normed Semigroup They Generate
In this note, we first give a characterization of super weakly compact convex sets of a Banach space $X$: a closed bounded convex set $K\subset X$ is super weakly compact if and only if there exists a $w^*$ lower semicontinuous seminorm $p$ with $p\geq\sigma_K\equiv\sup_{x\in K}\langle\,\cdot\,,x\rangle$ such that $p^2$ is uniformly Fréchet differentiable on each bounded set of $X^*$. Then we present a representation theorem for the dual of the semigroup $\textrm{swcc}(X)$ consisting of all the nonempty super weakly compact convex sets of the space $X$.

Keywords:super weakly compact set, dual of normed semigroup, uniform Fréchet differentiability, representation
Categories:20M30, 46B10, 46B20, 46E15, 46J10, 49J50

87. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 258)

Chandoul, A.; Jellali, M.; Mkaouar, M.
The Smallest Pisot Element in the Field of Formal Power Series Over a Finite Field
Dufresnoy and Pisot characterized the smallest Pisot number of degree $n \geq 3$ by giving explicitly its minimal polynomial. In this paper, we translate Dufresnoy and Pisot's result to the Laurent series case. The aim of this paper is to prove that the minimal polynomial of the smallest Pisot element (SPE) of degree $n$ in the field of formal power series over a finite field is given by $P(Y)=Y^{n}-\alpha XY^{n-1}-\alpha^n,$ where $\alpha$ is the least element of the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{q}\backslash\{0\}$ (as a finite total ordered set). We prove that the sequence of SPEs of degree $n$ is decreasing and converges to $\alpha X.$ Finally, we show how to obtain explicit continued fraction expansion of the smallest Pisot element over a finite field.

Keywords:Pisot element, continued fraction, Laurent series, finite fields
Categories:11A55, 11D45, 11D72, 11J61, 11J66

88. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 251)

Borwein, Peter; Choi, Stephen K. K.; Ganguli, Himadri
Sign Changes of the Liouville Function on Quadratics
Let $\lambda (n)$ denote the Liouville function. Complementary to the prime number theorem, Chowla conjectured that \begin{equation*} \label{a.1} \sum_{n\le x} \lambda (f(n)) =o(x)\tag{$*$} \end{equation*} for any polynomial $f(x)$ with integer coefficients which is not of form $bg(x)^2$. When $f(x)=x$, $(*)$ is equivalent to the prime number theorem. Chowla's conjecture has been proved for linear functions, but for degree greater than 1, the conjecture seems to be extremely hard and remains wide open. One can consider a weaker form of Chowla's conjecture. Conjecture 1. [Cassaigne et al.] If $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z} [x]$ and is not in the form of $bg^2(x)$ for some $g(x)\in \mathbb{Z}[x]$, then $\lambda (f(n))$ changes sign infinitely often. Clearly, Chowla's conjecture implies Conjecture 1. Although weaker, Conjecture 1 is still wide open for polynomials of degree $\gt 1$. In this article, we study Conjecture 1 for quadratic polynomials. One of our main theorems is the following. Theorem 1 Let $f(x) = ax^2+bx +c $ with $a\gt 0$ and $l$ be a positive integer such that $al$ is not a perfect square. If the equation $f(n)=lm^2 $ has one solution $(n_0,m_0) \in \mathbb{Z}^2$, then it has infinitely many positive solutions $(n,m) \in \mathbb{N}^2$. As a direct consequence of Theorem 1, we prove the following. Theorem 2 Let $f(x)=ax^2+bx+c$ with $a \in \mathbb{N}$ and $b,c \in \mathbb{Z}$. Let \[ A_0=\Bigl[\frac{|b|+(|D|+1)/2}{2a}\Bigr]+1. \] Then either the binary sequence $\{ \lambda (f(n)) \}_{n=A_0}^\infty$ is a constant sequence or it changes sign infinitely often. Some partial results of Conjecture 1 for quadratic polynomials are also proved using Theorem 1.

Keywords:Liouville function, Chowla's conjecture, prime number theorem, binary sequences, changes sign infinitely often, quadratic polynomials, Pell equation
Categories:11N60, 11B83, 11D09

89. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 388)

Mursaleen, M.
Application of Measure of Noncompactness to Infinite Systems of Differential Equations
In this paper we determine the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness on the sequence space $n(\phi)$ of W. L. C. Sargent. Further we apply the technique of measures of noncompactness to the theory of infinite systems of differential equations in the Banach sequence spaces $n(\phi)$ and $m(\phi)$. Our aim is to present some existence results for infinite systems of differential equations formulated with the help of measures of noncompactness.

Keywords:sequence spaces, BK spaces, measure of noncompactness, infinite system of differential equations
Categories:46B15, 46B45, 46B50, 34A34, 34G20

90. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 354)

Hare, Kathryn E.; Mendivil, Franklin; Zuberman, Leandro
The Sizes of Rearrangements of Cantor Sets
A linear Cantor set $C$ with zero Lebesgue measure is associated with the countable collection of the bounded complementary open intervals. A rearrangment of $C$ has the same lengths of its complementary intervals, but with different locations. We study the Hausdorff and packing $h$-measures and dimensional properties of the set of all rearrangments of some given $C$ for general dimension functions $h$. For each set of complementary lengths, we construct a Cantor set rearrangement which has the maximal Hausdorff and the minimal packing $h$-premeasure, up to a constant. We also show that if the packing measure of this Cantor set is positive, then there is a rearrangement which has infinite packing measure.

Keywords:Hausdorff dimension, packing dimension, dimension functions, Cantor sets, cut-out set
Categories:28A78, 28A80

91. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 500)

Browning, T. D.
The Lang--Weil Estimate for Cubic Hypersurfaces
An improved estimate is provided for the number of $\mathbb{F}_q$-rational points on a geometrically irreducible, projective, cubic hypersurface that is not equal to a cone.

Keywords:cubic hypersurface, rational points, finite fields
Categories:11G25, 14G15

92. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 292)

Dai, Mei-Feng
Quasisymmetrically Minimal Moran Sets
M. Hu and S. Wen considered quasisymmetrically minimal uniform Cantor sets of Hausdorff dimension $1$, where at the $k$-th set one removes from each interval $I$ a certain number $n_{k}$ of open subintervals of length $c_{k}|I|$, leaving $(n_{k}+1)$ closed subintervals of equal length. Quasisymmetrically Moran sets of Hausdorff dimension $1$ considered in the paper are more general than uniform Cantor sets in that neither the open subintervals nor the closed subintervals are required to be of equal length.

Keywords:quasisymmetric, Moran set, Hausdorff dimension
Categories:28A80, 54C30

93. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 265)

Chen, Yichao; Mansour, Toufik; Zou, Qian
Embedding Distributions of Generalized Fan Graphs
Total embedding distributions have been known for a few classes of graphs. Chen, Gross, and Rieper computed it for necklaces, close-end ladders and cobblestone paths. Kwak and Shim computed it for bouquets of circles and dipoles. In this paper, a splitting theorem is generalized and the embedding distributions of generalized fan graphs are obtained.

Keywords:total embedding distribution, splitting theorem, generalized fan graphs
Category:05C10

94. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 127)

Li, Junfang
Evolution of Eigenvalues along Rescaled Ricci Flow
In this paper, we discuss monotonicity formulae of various entropy functionals under various rescaled versions of Ricci flow. As an application, we prove that the lowest eigenvalue of a family of geometric operators $-4\Delta + kR$ is monotonic along the normalized Ricci flow for all $k\ge 1$ provided the initial manifold has nonpositive total scalar curvature.

Keywords:monotonicity formulas, Ricci flow
Categories:58C40, 53C44

95. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 842)

Sairaiji, Fumio; Yamauchi, Takuya
The Rank of Jacobian Varieties over the Maximal Abelian Extensions of Number Fields: Towards the Frey-Jarden Conjecture
Frey and Jarden asked if any abelian variety over a number field $K$ has the infinite Mordell-Weil rank over the maximal abelian extension $K^{\operatorname{ab}}$. In this paper, we give an affirmative answer to their conjecture for the Jacobian variety of any smooth projective curve $C$ over $K$ such that $\sharp C(K^{\operatorname{ab}})=\infty$ and for any abelian variety of $\operatorname{GL}_2$-type with trivial character.

Keywords:Mordell-Weil rank, Jacobian varieties, Frey-Jarden conjecture, abelian points
Categories:11G05, 11D25, 14G25, 14K07

96. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 283)

Coons, Michael
Transcendental Solutions of a Class of Minimal Functional Equations
We prove a result concerning power series $f(z)\in\mathbb{C}[\mkern-3mu[z]\mkern-3mu]$ satisfying a functional equation of the form $$ f(z^d)=\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{A_k(z)}{B_k(z)}f(z)^k, $$ where $A_k(z),B_k(z)\in \mathbb{C}[z]$. In particular, we show that if $f(z)$ satisfies a minimal functional equation of the above form with $n\geqslant 2$, then $f(z)$ is necessarily transcendental. Towards a more complete classification, the case $n=1$ is also considered.

Keywords:transcendence, generating functions, Mahler-type functional equation
Categories:11B37, 11B83, , 11J91

97. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 366)

Kyritsi, Sophia Th.; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S.
Multiple Solutions for Nonlinear Periodic Problems
We consider a nonlinear periodic problem driven by a nonlinear nonhomogeneous differential operator and a Carathéodory reaction term $f(t,x)$ that exhibits a $(p-1)$-superlinear growth in $x \in \mathbb{R}$ near $\pm\infty$ and near zero. A special case of the differential operator is the scalar $p$-Laplacian. Using a combination of variational methods based on the critical point theory with Morse theory (critical groups), we show that the problem has three nontrivial solutions, two of which have constant sign (one positive, the other negative).

Keywords:$C$-condition, mountain pass theorem, critical groups, strong deformation retract, contractible space, homotopy invariance
Categories:34B15, 34B18, 34C25, 58E05

98. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 3)

Aïssiou, Tayeb
Semiclassical Limits of Eigenfunctions on Flat $n$-Dimensional Tori
We provide a proof of a conjecture by Jakobson, Nadirashvili, and Toth stating that on an $n$-dimensional flat torus $\mathbb T^{n}$, and the Fourier transform of squares of the eigenfunctions $|\varphi_\lambda|^2$ of the Laplacian have uniform $l^n$ bounds that do not depend on the eigenvalue $\lambda$. The proof is a generalization of an argument by Jakobson, et al. for the lower dimensional cases. These results imply uniform bounds for semiclassical limits on $\mathbb T^{n+2}$. We also prove a geometric lemma that bounds the number of codimension-one simplices satisfying a certain restriction on an $n$-dimensional sphere $S^n(\lambda)$ of radius $\sqrt{\lambda}$, and we use it in the proof.

Keywords:semiclassical limits, eigenfunctions of Laplacian on a torus, quantum limits
Categories:58G25, 81Q50, 35P20, 42B05

99. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 203)

Tall, Franklin D.
Productively Lindelöf Spaces May All Be $D$
We give easy proofs that (a) the Continuum Hypothesis implies that if the product of $X$ with every Lindelöf space is Lindelöf, then $X$ is a $D$-space, and (b) Borel's Conjecture implies every Rothberger space is Hurewicz.

Keywords:productively Lindelöf, $D$-space, projectively $\sigma$-compact, Menger, Hurewicz
Categories:54D20, 54B10, 54D55, 54A20, 03F50

100. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 233)

Bishnoi, Anuj; Khanduja, Sudesh K.
On Algebraically Maximal Valued Fields and Defectless Extensions
Let $v$ be a Henselian Krull valuation of a field $K$. In this paper, the authors give some necessary and sufficient conditions for a finite simple extension of $(K,v)$ to be defectless. Various characterizations of algebraically maximal valued fields are also given which lead to a new proof of a result proved by Yu. L. Ershov.

Keywords:valued fields, non-Archimedean valued fields
Categories:12J10, 12J25
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