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26. CMB Online first

He, Ziyi; Yang, Dachun; Yuan, Wen
Littlewood-Paley Characterizations of Second-Order Sobolev Spaces via Averages on Balls
In this paper, the authors characterize second-order Sobolev spaces $W^{2,p}({\mathbb R}^n)$, with $p\in [2,\infty)$ and $n\in\mathbb N$ or $p\in (1,2)$ and $n\in\{1,2,3\}$, via the Lusin area function and the Littlewood-Paley $g_\lambda^\ast$-function in terms of ball means.

Keywords:Sobolev space, ball means, Lusin-area function, $g_\lambda^*$-function
Categories:46E35, 42B25, 42B20, 42B35

27. CMB Online first

Hanson, Brandon
Character sums over Bohr sets
We prove character sum estimates for additive Bohr subsets modulo a prime. These estimates are analogous to classical character sum bounds of Pólya-Vinogradov and Burgess. These estimates are applied to obtain results on recurrence mod $p$ by special elements.

Keywords:character sums, Bohr sets, finite fields
Categories:11L40, 11T24, 11T23

28. CMB Online first

Chen, Caisheng; Song, Hongxue; Yan, Qinglun
Existence of multiple solutions for a $p$-Laplacian system in $\textbf{R}^{N}$ with sign-changing weight functions
In this paper, we consider the quasi-linear elliptic problem \[ \left\{ \begin{aligned} & -M \left(\int_{\mathbb{R}^{N}}|x|^{-ap}|\nabla u|^{p}dx \right){\rm div} \left(|x|^{-ap}|\nabla u|^{p-2}\nabla u \right) \\ & \qquad=\frac{\alpha}{\alpha+\beta}H(x)|u|^{\alpha-2}u|v|^{\beta}+\lambda h_{1}(x)|u|^{q-2}u, \\ & -M \left(\int_{\mathbb{R}^{N}}|x|^{-ap}|\nabla v|^{p}dx \right){\rm div} \left(|x|^{-ap}|\nabla v|^{p-2}\nabla v \right) \\ & \qquad=\frac{\beta}{\alpha+\beta}H(x)|v|^{\beta-2}v|u|^{\alpha}+\mu h_{2}(x)|v|^{q-2}v, \\ &u(x)\gt 0,\quad v(x)\gt 0, \quad x\in \mathbb{R}^{N} \end{aligned} \right. \] where $\lambda, \mu\gt 0$, $1\lt p\lt N$, $1\lt q\lt p\lt p(\tau+1)\lt \alpha+\beta\lt p^{*}=\frac{Np}{N-p}$, $0\leq a\lt \frac{N-p}{p}$, $a\leq b\lt a+1$, $d=a+1-b\gt 0$, $M(s)=k+l s^{\tau}$, $k\gt 0$, $l, \tau\geq0$ and the weight $H(x), h_{1}(x), h_{2}(x)$ are continuous functions which change sign in $\mathbb{R}^{N}$. We will prove that the problem has at least two positive solutions by using the Nehari manifold and the fibering maps associated with the Euler functional for this problem.

Keywords:Nehari manifold, quasilinear elliptic system, $p$-Laplacian operator, concave and convex nonlinearities
Category:35J66

29. CMB Online first

Sands, Jonathan W.
$L$-functions for Quadratic Characters and Annihilation of Motivic Cohomology Groups
Let $n$ be a positive even integer, and let $F$ be a totally real number field and $L$ be an abelian Galois extension which is totally real or CM. Fix a finite set $S$ of primes of $F$ containing the infinite primes and all those which ramify in $L$, and let $S_L$ denote the primes of $L$ lying above those in $S$. Then $\mathcal{O}_L^S$ denotes the ring of $S_L$-integers of $L$. Suppose that $\psi$ is a quadratic character of the Galois group of $L$ over $F$. Under the assumption of the motivic Lichtenbaum conjecture, we obtain a non-trivial annihilator of the motivic cohomology group $H_\mathcal{M}^2(\mathcal{O}_L^S,\mathbb{Z}(n))$ from the lead term of the Taylor series for the $S$-modified Artin $L$-function $L_{L/F}^S(s,\psi)$ at $s=1-n$.

Keywords:motivic cohomology, regulator, Artin L-functions
Categories:11R42, 11R70, 14F42, 19F27

30. CMB Online first

Ongaro, Jared; Shapiro, Boris
A note on planarity stratification of Hurwitz spaces
One can easily show that any meromorphic function on a complex closed Riemann surface can be represented as a composition of a birational map of this surface to $\mathbb{CP}^2$ and a projection of the image curve from an appropriate point $p\in \mathbb{CP}^2$ to the pencil of lines through $p$. We introduce a natural stratification of Hurwitz spaces according to the minimal degree of a plane curve such that a given meromorphic function can be represented in the above way and calculate the dimensions of these strata. We observe that they are closely related to a family of Severi varieties studied earlier by J. Harris, Z. Ran and I. Tyomkin.

Keywords:Hurwitz spaces, meromorphic functions, Severi varieties

31. CMB Online first

Silberman, Lior
Quantum unique ergodicity on locally symmetric spaces: the degenerate lift
Given a measure $\bar\mu_\infty$ on a locally symmetric space $Y=\Gamma\backslash G/K$, obtained as a weak-{*} limit of probability measures associated to eigenfunctions of the ring of invariant differential operators, we construct a measure $\bar\mu_\infty$ on the homogeneous space $X=\Gamma\backslash G$ which lifts $\bar\mu_\infty$ and which is invariant by a connected subgroup $A_{1}\subset A$ of positive dimension, where $G=NAK$ is an Iwasawa decomposition. If the functions are, in addition, eigenfunctions of the Hecke operators, then $\bar\mu_\infty$ is also the limit of measures associated to Hecke eigenfunctions on $X$. This generalizes results of the author with A. Venkatesh in the case where the spectral parameters stay away from the walls of the Weyl chamber.

Keywords:quantum unique ergodicity, microlocal lift, spherical dual
Categories:22E50, 43A85

32. CMB Online first

Aulaskari, Rauno; Chen, Huaihui
On classes $Q_p^\#$ for hyperbolic Riemann surfaces
The $Q_p$ spaces of holomorphic functions on the disk, hyperbolic Riemann surfaces or complex unit ball have been studied deeply. Meanwhile, there are a lot of papers devoted to the $Q^\#_p$ classes of meromorphic functions on the disk or hyperbolic Riemann surfaces. In this paper, we prove the nesting property (inclusion relations) of $Q^\#_p$ classes on hyperbolic Riemann surfaces. The same property for $Q_p$ spaces was also established systematically and precisely in earlier work by the authors of this paper.

Keywords:$Q_p^\#$ class, hyperbolic Riemann surface, spherical Dirichlet function,
Categories:30D50, 30F35

33. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 320)

Llamas, Aurora; Martínez-Bernal, José
Cover Product and Betti Polynomial of Graphs
For disjoint graphs $G$ and $H$, with fixed vertex covers $C(G)$ and $C(H)$, their cover product is the graph $G \circledast H$ with vertex set $V(G)\cup V(H)$ and edge set $E(G)\cup E(H)\cup\{\{i,j\}:i\in C(G), j\in C(H)\}$. We describe the graded Betti numbers of $G\circledast H$ in terms of those of $G$ and $H$. As applications we obtain: (i) For any positive integer $k$ there exists a connected bipartite graph $G$ such that $\operatorname{reg} R/I(G)=\mu_S(G)+k$, where, $I(G)$ denotes the edge ideal of $G$, $\operatorname{reg} R/I(G)$ is the Castelnuovo--Mumford regularity of $R/I(G)$ and $\mu_S(G)$ is the induced or strong matching number of $G$; (ii) The graded Betti numbers of the complement of a tree only depends upon its number of vertices; (iii) The $h$-vector of $R/I(G\circledast H)$ is described in terms of the $h$-vectors of $R/I(G)$ and $R/I(H)$. Furthermore, in a different direction, we give a recursive formula for the graded Betti numbers of chordal bipartite graphs.

Keywords:Castelnuovo--Mumford regularity, chordal bipartite graph, edge ideal, graded Betti number, induced matching number, monomial ideal
Categories:13D02, 05E45

34. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 402)

Tikuisis, Aaron Peter; Toms, Andrew
On the Structure of Cuntz Semigroups in (Possibly) Nonunital C*-algebras
We examine the ranks of operators in semi-finite $\mathrm{C}^*$-algebras as measured by their densely defined lower semicontinuous traces. We first prove that a unital simple $\mathrm{C}^*$-algebra whose extreme tracial boundary is nonempty and finite contains positive operators of every possible rank, independent of the property of strict comparison. We then turn to nonunital simple algebras and establish criteria that imply that the Cuntz semigroup is recovered functorially from the Murray-von Neumann semigroup and the space of densely defined lower semicontinuous traces. Finally, we prove that these criteria are satisfied by not-necessarily-unital approximately subhomogeneous algebras of slow dimension growth. Combined with results of the first-named author, this shows that slow dimension growth coincides with $\mathcal Z$-stability, for approximately subhomogeneous algebras.

Keywords:nuclear C*-algebras, Cuntz semigroup, dimension functions, stably projectionless C*-algebras, approximately subhomogeneous C*-algebras, slow dimension growth
Categories:46L35, 46L05, 46L80, 47L40, 46L85

35. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 271)

Jafari, Sayyed Heidar; Jafari Rad, Nader
On Domination of Zero-divisor Graphs of Matrix Rings
We study domination in zero-divisor graphs of matrix rings over a commutative ring with $1$.

Keywords:vector space, linear transformation, zero-divisor graph, domination, local ring
Category:05C69

36. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 306)

Khoshkhah, Kaveh; Zaker, Manouchehr
On the Largest Dynamic Monopolies of Graphs with a Given Average Threshold
Let $G$ be a graph and $\tau$ be an assignment of nonnegative integer thresholds to the vertices of $G$. A subset of vertices, $D$ is said to be a $\tau$-dynamic monopoly, if $V(G)$ can be partitioned into subsets $D_0, D_1, \ldots, D_k$ such that $D_0=D$ and for any $i\in \{0, \ldots, k-1\}$, each vertex $v$ in $D_{i+1}$ has at least $\tau(v)$ neighbors in $D_0\cup \ldots \cup D_i$. Denote the size of smallest $\tau$-dynamic monopoly by $dyn_{\tau}(G)$ and the average of thresholds in $\tau$ by $\overline{\tau}$. We show that the values of $dyn_{\tau}(G)$ over all assignments $\tau$ with the same average threshold is a continuous set of integers. For any positive number $t$, denote the maximum $dyn_{\tau}(G)$ taken over all threshold assignments $\tau$ with $\overline{\tau}\leq t$, by $Ldyn_t(G)$. In fact, $Ldyn_t(G)$ shows the worst-case value of a dynamic monopoly when the average threshold is a given number $t$. We investigate under what conditions on $t$, there exists an upper bound for $Ldyn_{t}(G)$ of the form $c|G|$, where $c\lt 1$. Next, we show that $Ldyn_t(G)$ is coNP-hard for planar graphs but has polynomial-time solution for forests.

Keywords:spread of influence in graphs, irreversible dynamic monopolies, target set selection
Categories:05C69, 05C85

37. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 285)

Karpukhin, Mikhail
Spectral Properties of a Family of Minimal Tori of Revolution in Five-dimensional Sphere
The normalized eigenvalues $\Lambda_i(M,g)$ of the Laplace-Beltrami operator can be considered as functionals on the space of all Riemannian metrics $g$ on a fixed surface $M$. In recent papers several explicit examples of extremal metrics were provided. These metrics are induced by minimal immersions of surfaces in $\mathbb{S}^3$ or $\mathbb{S}^4$. In the present paper a family of extremal metrics induced by minimal immersions in $\mathbb{S}^5$ is investigated.

Keywords:extremal metric, minimal surface
Category:58J50

38. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 415)

Willson, Benjamin
A Fixed Point Theorem and the Existence of a Haar Measure for Hypergroups Satisfying Conditions Related to Amenability
In this paper we present a fixed point property for amenable hypergroups which is analogous to Rickert's fixed point theorem for semigroups. It equates the existence of a left invariant mean on the space of weakly right uniformly continuous functions to the existence of a fixed point for any action of the hypergroup. Using this fixed point property, a certain class of hypergroups are shown to have a left Haar measure.

Keywords:invariant measure, Haar measure, hypergroup, amenability, function translations
Categories:43A62, 43A05, 43A07

39. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 281)

Kalus, Matthias
On the Relation of Real and Complex Lie Supergroups
A complex Lie supergroup can be described as a real Lie supergroup with integrable almost complex structure. The necessary and sufficient conditions on an almost complex structure on a real Lie supergroup for defining a complex Lie supergroup are deduced. The classification of real Lie supergroups with such almost complex structures yields a new approach to the known classification of complex Lie supergroups by complex Harish-Chandra superpairs. A universal complexification of a real Lie supergroup is constructed.

Keywords:Lie supergroup, almost complex structure, Harish-Chandra pair, universal complexification
Categories:32C11, 58A50

40. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 241)

Botelho, Fernanda
Isometries and Hermitian Operators on Zygmund Spaces
In this paper we characterize the isometries of subspaces of the little Zygmund space. We show that the isometries of these spaces are surjective and represented as integral operators. We also show that all hermitian operators on these settings are bounded.

Keywords:Zygmund spaces, the little Zygmund space, Hermitian operators, surjective linear isometries, generators of one-parameter groups of surjective isometries
Categories:46E15, 47B15, 47B38

41. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 334)

Medini, Andrea
Countable Dense Homogeneity in Powers of Zero-dimensional Definable Spaces
We show that, for a coanalytic subspace $X$ of $2^\omega$, the countable dense homogeneity of $X^\omega$ is equivalent to $X$ being Polish. This strengthens a result of Hrušák and Zamora Avilés. Then, inspired by results of Hernández-Gutiérrez, Hrušák and van Mill, using a technique of Medvedev, we construct a non-Polish subspace $X$ of $2^\omega$ such that $X^\omega$ is countable dense homogeneous. This gives the first $\mathsf{ZFC}$ answer to a question of Hrušák and Zamora Avilés. Furthermore, since our example is consistently analytic, the equivalence result mentioned above is sharp. Our results also answer a question of Medini and Milovich. Finally, we show that if every countable subset of a zero-dimensional separable metrizable space $X$ is included in a Polish subspace of $X$ then $X^\omega$ is countable dense homogeneous.

Keywords:countable dense homogeneous, infinite power, coanalytic, Polish, $\lambda'$-set
Categories:54H05, 54G20, 54E52

42. CMB 2015 (vol 58 pp. 225)

Aghigh, Kamal; Nikseresht, Azadeh
Characterizing Distinguished Pairs by Using Liftings of Irreducible Polynomials
Let $v$ be a henselian valuation of any rank of a field $K$ and $\overline{v}$ be the unique extension of $v$ to a fixed algebraic closure $\overline{K}$ of $K$. In 2005, it was studied properties of those pairs $(\theta,\alpha)$ of elements of $\overline{K}$ with $[K(\theta): K]\gt [K(\alpha): K]$ where $\alpha$ is an element of smallest degree over $K$ such that $$ \overline{v}(\theta-\alpha)=\sup\{\overline{v}(\theta-\beta) |\ \beta\in \overline{K}, \ [K(\beta): K]\lt [K(\theta): K]\}. $$ Such pairs are referred to as distinguished pairs. We use the concept of liftings of irreducible polynomials to give a different characterization of distinguished pairs.

Keywords:valued fields, non-Archimedean valued fields, irreducible polynomials
Categories:12J10, 12J25, 12E05

43. CMB Online first

Deng, Shaoqiang; Hu, Zhiguang; Li, Jifu
Cohomogeneity one Randers metrics
An action of a Lie group $G$ on a smooth manifold $M$ is called cohomogeneity one if the orbit space $M/G$ is of dimension $1$. A Finsler metric $F$ on $M$ is called invariant if $F$ is invariant under the action of $G$. In this paper, we study invariant Randers metrics on cohomogeneity one manifolds. We first give a sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of invariant Randers metrics on cohomogeneity one manifolds. Then we obtain some results on invariant Killing vector fields on the cohomogeneity one manifolds and use that to deduce some sufficient and necessary condition for a cohomogeneity one Randers metric to be Einstein.

Keywords:cohomogeneity one actions, normal geodesics, invariant vector fields, Randers metrics
Categories:53C30, 53C60

44. CMB Online first

Kong, Qingjun; Guo, Xiuyun
On $s$-semipermutable or $s$-quasinormally embedded subgroups of finite groups
Suppose that $G$ is a finite group and $H$ is a subgroup of $G$. $H$ is said to be $s$-semipermutable in $G$ if $HG_{p}=G_{p}H$ for any Sylow $p$-subgroup $G_{p}$ of $G$ with $(p,|H|)=1$; $H$ is said to be $s$-quasinormally embedded in $G$ if for each prime $p$ dividing the order of $H$, a Sylow $p$-subgroup of $H$ is also a Sylow $p$-subgroup of some $s$-quasinormal subgroup of $G$. We fix in every non-cyclic Sylow subgroup $P$ of $G$ some subgroup $D$ satisfying $1\lt |D|\lt |P|$ and study the structure of $G$ under the assumption that every subgroup $H$ of $P$ with $|H|=|D|$ is either $s$-semipermutable or $s$-quasinormally embedded in $G$. Some recent results are generalized and unified.

Keywords:$s$-semipermutable subgroup, $s$-quasinormally embedded subgroup, saturated formation.
Categories:20D10, 20D20

45. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 80)

Harada, Megumi; Horiguchi, Tatsuya; Masuda, Mikiya
The Equivariant Cohomology Rings of Peterson Varieties in All Lie Types
Let $G$ be a complex semisimple linear algebraic group and let $Pet$ be the associated Peterson variety in the flag variety $G/B$. The main theorem of this note gives an efficient presentation of the equivariant cohomology ring $H^*_S(Pet)$ of the Peterson variety as a quotient of a polynomial ring by an ideal $J$ generated by quadratic polynomials, in the spirit of the Borel presentation of the cohomology of the flag variety. Here the group $S \cong \mathbb{C}^*$ is a certain subgroup of a maximal torus $T$ of $G$. Our description of the ideal $J$ uses the Cartan matrix and is uniform across Lie types. In our arguments we use the Monk formula and Giambelli formula for the equivariant cohomology rings of Peterson varieties for all Lie types, as obtained in the work of Drellich. Our result generalizes a previous theorem of Fukukawa-Harada-Masuda, which was only for Lie type $A$.

Keywords:equivariant cohomology, Peterson varieties, flag varieties, Monk formula, Giambelli formula
Categories:55N91, 14N15

46. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 432)

Yang, Dachun; Yang, Sibei
Second-order Riesz Transforms and Maximal Inequalities Associated with Magnetic Schrödinger Operators
Let $A:=-(\nabla-i\vec{a})\cdot(\nabla-i\vec{a})+V$ be a magnetic Schrödinger operator on $\mathbb{R}^n$, where $\vec{a}:=(a_1,\dots, a_n)\in L^2_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n,\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $0\le V\in L^1_{\mathrm{loc}}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ satisfy some reverse Hölder conditions. Let $\varphi\colon \mathbb{R}^n\times[0,\infty)\to[0,\infty)$ be such that $\varphi(x,\cdot)$ for any given $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$ is an Orlicz function, $\varphi(\cdot,t)\in {\mathbb A}_{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ for all $t\in (0,\infty)$ (the class of uniformly Muckenhoupt weights) and its uniformly critical upper type index $I(\varphi)\in(0,1]$. In this article, the authors prove that second-order Riesz transforms $VA^{-1}$ and $(\nabla-i\vec{a})^2A^{-1}$ are bounded from the Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space $H_{\varphi,\,A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, associated with $A$, to the Musielak-Orlicz space $L^{\varphi}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Moreover, the authors establish the boundedness of $VA^{-1}$ on $H_{\varphi, A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$. As applications, some maximal inequalities associated with $A$ in the scale of $H_{\varphi, A}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ are obtained.

Keywords:Musielak-Orlicz-Hardy space, magnetic Schrödinger operator, atom, second-order Riesz transform, maximal inequality
Categories:42B30, 42B35, 42B25, 35J10, 42B37, 46E30

47. CMB Online first

Martinez-Maure, Yves
Plane Lorentzian and Fuchsian Hedgehogs
Parts of the Brunn-Minkowski theory can be extended to hedgehogs, which are envelopes of families of affine hyperplanes parametrized by their Gauss map. F. Fillastre introduced Fuchsian convex bodies, which are the closed convex sets of Lorentz-Minkowski space that are globally invariant under the action of a Fuchsian group. In this paper, we undertake a study of plane Lorentzian and Fuchsian hedgehogs. In particular, we prove the Fuchsian analogues of classical geometrical inequalities (analogues which are reversed as compared to classical ones).

Keywords:Fuchsian and Lorentzian hedgehogs, evolute, duality, convolution, reversed isoperimetric inequality, reversed Bonnesen inequality
Categories:52A40, 52A55, 53A04, 53B30

48. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 51)

De Nitties, Giuseppe; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
Spectral Flows of Dilations of Fredholm Operators
Given an essentially unitary contraction and an arbitrary unitary dilation of it, there is a naturally associated spectral flow which is shown to be equal to the index of the operator. This result is interpreted in terms of the $K$-theory of an associated mapping cone. It is then extended to connect $\mathbb{Z}_2$ indices of odd symmetric Fredholm operators to a $\mathbb{Z}_2$-valued spectral flow.

Keywords:spectral flow, Fredholm operators, Z2 indices
Categories:19K56, 46L80

49. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 182)

Tărnăuceanu, Marius
On Finite Groups with Dismantlable Subgroup Lattices
In this note we study the finite groups whose subgroup lattices are dismantlable.

Keywords:finite groups, subgroup lattices, dismantlable lattices, planar lattices, crowns
Categories:20D30, 20D60, 20E15

50. CMB 2014 (vol 58 pp. 196)

Yang, Qingjie; Zhong, Weiting
Dihedral Groups of order $2p$ of Automorphisms of Compact Riemann Surfaces of Genus $p-1$
In this paper we prove that there is only one conjugacy class of dihedral group of order $2p$ in the $2(p-1)\times 2(p-1)$ integral symplectic group can be realized by an analytic automorphism group of compact connected Riemann surfaces of genus $p-1$. A pair of representative generators of the realizable class is also given.

Keywords:dihedral group, automorphism group, Riemann surface, integral symplectic matrix, fundamental domain
Categories:20H25, 57M60
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