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Search: All articles in the CMB digital archive with keyword PI

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1. CMB Online first

Wirths, Karl Joachim
Telescoping estimates for smooth series
We derive telescoping majorants and minorants for some classes of series and give applications of these results.

Keywords:telescoping series, Stietjes constant, Hardy's formula, Stirling's formula
Categories:26D15, 40A25, 97I30

2. CMB Online first

Brannan, Michael
Strong Asymptotic Freeness for Free Orthogonal Quantum Groups
It is known that the normalized standard generators of the free orthogonal quantum group $O_N^+$ converge in distribution to a free semicircular system as $N \to \infty$. In this note, we substantially improve this convergence result by proving that, in addition to distributional convergence, the operator norm of any non-commutative polynomial in the normalized standard generators of $O_N^+$ converges as $N \to \infty$ to the operator norm of the corresponding non-commutative polynomial in a standard free semicircular system. Analogous strong convergence results are obtained for the generators of free unitary quantum groups. As applications of these results, we obtain a matrix-coefficient version of our strong convergence theorem, and we recover a well known $L^2$-$L^\infty$ norm equivalence for non-commutative polynomials in free semicircular systems.

Keywords:quantum groups, free probability, asymptotic free independence, strong convergence, property of rapid decay
Categories:46L54, 20G42, 46L65

3. CMB Online first

Khamsi, M. A.
Approximate Fixed Point Sequences of Nonlinear Semigroup in Metric Spaces
In this paper, we investigate the common approximate fixed point sequences of nonexpansive semigroups of nonlinear mappings $\{T_t\}_{t \geq 0}$, i.e., a family such that $T_0(x)=x$, $T_{s+t}=T_s(T_t(x))$, where the domain is a metric space $(M,d)$. In particular we prove that under suitable conditions, the common approximate fixed point sequences set is the same as the common approximate fixed point sequences set of two mappings from the family. Then we use the Ishikawa iteration to construct a common approximate fixed point sequence of nonexpansive semigroups of nonlinear mappings.

Keywords:approximate fixed point, fixed point, hyperbolic metric space, Ishikawa iterations, nonexpansive mapping, semigroup of mappings, uniformly convex hyperbolic space
Categories:47H09, 46B20, 47H10, 47E10

4. CMB Online first

Daniilidis, A.; Drusvyatskiy, D.; Lewis, A. S.
Orbits of Geometric Descent
We prove that quasiconvex functions always admit descent trajectories bypassing all non-minimizing critical points.

Keywords:differential inclusion, quasiconvex function, self-contracted curve, sweeping process
Categories:34A60, 49J99

5. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 621)

Shang, Yilun
Optimal Control Strategies for Virus Spreading in Inhomogeneous Epidemic Dynamics
In this paper, we study the spread of virus/worm in computer networks with a view to addressing cyber security problems. Epidemic models have been applied extensively to model the propagation of computer viruses, which characterize the fact that infected machines may spread malware to other hosts connected to the network. In our framework, the dynamics of hosts evolves according to a modified inhomogeneous Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic model with time-varying transmission rate and recovery rate. The infection of computers is subject to direct attack as well as propagation among hosts. Based on optimal control theory, optimal attack strategies are provided by minimizing the cost (equivalently maximizing the profit) of the attacker. We present a threshold function of the fraction of infectious hosts, which captures the dynamically evolving strategies of the attacker and reflects the persistence of virus spreading. Moreover, our results indicate that if the infectivity of a computer worm is low and the computers are installed with antivirus software with high reliability, the intensity of attacks incurred will likely be low. This agrees with our intuition.

Keywords:network securitypidemic dynamics, optimal control
Categories:49J15, 92D30

6. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 534)

Filali, M.; Monfared, M. Sangani
A Cohomological Property of $\pi$-invariant Elements
Let $A$ be a Banach algebra and $\pi \colon A \longrightarrow \mathscr L(H)$ be a continuous representation of $A$ on a separable Hilbert space $H$ with $\dim H =\frak m$. Let $\pi_{ij}$ be the coordinate functions of $\pi$ with respect to an orthonormal basis and suppose that for each $1\le j \le \frak m$, $C_j=\sum_{i=1}^{\frak m} \|\pi_{ij}\|_{A^*}\lt \infty$ and $\sup_j C_j\lt \infty$. Under these conditions, we call an element $\overline\Phi \in l^\infty (\frak m , A^{**})$ left $\pi$-invariant if $a\cdot \overline\Phi ={}^t\pi (a) \overline\Phi$ for all $a\in A$. In this paper we prove a link between the existence of left $\pi$-invariant elements and the vanishing of certain Hochschild cohomology groups of $A$. Our results extend an earlier result by Lau on $F$-algebras and recent results of Kaniuth-Lau-Pym and the second named author in the special case that $\pi \colon A \longrightarrow \mathbf C$ is a non-zero character on $A$.

Keywords:Banach algebras, $\pi$-invariance, derivations, representations
Categories:46H15, 46H25, 13N15

7. CMB 2012 (vol 56 pp. 584)

Liau, Pao-Kuei; Liu, Cheng-Kai
On Automorphisms and Commutativity in Semiprime Rings
Let $R$ be a semiprime ring with center $Z(R)$. For $x,y\in R$, we denote by $[x,y]=xy-yx$ the commutator of $x$ and $y$. If $\sigma$ is a non-identity automorphism of $R$ such that $$ \Big[\big[\dots\big[[\sigma(x^{n_0}),x^{n_1}],x^{n_2}\big],\dots\big],x^{n_k}\Big]=0 $$ for all $x \in R$, where $n_{0},n_{1},n_{2},\dots,n_{k}$ are fixed positive integers, then there exists a map $\mu\colon R\rightarrow Z(R)$ such that $\sigma(x)=x+\mu(x)$ for all $x\in R$. In particular, when $R$ is a prime ring, $R$ is commutative.

Keywords:automorphism, generalized polynomial identity (GPI)
Categories:16N60, 16W20, 16R50

8. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 378)

Ma, Li; Wang, Jing
Sharp Threshold of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation with Trapped Dipolar Quantum Gases
In this paper, we consider the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the trapped dipolar quantum gases. We obtain the sharp criterion for the global existence and finite time blow up in the unstable regime by constructing a variational problem and the so-called invariant manifold of the evolution flow.

Keywords:Gross-Pitaevskii equation, sharp threshold, global existence, blow up
Categories:35Q55, 35A05, 81Q99

9. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 395)

Oancea, D.
Coessential Abelianization Morphisms in the Category of Groups
An epimorphism $\phi\colon G\to H$ of groups, where $G$ has rank $n$, is called coessential if every (ordered) generating $n$-tuple of $H$ can be lifted along $\phi$ to a generating $n$-tuple for $G$. We discuss this property in the context of the category of groups, and establish a criterion for such a group $G$ to have the property that its abelianization epimorphism $G\to G/[G,G]$, where $[G,G]$ is the commutator subgroup, is coessential. We give an example of a family of 2-generator groups whose abelianization epimorphism is not coessential. This family also provides counterexamples to the generalized Andrews--Curtis conjecture.

Keywords:coessential epimorphism, Nielsen transformations, Andrew-Curtis transformations
Categories:20F05, 20F99, 20J15

10. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 258)

Chandoul, A.; Jellali, M.; Mkaouar, M.
The Smallest Pisot Element in the Field of Formal Power Series Over a Finite Field
Dufresnoy and Pisot characterized the smallest Pisot number of degree $n \geq 3$ by giving explicitly its minimal polynomial. In this paper, we translate Dufresnoy and Pisot's result to the Laurent series case. The aim of this paper is to prove that the minimal polynomial of the smallest Pisot element (SPE) of degree $n$ in the field of formal power series over a finite field is given by $P(Y)=Y^{n}-\alpha XY^{n-1}-\alpha^n,$ where $\alpha$ is the least element of the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{q}\backslash\{0\}$ (as a finite total ordered set). We prove that the sequence of SPEs of degree $n$ is decreasing and converges to $\alpha X.$ Finally, we show how to obtain explicit continued fraction expansion of the smallest Pisot element over a finite field.

Keywords:Pisot element, continued fraction, Laurent series, finite fields
Categories:11A55, 11D45, 11D72, 11J61, 11J66

11. CMB 2011 (vol 56 pp. 55)

Bouziad, A.
Cliquishness and Quasicontinuity of Two-Variable Maps
We study the existence of continuity points for mappings $f\colon X\times Y\to Z$ whose $x$-sections $Y\ni y\to f(x,y)\in Z$ are fragmentable and $y$-sections $X\ni x\to f(x,y)\in Z$ are quasicontinuous, where $X$ is a Baire space and $Z$ is a metric space. For the factor $Y$, we consider two infinite ``point-picking'' games $G_1(y)$ and $G_2(y)$ defined respectively for each $y\in Y$ as follows: in the $n$-th inning, Player I gives a dense set $D_n\subset Y$, respectively, a dense open set $D_n\subset Y$. Then Player II picks a point $y_n\in D_n$; II wins if $y$ is in the closure of ${\{y_n:n\in\mathbb N\}}$, otherwise I wins. It is shown that (i) $f$ is cliquish if II has a winning strategy in $G_1(y)$ for every $y\in Y$, and (ii) $ f$ is quasicontinuous if the $x$-sections of $f$ are continuous and the set of $y\in Y$ such that II has a winning strategy in $G_2(y)$ is dense in $Y$. Item (i) extends substantially a result of Debs and item (ii) indicates that the problem of Talagrand on separately continuous maps has a positive answer for a wide class of ``small'' compact spaces.

Keywords:cliquishness, fragmentability, joint continuity, point-picking game, quasicontinuity, separate continuity, two variable maps
Categories:54C05, 54C08, 54B10, 91A05

12. CMB 2011 (vol 55 pp. 597)

Osękowski, Adam
Sharp Inequalities for Differentially Subordinate Harmonic Functions and Martingales
We determine the best constants $C_{p,\infty}$ and $C_{1,p}$, $1 < p < \infty$, for which the following holds. If $u$, $v$ are orthogonal harmonic functions on a Euclidean domain such that $v$ is differentially subordinate to $u$, then $$ \|v\|_p \leq C_{p,\infty} \|u\|_\infty,\quad \|v\|_1 \leq C_{1,p} \|u\|_p. $$ In particular, the inequalities are still sharp for the conjugate harmonic functions on the unit disc of $\mathbb R^2$. Sharp probabilistic versions of these estimates are also studied. As an application, we establish a sharp version of the classical logarithmic inequality of Zygmund.

Keywords: harmonic function, conjugate harmonic functions, orthogonal harmonic functions, martingale, orthogonal martingales, norm inequality, optimal stopping problem
Categories:31B05, 60G44, 60G40

13. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 286)

Gorelic, Isaac
Orders of π-Bases
We extend the scope of B. Shapirovskii's results on the order of $\pi$-bases in compact spaces and answer some questions of V. Tkachuk.

Keywords:Shapirovskii π-base, point-countable π-base, free sequences, canonical form for ordinals
Categories:54A25, 03E10, 03E75, 54A35

14. CMB 2010 (vol 53 pp. 223)

Chuang, Chen-Lian; Lee, Tsiu-Kwen
Density of Polynomial Maps
Let $R$ be a dense subring of $\operatorname{End}(_DV)$, where $V$ is a left vector space over a division ring $D$. If $\dim{_DV}=\infty$, then the range of any nonzero polynomial $f(X_1,\dots,X_m)$ on $R$ is dense in $\operatorname{End}(_DV)$. As an application, let $R$ be a prime ring without nonzero nil one-sided ideals and $0\ne a\in R$. If $af(x_1,\dots,x_m)^{n(x_i)}=0$ for all $x_1,\dots,x_m\in R$, where $n(x_i)$ is a positive integer depending on $x_1,\dots,x_m$, then $f(X_1,\dots,X_m)$ is a polynomial identity of $R$ unless $R$ is a finite matrix ring over a finite field.

Keywords:density, polynomial, endomorphism ring, PI
Categories:16D60, 16S50

15. CMB 2009 (vol 53 pp. 295)

Guo, Boling; Huo, Zhaohui
The Global Attractor of a Damped, Forced Hirota Equation in $H^1$
The existence of the global attractor of a damped forced Hirota equation in the phase space $H^1(\mathbb R)$ is proved. The main idea is to establish the so-called asymptotic compactness property of the solution operator by energy equation approach.

Keywords:global attractor, Fourier restriction norm, damping system, asymptotic compactness
Categories:35Q53, 35B40, 35B41, 37L30

16. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 372)

Ezquerro, J. A.; Hernández, M. A.
Picard's Iterations for Integral Equations of Mixed Hammerstein Type
A new semilocal convergence result for the Picard method is presented, where the main required condition in the contraction mapping principle is relaxed.

Keywords:nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, successive approximations, semilocal convergence theorem, Picard's iteration, Hammerstein integral equations
Categories:45G10, 47H99, 65J15

17. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 283)

Ravindra, G. V.
The Noether--Lefschetz Theorem Via Vanishing of Coherent Cohomology
We prove that for a generic hypersurface in $\mathbb P^{2n+1}$ of degree at least $2+2/n$, the $n$-th Picard number is one. The proof is algebraic in nature and follows from certain coherent cohomology vanishing.

Keywords:Noether--Lefschetz, algebraic cycles, Picard number
Categories:14C15, 14C25

18. CMB 2008 (vol 51 pp. 146)

Zhou, Xiaowen
Stepping-Stone Model with Circular Brownian Migration
In this paper we consider the stepping-stone model on a circle with circular Brownian migration. We first point out a connection between Arratia flow on the circle and the marginal distribution of this model. We then give a new representation for the stepping-stone model using Arratia flow and circular coalescing Brownian motion. Such a representation enables us to carry out some explicit computations. In particular, we find the distribution for the first time when there is only one type left across the circle.

Keywords:stepping-stone model, circular coalescing Brownian motion, Arratia flow, duality, entrance law
Categories:60G57, 60J65

19. CMB 2007 (vol 50 pp. 191)

Drungilas, Paulius; Dubickas, Artūras
Every Real Algebraic Integer Is a Difference of Two Mahler Measures
We prove that every real algebraic integer $\alpha$ is expressible by a difference of two Mahler measures of integer polynomials. Moreover, these polynomials can be chosen in such a way that they both have the same degree as that of $\alpha$, say $d$, one of these two polynomials is irreducible and another has an irreducible factor of degree $d$, so that $\alpha=M(P)-bM(Q)$ with irreducible polynomials $P, Q\in \mathbb Z[X]$ of degree $d$ and a positive integer $b$. Finally, if $d \leqslant 3$, then one can take $b=1$.

Keywords:Mahler measures, Pisot numbers, Pell equation, $abc$-conjecture
Categories:11R04, 11R06, 11R09, 11R33, 11D09

20. CMB 2006 (vol 49 pp. 237)

Gauthier, P. M.; Zeron, E. S.
Approximation by Rational Mappings, via Homotopy Theory
Continuous mappings defined from compact subsets $K$ of complex Euclidean space $\cc^n$ into complex projective space $\pp^m$ are approximated by rational mappings. The fundamental tool employed is homotopy theory.

Keywords:Rational approximation, homotopy type, null-homotopic
Categories:32E30, 32C18

21. CMB 2002 (vol 45 pp. 154)

Weitsman, Allen
On the Poisson Integral of Step Functions and Minimal Surfaces
Applications of minimal surface methods are made to obtain information about univalent harmonic mappings. In the case where the mapping arises as the Poisson integral of a step function, lower bounds for the number of zeros of the dilatation are obtained in terms of the geometry of the image.

Keywords:harmonic mappings, dilatation, minimal surfaces
Categories:30C62, 31A05, 31A20, 49Q05

22. CMB 2000 (vol 43 pp. 397)

Bonato, Anthony; Cameron, Peter; Delić, Dejan
Tournaments and Orders with the Pigeonhole Property
A binary structure $S$ has the pigeonhole property ($\mathcal{P}$) if every finite partition of $S$ induces a block isomorphic to $S$. We classify all countable tournaments with ($\mathcal{P}$); the class of orders with ($\mathcal{P}$) is completely classified.

Keywords:pigeonhole property, tournament, order
Categories:05C20, 03C15

23. CMB 1999 (vol 42 pp. 335)

Kim, Goansu; Tang, C. Y.
Cyclic Subgroup Separability of HNN-Extensions with Cyclic Associated Subgroups
We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for HNN-extensions of cyclic subgroup separable groups with cyclic associated subgroups to be cyclic subgroup separable. Applying this, we explicitly characterize the residual finiteness and the cyclic subgroup separability of HNN-extensions of abelian groups with cyclic associated subgroups. We also consider these residual properties of HNN-extensions of nilpotent groups with cyclic associated subgroups.

Keywords:HNN-extension, nilpotent groups, cyclic subgroup separable $(\pi_c)$, residually finite
Categories:20E26, 20E06, 20F10

24. CMB 1998 (vol 41 pp. 41)

Giner, E.
On the Clarke subdifferential of an integral functional on $L_p$, $1\leq p < \infty$
Given an integral functional defined on $L_p$, $1 \leq p <\infty$, under a growth condition we give an upper bound of the Clarke directional derivative and we obtain a nice inclusion between the Clarke subdifferential of the integral functional and the set of selections of the subdifferential of the integrand.

Keywords:Integral functional, integrand, epi-derivative
Categories:28A25, 49J52, 46E30

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