Let $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ be an increasing sequence of positive integers, and let $f(x)$ be a real function satisfying
\begin{equation}
\tag{1}
f(x+1)=f(x), \qquad \int_0^1 f(x) ~dx=0,\qquad
\operatorname{Var_{[0,1]}}
f \lt \infty.
\end{equation}
If $\lim_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = \infty$
the distribution of
\begin{equation}
\tag{2}
\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(n_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}
\end{equation}
converges to a Gaussian distribution. In the case
$$
1 \lt \liminf_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k}, \qquad \limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \lt \infty
$$
there is a complex interplay between the analytic properties of the
function $f$, the number-theoretic properties of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$,
and the limit distribution of (2).
In this paper we prove that any sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying
$\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = 1$ contains a nontrivial
subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ such that for any function satisfying
(1) the distribution of
$$
\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(m_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}
$$
converges to a Gaussian distribution. This result is best possible: for any
$\varepsilon\gt 0$ there exists a sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $\limsup_{k \to
\infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \leq 1 + \varepsilon$ such that for every nontrivial
subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the distribution
of (2) does not converge to a Gaussian distribution for some $f$.
Our result can be viewed as a Ramsey type result: a sufficiently dense
increasing integer sequence contains a subsequence having a certain
requested number-theoretic property.
Let $\Delta$ be an Euclidean quiver. We prove that the closures of
the maximal orbits in the varieties of representations of $\Delta$
are normal and Cohen--Macaulay (even complete intersections).
Moreover, we give a generalization of this result for the tame
concealed-canonical algebras.
In this paper, we generalize a conjecture due to Darmon and Logan in
an adelic setting. We study the relation between our construction and
Kudla's works on cycles on orthogonal Shimura varieties. This relation
allows us to conjecture a Gross-Kohnen-Zagier theorem for Darmon's
points.
In this paper we study systems of weakly coupled Hamilton-Jacobi equations
with implicit obstacles that arise in optimal switching problems.
Inspired by methods from the theory of viscosity solutions and
weak KAM theory, we
extend the notion of Aubry set for these
systems. This enables us
to prove a new result on existence and uniqueness of
solutions for the Dirichlet problem, answering a question
of F. Camilli, P. Loreti and N. Yamada.
Let $C$ and $D$ be digraphs. A mapping $f\colon V(D)\to V(C)$ is a
$C$-colouring if for every arc $uv$ of $D$, either $f(u)f(v)$
is an arc of $C$ or $f(u)=f(v)$, and the preimage of every
vertex of $C$ induces an acyclic subdigraph in $D$. We say
that $D$ is $C$-colourable if it admits a $C$-colouring and
that $D$ is uniquely $C$-colourable if it is surjectively
$C$-colourable and any two $C$-colourings of $D$ differ by an
automorphism of $C$. We prove that if a digraph $D$ is not
$C$-colourable, then there exist digraphs of arbitrarily large
girth that are $D$-colourable but not
$C$-colourable. Moreover, for every digraph $D$ that is
uniquely $D$-colourable, there exists a uniquely
$D$-colourable digraph of arbitrarily large girth. In
particular, this implies that for every rational number $r\geq
1$, there are uniquely circularly $r$-colourable digraphs with
arbitrarily large girth.
We study properties of composition operators
induced by symbols acting from the unit disk to the polydisk.
This result will be involved in the investigation
of weighted composition operators on the Hardy space on the unit disk
and moreover be concerned with composition operators acting
from the Bergman space to the Hardy space on the unit disk.
We present a new construction of the entropy-maximizing, invariant
probability measure on a Smale space (the Bowen measure). Our
construction is based on points that are unstably equivalent to one
given point, and stably equivalent to another: heteroclinic points.
The spirit of the construction is similar to Bowen's construction from
periodic points, though the techniques are very different. We also
prove results about the growth rate of certain sets of heteroclinic
points, and about the stable and unstable components of the Bowen
measure. The approach we take is to prove results through direct
computation for the case of a Shift of Finite type, and then use
resolving factor maps to extend the results to more general Smale
spaces.
In 1960,
Sobolev proved that for a finite reflection group $G$,
a $G$-invariant cubature formula is of degree $t$ if and only if
it is exact for all $G$-invariant polynomials of degree at most $t$.
In this paper,
we find some observations on invariant cubature formulas and Euclidean designs
in connection with the Sobolev theorem.
First, we give an alternative proof of
theorems by Xu (1998) on necessary and sufficient conditions
for the existence of cubature formulas with some strong symmetry.
The new proof is shorter and simpler compared to the original one by Xu, and
moreover gives a general interpretation of
the analytically-written conditions of Xu's theorems.
Second,
we extend a theorem by Neumaier and Seidel (1988) on
Euclidean designs to invariant Euclidean designs, and thereby
classify tight Euclidean designs obtained from
unions of the orbits of the corner vectors.
This result generalizes a theorem of Bajnok (2007) which classifies
tight Euclidean designs invariant under the Weyl group of type $B$
to other finite reflection groups.
Using ideas from Shelah's recent proof that a completely
separable maximal almost disjoint family exists when
$\mathfrak{c} \lt {\aleph}_{\omega}$, we construct a weakly tight family
under the hypothesis $\mathfrak{s} \leq \mathfrak{b} \lt
{\aleph}_{\omega}$.
The case when $\mathfrak{s} \lt \mathfrak{b}$
is handled in $\mathrm{ZFC}$ and does not require $\mathfrak{b} \lt {\aleph}_{\omega}$,
while an additional PCF type hypothesis, which holds when $\mathfrak{b} \lt
{\aleph}_{\omega}$ is used to treat the case $\mathfrak{s} = \mathfrak{b}$. The notion of
a weakly tight family is a natural weakening of the well studied
notion of a Cohen indestructible maximal almost disjoint family. It
was introduced by Hrušák and García
Ferreira, who applied it to the Katétov order on almost
disjoint families.
This article gives an existence theory for weak solutions of second order non-elliptic linear Dirichlet problems of the form
\begin{align*}
\nabla'P(x)\nabla u +{\bf HR}u+{\bf S'G}u +Fu &= f+{\bf T'g} \text{ in }\Theta
\\
u&=\varphi\text{ on }\partial \Theta.
\end{align*}
The principal part $\xi'P(x)\xi$ of the above equation is assumed to
be comparable to a quadratic form ${\mathcal Q}(x,\xi) = \xi'Q(x)\xi$ that
may vanish for non-zero $\xi\in\mathbb{R}^n$. This is achieved using
techniques of functional analysis applied to the degenerate Sobolev
spaces $QH^1(\Theta)=W^{1,2}(\Theta,Q)$ and
$QH^1_0(\Theta)=W^{1,2}_0(\Theta,Q)$ as defined in
previous works.
Sawyer and Wheeden give a regularity theory
for a subset of the class of equations dealt with here.
Analytical study to the regularization of the Boussinesq system is
performed in frequency space using Fourier theory. Existence and
uniqueness of weak solution with minimum regularity requirement are
proved. Convergence results of the unique weak solution of the
regularized Boussinesq system to a weak Leray-Hopf solution of the
Boussinesq system are established as the regularizing parameter
$\alpha$ vanishes. The proofs are done in the frequency space and use
energy methods, Arselà-Ascoli compactness theorem and a Friedrichs
like approximation scheme.