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26. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 975)

Bjorndahl, Christina; Karshon, Yael
Revisiting Tietze-Nakajima: Local and Global Convexity for Maps
A theorem of Tietze and Nakajima, from 1928, asserts that if a subset $X$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$ is closed, connected, and locally convex, then it is convex. We give an analogous ``local to global convexity" theorem when the inclusion map of $X$ to $\mathbb{R}^n$ is replaced by a map from a topological space $X$ to $\mathbb{R}^n$ that satisfies certain local properties. Our motivation comes from the Condevaux--Dazord--Molino proof of the Atiyah--Guillemin--Sternberg convexity theorem in symplectic geometry.

Categories:53D20, 52B99

27. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1037)

Calviño-Louzao, E.; García-Río, E.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.
Riemann Extensions of Torsion-Free Connections with Degenerate Ricci Tensor
{Correspondence} between torsion-free connections with {nilpotent skew-symmetric curvature operator} and IP Riemann extensions is shown. Some consequences are derived in the study of four-dimensional IP metrics and locally homogeneous affine surfaces.

Keywords:Walker metric, Riemann extension, curvature operator, projectively flat and recurrent affine connection
Categories:53B30, 53C50

28. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 52)

Deng, Shaoqiang
An Algebraic Approach to Weakly Symmetric Finsler Spaces
In this paper, we introduce a new algebraic notion, weakly symmetric Lie algebras, to give an algebraic description of an interesting class of homogeneous Riemann--Finsler spaces, weakly symmetric Finsler spaces. Using this new definition, we are able to give a classification of weakly symmetric Finsler spaces with dimensions $2$ and $3$. Finally, we show that all the non-Riemannian reversible weakly symmetric Finsler spaces we find are non-Berwaldian and with vanishing S-curvature. This means that reversible non-Berwaldian Finsler spaces with vanishing S-curvature may exist at large. Hence the generalized volume comparison theorems due to Z. Shen are valid for a rather large class of Finsler spaces.

Keywords:weakly symmetric Finsler spaces, weakly symmetric Lie algebras, Berwald spaces, S-curvature
Categories:53C60, 58B20, 22E46, 22E60

29. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 320)

Jerrard, Robert L.
Some Rigidity Results Related to Monge—Ampère Functions
The space of Monge-Ampère functions, introduced by J. H. G. Fu, is a space of rather rough functions in which the map $u\mapsto \operatorname{Det} D^2 u$ is well defined and weakly continuous with respect to a natural notion of weak convergence. We prove a rigidity theorem for Lagrangian integral currents that allows us to extend the original definition of Monge-Ampère functions. We also prove that if a Monge-Ampère function $u$ on a bounded set $\Omega\subset\mathcal{R}^2$ satisfies the equation $\operatorname{Det} D^2 u=0$ in a particular weak sense, then the graph of $u$ is a developable surface, and moreover $u$ enjoys somewhat better regularity properties than an arbitrary Monge-Ampère function of $2$ variables.

Categories:49Q15, 53C24

30. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 3)

Anchouche, Boudjemâa
On the Asymptotic Behavior of Complete Kähler Metrics of Positive Ricci Curvature
Let $( X,g) $ be a complete noncompact Kähler manifold, of dimension $n\geq2,$ with positive Ricci curvature and of standard type (see the definition below). N. Mok proved that $X$ can be compactified, \emph{i.e.,} $X$ is biholomorphic to a quasi-projective variety$.$ The aim of this paper is to prove that the $L^{2}$ holomorphic sections of the line bundle $K_{X}^{-q}$ and the volume form of the metric $g$ have no essential singularities near the divisor at infinity. As a consequence we obtain a comparison between the volume forms of the Kähler metric $g$ and of the Fubini--Study metric induced on $X$. In the case of $\dim_{\mathbb{C} }X=2,$ we establish a relation between the number of components of the divisor $D$ and the dimension of the groups $H^{i}( \overline{X}, \Omega_{\overline{X}}^{1}( \log D) )$.

Categories:53C55, 32A10

31. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1357)

Shen, Zhongmin
On a Class of Landsberg Metrics in Finsler Geometry
In this paper, we study a long existing open problem on Landsberg metrics in Finsler geometry. We consider Finsler metrics defined by a Riemannian metric and a $1$-form on a manifold. We show that a \emph{regular} Finsler metric in this form is Landsbergian if and only if it is Berwaldian. We further show that there is a two-parameter family of functions, $\phi=\phi(s)$, for which there are a Riemannian metric $\alpha$ and a $1$-form $\beta$ on a manifold $M$ such that the scalar function $F=\alpha \phi (\beta/\alpha)$ on $TM$ is an almost regular Landsberg metric, but not a Berwald metric.

Categories:53B40, 53C60

32. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1201)

Arvanitoyeorgos, Andreas; Dzhepko, V. V.; Nikonorov, Yu. G.
Invariant Einstein Metrics on Some Homogeneous Spaces of Classical Lie Groups
A Riemannian manifold $(M,\rho)$ is called Einstein if the metric $\rho$ satisfies the condition \linebreak$\Ric (\rho)=c\cdot \rho$ for some constant $c$. This paper is devoted to the investigation of $G$-invariant Einstein metrics, with additional symmetries, on some homogeneous spaces $G/H$ of classical groups. As a consequence, we obtain new invariant Einstein metrics on some Stiefel manifolds $\SO(n)/\SO(l)$. Furthermore, we show that for any positive integer $p$ there exists a Stiefel manifold $\SO(n)/\SO(l)$ that admits at least $p$ $\SO(n)$-invariant Einstein metrics.

Keywords:Riemannian manifolds, homogeneous spaces, Einstein metrics, Stiefel manifolds
Categories:53C25, 53C30

33. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 740)

Caprace, Pierre-Emmanuel; Haglund, Frédéric
On Geometric Flats in the CAT(0) Realization of Coxeter Groups and Tits Buildings
Given a complete CAT(0) space $X$ endowed with a geometric action of a group $\Gamma$, it is known that if $\Gamma$ contains a free abelian group of rank $n$, then $X$ contains a geometric flat of dimension $n$. We prove the converse of this statement in the special case where $X$ is a convex subcomplex of the CAT(0) realization of a Coxeter group $W$, and $\Gamma$ is a subgroup of $W$. In particular a convex cocompact subgroup of a Coxeter group is Gromov-hyperbolic if and only if it does not contain a free abelian group of rank 2. Our result also provides an explicit control on geometric flats in the CAT(0) realization of arbitrary Tits buildings.

Keywords:Coxeter group, flat rank, $\cat0$ space, building
Categories:20F55, 51F15, 53C23, 20E42, 51E24

34. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 721)

Calin, Ovidiu; Chang, Der-Chen; Markina, Irina
SubRiemannian Geometry on the Sphere $\mathbb{S}^3$
We discuss the subRiemannian geometry induced by two noncommutative vector fields which are left invariant on the Lie group $\mathbb{S}^3$.

Keywords:noncommutative Lie group, quaternion group, subRiemannian geodesic, horizontal distribution, connectivity theorem, holonomic constraint
Categories:53C17, 53C22, 35H20

35. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 641)

Maeda, Sadahiro; Udagawa, Seiichi
Characterization of Parallel Isometric Immersions of Space Forms into Space Forms in the Class of Isotropic Immersions
For an isotropic submanifold $M^n\,(n\geqq3)$ of a space form $\widetilde{M}^{n+p}(c)$ of constant sectional curvature $c$, we show that if the mean curvature vector of $M^n$ is parallel and the sectional curvature $K$ of $M^n$ satisfies some inequality, then the second fundamental form of $M^n$ in $\widetilde{M}^{n+p}$ is parallel and our manifold $M^n$ is a space form.

Keywords:space forms, parallel isometric immersions, isotropic immersions, totally umbilic, Veronese manifolds, sectional curvatures, parallel mean curvature vector
Categories:53C40, 53C42

36. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 1201)

Bahuaud, Eric; Marsh, Tracey
Hölder Compactification for Some Manifolds with Pinched Negative Curvature Near Infinity
We consider a complete noncompact Riemannian manifold $M$ and give conditions on a compact submanifold $K \subset M$ so that the outward normal exponential map off the boundary of $K$ is a diffeomorphism onto $\MlK$. We use this to compactify $M$ and show that pinched negative sectional curvature outside $K$ implies $M$ has a compactification with a well-defined H\"older structure independent of $K$. The H\"older constant depends on the ratio of the curvature pinching. This extends and generalizes a 1985 result of Anderson and Schoen.


37. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 822)

Kuwae, Kazuhiro
Maximum Principles for Subharmonic Functions Via Local Semi-Dirichlet Forms
Maximum principles for subharmonic functions in the framework of quasi-regular local semi-Dirichlet forms admitting lower bounds are presented. As applications, we give weak and strong maximum principles for (local) subsolutions of a second order elliptic differential operator on the domain of Euclidean space under conditions on coefficients, which partially generalize the results by Stampacchia.

Keywords:positivity preserving form, semi-Dirichlet form, Dirichlet form, subharmonic functions, superharmonic functions, harmonic functions, weak maximum principle, strong maximum principle, irreducibility, absolute continuity condition
Categories:31C25, 35B50, 60J45, 35J, 53C, 58

38. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 572)

Hitrik, Michael; Sj{östrand, Johannes
Non-Selfadjoint Perturbations of Selfadjoint Operators in Two Dimensions IIIa. One Branching Point
This is the third in a series of works devoted to spectral asymptotics for non-selfadjoint perturbations of selfadjoint $h$-pseudodifferential operators in dimension 2, having a periodic classical flow. Assuming that the strength $\epsilon$ of the perturbation is in the range $h^2\ll \epsilon \ll h^{1/2}$ (and may sometimes reach even smaller values), we get an asymptotic description of the eigenvalues in rectangles $[-1/C,1/C]+i\epsilon [F_0-1/C,F_0+1/C]$, $C\gg 1$, when $\epsilon F_0$ is a saddle point value of the flow average of the leading perturbation.

Keywords:non-selfadjoint, eigenvalue, periodic flow, branching singularity
Categories:31C10, 35P20, 35Q40, 37J35, 37J45, 53D22, 58J40

39. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 457)

Teplyaev, Alexander
Harmonic Coordinates on Fractals with Finitely Ramified Cell Structure
We define sets with finitely ramified cell structure, which are generalizations of post-crit8cally finite self-similar sets introduced by Kigami and of fractafolds introduced by Strichartz. In general, we do not assume even local self-similarity, and allow countably many cells connected at each junction point. In particular, we consider post-critically infinite fractals. We prove that if Kigami's resistance form satisfies certain assumptions, then there exists a weak Riemannian metric such that the energy can be expressed as the integral of the norm squared of a weak gradient with respect to an energy measure. Furthermore, we prove that if such a set can be homeomorphically represented in harmonic coordinates, then for smooth functions the weak gradient can be replaced by the usual gradient. We also prove a simple formula for the energy measure Laplacian in harmonic coordinates.

Keywords:fractals, self-similarity, energy, resistance, Dirichlet forms, diffusions, quantum graphs, generalized Riemannian metric
Categories:28A80, 31C25, 53B99, 58J65, 60J60, 60G18

40. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 443)

Shen, Z.; Yildirim, G. Civi
On a Class of Projectively Flat Metrics with Constant Flag Curvature
In this paper, we find equations that characterize locally projectively flat Finsler metrics in the form $F = (\alpha + \beta)^2/\alpha$, where $\alpha=\sqrt{a_{ij}y^iy^j}$ is a Riemannian metric and $\beta= b_i y^i$ is a $1$-form. Then we completely determine the local structure of those with constant flag curvature.


41. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1245)

Chen, Qun; Zhou, Zhen-Rong
On Gap Properties and Instabilities of $p$-Yang--Mills Fields
We consider the $p$-Yang--Mills functional $(p\geq 2)$ defined as $\YM_p(\nabla):=\frac 1 p \int_M \|\rn\|^p$. We call critical points of $\YM_p(\cdot)$ the $p$-Yang--Mills connections, and the associated curvature $\rn$ the $p$-Yang--Mills fields. In this paper, we prove gap properties and instability theorems for $p$-Yang--Mills fields over submanifolds in $\mathbb{R}^{n+k}$ and $\mathbb{S}^{n+k}$.

Keywords:$p$-Yang--Mills field, gap property, instability, submanifold
Categories:58E15, 53C05

42. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 981)

Jiang, Yunfeng
The Chen--Ruan Cohomology of Weighted Projective Spaces
In this paper we study the Chen--Ruan cohomology ring of weighted projective spaces. Given a weighted projective space ${\bf P}^{n}_{q_{0}, \dots, q_{n}}$, we determine all of its twisted sectors and the corresponding degree shifting numbers. The main result of this paper is that the obstruction bundle over any 3\nobreakdash-multi\-sector is a direct sum of line bundles which we use to compute the orbifold cup product. Finally we compute the Chen--Ruan cohomology ring of weighted projective space ${\bf P}^{5}_{1,2,2,3,3,3}$.

Keywords:Chen--Ruan cohomology, twisted sectors, toric varieties, weighted projective space, localization
Categories:14N35, 53D45

43. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 845)

Schaffhauser, Florent
Representations of the Fundamental Group of an $L$-Punctured Sphere Generated by Products of Lagrangian Involutions
In this paper, we characterize unitary representations of $\pi:=\piS$ whose generators $u_1, \dots, u_l$ (lying in conjugacy classes fixed initially) can be decomposed as products of two Lagrangian involutions $u_j=\s_j\s_{j+1}$ with $\s_{l+1}=\s_1$. Our main result is that such representations are exactly the elements of the fixed-point set of an anti-symplectic involution defined on the moduli space $\Mod:=\Hom_{\mathcal C}(\pi,U(n))/U(n)$. Consequently, as this fixed-point set is non-empty, it is a Lagrangian submanifold of $\Mod$. To prove this, we use the quasi-Hamiltonian description of the symplectic structure of $\Mod$ and give conditions on an involution defined on a quasi-Hamiltonian $U$-space $(M, \w, \mu\from M \to U)$ for it to induce an anti-symplectic involution on the reduced space $M/\!/U := \mu^{-1}(\{1\})/U$.

Keywords:momentum maps, moduli spaces, Lagrangian submanifolds, anti-symplectic involutions, quasi-Hamiltonian
Categories:53D20, 53D30

44. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 600)

Martinez-Maure, Yves
Geometric Study of Minkowski Differences of Plane Convex Bodies
In the Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, we define the Minkowski difference $\mathcal{K}-\mathcal{L}$ of two arbitrary convex bodies $\mathcal{K}$, $\mathcal{L}$ as a rectifiable closed curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}\subset \mathbb{R} ^{2}$ that is determined by the difference $h=h_{\mathcal{K}}-h_{\mathcal{L} } $ of their support functions. This curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}$ is called the hedgehog with support function $h$. More generally, the object of hedgehog theory is to study the Brunn--Minkowski theory in the vector space of Minkowski differences of arbitrary convex bodies of Euclidean space $\mathbb{R} ^{n+1}$, defined as (possibly singular and self-intersecting) hypersurfaces of $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. Hedgehog theory is useful for: (i) studying convex bodies by splitting them into a sum in order to reveal their structure; (ii) converting analytical problems into geometrical ones by considering certain real functions as support functions. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed study of plane hedgehogs, which constitute the basis of the theory. In particular: (i) we study their length measures and solve the extension of the Christoffel--Minkowski problem to plane hedgehogs; (ii) we characterize support functions of plane convex bodies among support functions of plane hedgehogs and support functions of plane hedgehogs among continuous functions; (iii) we study the mixed area of hedgehogs in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and give an extension of the classical Minkowski inequality (and thus of the isoperimetric inequality) to hedgehogs.

Categories:52A30, 52A10, 53A04, 52A38, 52A39, 52A40

45. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 282)

Fels, M. E.; Renner, A. G.
Non-reductive Homogeneous Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds of Dimension Four
A method, due to \'Elie Cartan, is used to give an algebraic classification of the non-reductive homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of dimension four. Only one case with Lorentz signature can be Einstein without having constant curvature, and two cases with $(2,2)$ signature are Einstein of which one is Ricci-flat. If a four-dimensional non-reductive homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian manifold is simply connected, then it is shown to be diffeomorphic to $\reals^4$. All metrics for the simply connected non-reductive Einstein spaces are given explicitly. There are no non-reductive pseudo-Riemannian homogeneous spaces of dimension two and none of dimension three with connected isotropy subgroup.

Keywords:Homogeneous pseudo-Riemannian, Einstein space

46. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 381)

Jakobson, Dmitry; Nadirashvili, Nikolai; Polterovich, Iosif
Extremal Metric for the First Eigenvalue on a Klein Bottle
The first eigenvalue of the Laplacian on a surface can be viewed as a functional on the space of Riemannian metrics of a given area. Critical points of this functional are called extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Clifford torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric of revolution, admitting a minimal isometric embedding into a sphere ${\mathbb S}^4$ by the first eigenfunctions. Also, this Klein bottle is a bipolar surface for Lawson's $\tau_{3,1}$-torus. We conjecture that an extremal metric for the first eigenvalue on a Klein bottle is unique, and hence it provides a sharp upper bound for $\lambda_1$ on a Klein bottle of a given area. We present numerical evidence and prove the first results towards this conjecture.

Keywords:Laplacian, eigenvalue, Klein bottle
Categories:58J50, 53C42

47. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 362)

Goldin, R. F.; Martin, S.
Cohomology Pairings on the Symplectic Reduction of Products
Let $M$ be the product of two compact Hamiltonian $T$-spaces $X$ and $Y$. We present a formula for evaluating integrals on the symplectic reduction of $M$ by the diagonal $T$ action. At every regular value of the moment map for $X\times Y$, the integral is the convolution of two distributions associated to the symplectic reductions of $X$ by $T$ and of $Y$ by $T$. Several examples illustrate the computational strength of this relationship. We also prove a linear analogue which can be used to find cohomology pairings on toric orbifolds.


48. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 262)

Biswas, Indranil
Connections on a Parabolic Principal Bundle Over a Curve
The aim here is to define connections on a parabolic principal bundle. Some applications are given.

Keywords:parabolic bundle, holomorphic connection, unitary connection
Categories:53C07, 32L05, 14F05

49. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1291)

Riveros, Carlos M. C.; Tenenblat, Keti
Dupin Hypersurfaces in $\mathbb R^5$
We study Dupin hypersurfaces in $\mathbb R^5$ parametrized by lines of curvature, with four distinct principal curvatures. We characterize locally a generic family of such hypersurfaces in terms of the principal curvatures and four vector valued functions of one variable. We show that these vector valued functions are invariant by inversions and homotheties.

Categories:53B25, 53C42, 35N10, 37K10

50. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1314)

Zhitomirskii, M.
Relative Darboux Theorem for Singular Manifolds and Local Contact Algebra
In 1999 V. Arnol'd introduced the local contact algebra: studying the problem of classification of singular curves in a contact space, he showed the existence of the ghost of the contact structure (invariants which are not related to the induced structure on the curve). Our main result implies that the only reason for existence of the local contact algebra and the ghost is the difference between the geometric and (defined in this paper) algebraic restriction of a $1$-form to a singular submanifold. We prove that a germ of any subset $N$ of a contact manifold is well defined, up to contactomorphisms, by the algebraic restriction to $N$ of the contact structure. This is a generalization of the Darboux-Givental' theorem for smooth submanifolds of a contact manifold. Studying the difference between the geometric and the algebraic restrictions gives a powerful tool for classification of stratified submanifolds of a contact manifold. This is illustrated by complete solution of three classification problems, including a simple explanation of V.~Arnold's results and further classification results for singular curves in a contact space. We also prove several results on the external geometry of a singular submanifold $N$ in terms of the algebraic restriction of the contact structure to $N$. In particular, the algebraic restriction is zero if and only if $N$ is contained in a smooth Legendrian submanifold of $M$.

Keywords:contact manifold, local contact algebra,, relative Darboux theorem, integral curves
Categories:53D10, 14B05, 58K50
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