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26. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 299)

Dawson, Robert J. MacG.; Moszy\'{n}ska, Maria
\v{C}eby\v{s}ev Sets in Hyperspaces over $\mathrm{R}^n$
A set in a metric space is called a \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev set} if it has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' to each point of the space. In this paper we generalize this notion, defining a set to be \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev relative to} another set if every point in the second set has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' in the first. We are interested in \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in some hyperspaces over $\R$, endowed with the Hausdorff metric, mainly the hyperspaces of compact sets, compact convex sets, and strictly convex compact sets. We present some new classes of \v{C}eby\v{s}ev and relatively \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in various hyperspaces. In particular, we show that certain nested families of sets are \v{C}eby\v{s}ev. As these families are characterized purely in terms of containment, without reference to the semi-linear structure of the underlying metric space, their properties differ markedly from those of known \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets.

Keywords:convex body, strictly convex set, \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, relative \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, nested family, strongly nested family, family of translates
Categories:41A52, 52A20

27. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 3)

Böröczky, Károly; Böröczky, Károly J.; Schütt, Carsten; Wintsche, Gergely
Convex Bodies of Minimal Volume, Surface Area and Mean Width with Respect to Thin Shells
Given $r>1$, we consider convex bodies in $\E^n$ which contain a fixed unit ball, and whose extreme points are of distance at least $r$ from the centre of the unit ball, and we investigate how well these convex bodies approximate the unit ball in terms of volume, surface area and mean width. As $r$ tends to one, we prove asymptotic formulae for the error of the approximation, and provide good estimates on the involved constants depending on the dimension.

Categories:52A27, 52A40

28. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1008)

Kaczynski, Tomasz; Mrozek, Marian; Trahan, Anik
Ideas from Zariski Topology in the Study of Cubical Homology
Cubical sets and their homology have been used in dynamical systems as well as in digital imaging. We take a fresh look at this topic, following Zariski ideas from algebraic geometry. The cubical topology is defined to be a topology in $\R^d$ in which a set is closed if and only if it is cubical. This concept is a convenient frame for describing a variety of important features of cubical sets. Separation axioms which, in general, are not satisfied here, characterize exactly those pairs of points which we want to distinguish. The noetherian property guarantees the correctness of the algorithms. Moreover, maps between cubical sets which are continuous and closed with respect to the cubical topology are precisely those for whom the homology map can be defined and computed without grid subdivisions. A combinatorial version of the Vietoris-Begle theorem is derived. This theorem plays the central role in an algorithm computing homology of maps which are continuous with respect to the Euclidean topology.

Categories:55-04, 52B05, 54C60, 68W05, 68W30, 68U10

29. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1029)

Kalton, N. J.; Koldobsky, A.; Yaskin, V.; Yaskina, M.
The Geometry of $L_0$
Suppose that we have the unit Euclidean ball in $\R^n$ and construct new bodies using three operations --- linear transformations, closure in the radial metric, and multiplicative summation defined by $\|x\|_{K+_0L} = \sqrt{\|x\|_K\|x\|_L}.$ We prove that in dimension $3$ this procedure gives all origin-symmetric convex bodies, while this is no longer true in dimensions $4$ and higher. We introduce the concept of embedding of a normed space in $L_0$ that naturally extends the corresponding properties of $L_p$-spaces with $p\ne0$, and show that the procedure described above gives exactly the unit balls of subspaces of $L_0$ in every dimension. We provide Fourier analytic and geometric characterizations of spaces embedding in $L_0$, and prove several facts confirming the place of $L_0$ in the scale of $L_p$-spaces.

Categories:52A20, 52A21, 46B20

30. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 820)

Moreno, J. P.; Papini, P. L.; Phelps, R. R.
Diametrically Maximal and Constant Width Sets in Banach Spaces
We characterize diametrically maximal and constant width sets in $C(K)$, where $K$ is any compact Hausdorff space. These results are applied to prove that the sum of two diametrically maximal sets needs not be diametrically maximal, thus solving a question raised in a paper by Groemer. A~characterization of diametrically maximal sets in $\ell_1^3$ is also given, providing a negative answer to Groemer's problem in finite dimensional spaces. We characterize constant width sets in $c_0(I)$, for every $I$, and then we establish the connections between the Jung constant of a Banach space and the existence of constant width sets with empty interior. Porosity properties of families of sets of constant width and rotundity properties of diametrically maximal sets are also investigated. Finally, we present some results concerning non-reflexive and Hilbert spaces.

Categories:52A05, 46B20

31. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 600)

Martinez-Maure, Yves
Geometric Study of Minkowski Differences of Plane Convex Bodies
In the Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, we define the Minkowski difference $\mathcal{K}-\mathcal{L}$ of two arbitrary convex bodies $\mathcal{K}$, $\mathcal{L}$ as a rectifiable closed curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}\subset \mathbb{R} ^{2}$ that is determined by the difference $h=h_{\mathcal{K}}-h_{\mathcal{L} } $ of their support functions. This curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}$ is called the hedgehog with support function $h$. More generally, the object of hedgehog theory is to study the Brunn--Minkowski theory in the vector space of Minkowski differences of arbitrary convex bodies of Euclidean space $\mathbb{R} ^{n+1}$, defined as (possibly singular and self-intersecting) hypersurfaces of $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. Hedgehog theory is useful for: (i) studying convex bodies by splitting them into a sum in order to reveal their structure; (ii) converting analytical problems into geometrical ones by considering certain real functions as support functions. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed study of plane hedgehogs, which constitute the basis of the theory. In particular: (i) we study their length measures and solve the extension of the Christoffel--Minkowski problem to plane hedgehogs; (ii) we characterize support functions of plane convex bodies among support functions of plane hedgehogs and support functions of plane hedgehogs among continuous functions; (iii) we study the mixed area of hedgehogs in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and give an extension of the classical Minkowski inequality (and thus of the isoperimetric inequality) to hedgehogs.

Categories:52A30, 52A10, 53A04, 52A38, 52A39, 52A40

32. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 844)

Williams, Gordon
Petrie Schemes
Petrie polygons, especially as they arise in the study of regular polytopes and Coxeter groups, have been studied by geometers and group theorists since the early part of the twentieth century. An open question is the determination of which polyhedra possess Petrie polygons that are simple closed curves. The current work explores combinatorial structures in abstract polytopes, called Petrie schemes, that generalize the notion of a Petrie polygon. It is established that all of the regular convex polytopes and honeycombs in Euclidean spaces, as well as all of the Gr\"unbaum--Dress polyhedra, possess Petrie schemes that are not self-intersecting and thus have Petrie polygons that are simple closed curves. Partial results are obtained for several other classes of less symmetric polytopes.

Keywords:Petrie polygon, polyhedron, polytope, abstract polytope, incidence complex, regular polytope, Coxeter group
Categories:52B15, 52B05

33. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 529)

Martínez-Finkelshtein, A.; Maymeskul, V.; Rakhmanov, E. A.; Saff, E. B.
Asymptotics for Minimal Discrete Riesz Energy on Curves in $\R^d$
We consider the $s$-energy $$ E(\ZZ_n;s)=\sum_{i \neq j} K(\|z_{i,n}-z_{j,n}\|;s) $$ for point sets $\ZZ_n=\{ z_{k,n}:k=0,\dots,n\}$ on certain compact sets $\Ga$ in $\R^d$ having finite one-dimensional Hausdorff measure, where $$ K(t;s)= \begin{cases} t^{-s} ,& \mbox{if } s>0, \\ -\ln t, & \mbox{if } s=0, \end{cases} $$ is the Riesz kernel. Asymptotics for the minimum $s$-energy and the distribution of minimizing sequences of points is studied. In particular, we prove that, for $s\geq 1$, the minimizing nodes for a rectifiable Jordan curve $\Ga$ distribute asymptotically uniformly with respect to arclength as $n\to\infty$.

Keywords:Riesz energy, Minimal discrete energy,, Rectifiable curves, Best-packing on curves
Categories:52A40, 31C20

34. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 472)

Fonf, Vladimir P.; Veselý, Libor
Infinite-Dimensional Polyhedrality
This paper deals with generalizations of the notion of a polytope to infinite dimensions. The most general definition is the following: a bounded closed convex subset of a Banach space is called a \emph{polytope} if each of its finite-dimensional affine sections is a (standard) polytope. We study the relationships between eight known definitions of infinite-dimensional polyhedrality. We provide a complete isometric classification of them, which gives solutions to several open problems. An almost complete isomorphic classification is given as well (only one implication remains open).

Categories:46B20, 46B03, 46B04, 52B99

35. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 1121)

Athanasiadis, Christos A.; Santos, Francisco
Monotone Paths on Zonotopes and Oriented Matroids
Monotone paths on zonotopes and the natural generalization to maximal chains in the poset of topes of an oriented matroid or arrangement of pseudo-hyperplanes are studied with respect to a kind of local move, called polygon move or flip. It is proved that any monotone path on a $d$-dimensional zonotope with $n$ generators admits at least $\lceil 2n/(n-d+2) \rceil-1$ flips for all $n \ge d+2 \ge 4$ and that for any fixed value of $n-d$, this lower bound is sharp for infinitely many values of $n$. In particular, monotone paths on zonotopes which admit only three flips are constructed in each dimension $d \ge 3$. Furthermore, the previously known 2-connectivity of the graph of monotone paths on a polytope is extended to the 2-connectivity of the graph of maximal chains of topes of an oriented matroid. An application in the context of Coxeter groups of a result known to be valid for monotone paths on simple zonotopes is included.

Categories:52C35, 52B12, 52C40, 20F55

36. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 470)

Bauschke, Heinz H.; Güler, Osman; Lewis, Adrian S.; Sendov, Hristo S.
Hyperbolic Polynomials and Convex Analysis
A homogeneous real polynomial $p$ is {\em hyperbolic} with respect to a given vector $d$ if the univariate polynomial $t \mapsto p(x-td)$ has all real roots for all vectors $x$. Motivated by partial differential equations, G{\aa}rding proved in 1951 that the largest such root is a convex function of $x$, and showed various ways of constructing new hyperbolic polynomials. We present a powerful new such construction, and use it to generalize G{\aa}rding's result to arbitrary symmetric functions of the roots. Many classical and recent inequalities follow easily. We develop various convex-analytic tools for such symmetric functions, of interest in interior-point methods for optimization problems over related cones.

Keywords:convex analysis, eigenvalue, G{\aa}rding's inequality, hyperbolic barrier function, hyperbolic polynomial, hyperbolicity cone, interior-point method, semidefinite program, singular value, symmetric function
Categories:90C25, 15A45, 52A41

37. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1258)

Baake, Michael; Moody, Robert V.
Similarity Submodules and Root Systems in Four Dimensions
Lattices and $\ZZ$-modules in Euclidean space possess an infinitude of subsets that are images of the original set under similarity transformation. We classify such self-similar images according to their indices for certain 4D examples that are related to 4D root systems, both crystallographic and non-crystallographic. We encapsulate their statistics in terms of Dirichlet series generating functions and derive some of their asymptotic properties.

Categories:11S45, 11H05, 52C07

38. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1300)

Conway, J. H.; Rains, E. M.; Sloane, N. J. A.
On the Existence of Similar Sublattices
Partial answers are given to two questions. When does a lattice $\Lambda$ contain a sublattice $\Lambda'$ of index $N$ that is geometrically similar to $\Lambda$? When is the sublattice ``clean'', in the sense that the boundaries of the Voronoi cells for $\Lambda'$ do not intersect $\Lambda$?


39. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 449)

Bahn, Hyoungsick; Ehrlich, Paul
A Brunn-Minkowski Type Theorem on the Minkowski Spacetime
In this article, we derive a Brunn-Minkowski type theorem for sets bearing some relation to the causal structure on the Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{L}^{n+1}$. We also present an isoperimetric inequality in the Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{L}^{n+1}$ as a consequence of this Brunn-Minkowski type theorem.

Keywords:Minkowski spacetime, Brunn-Minkowski inequality, isoperimetric inequality
Categories:53B30, 52A40, 52A38

40. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 225)

Betke, U.; Böröczky, K.
Asymptotic Formulae for the Lattice Point Enumerator
Let $M$ be a convex body such that the boundary has positive curvature. Then by a well developed theory dating back to Landau and Hlawka for large $\lambda$ the number of lattice points in $\lambda M$ is given by $G(\lambda M) =V(\lambda M) + O(\lambda^{d-1-\varepsilon (d)})$ for some positive $\varepsilon(d)$. Here we give for general convex bodies the weaker estimate \[ \left| G(\lambda M) -V(\lambda M) \right | \le \frac{1}{2} S_{\Z^d}(M) \lambda^{d-1}+o(\lambda^{d-1}) \] where $S_{\Z^d}(M)$ denotes the lattice surface area of $M$. The term $S_{\Z^d}(M)$ is optimal for all convex bodies and $o(\lambda^{d-1})$ cannot be improved in general. We prove that the same estimate even holds if we allow small deformations of $M$. Further we deal with families $\{P_\lambda\}$ of convex bodies where the only condition is that the inradius tends to infinity. Here we have \[ \left| G(P_\lambda)-V(P_\lambda) \right| \le dV(P_\lambda,K;1)+o \bigl( S(P_\lambda) \bigr) \] where the convex body $K$ satisfies some simple condition, $V(P_\lambda,K;1)$ is some mixed volume and $S(P_\lambda)$ is the surface area of $P_\lambda$.

Categories:11P21, 52C07

41. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 426)

McMullen, Peter
The groups of the regular star-polytopes
No abstract.

Categories:51M20, 52C99

42. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 16)

Böröczky, Károly; Schnell, Uwe
Asymptotic shape of finite packings
Let $K$ be a convex body in $\ed$ and denote by $\cn$ the set of centroids of $n$ non-overlapping translates of $K$. For $\varrho>0$, assume that the parallel body $\cocn+\varrho K$ of $\cocn$ has minimal volume. The notion of parametric density (see~\cite{Wil93}) provides a bridge between finite and infinite packings (see~\cite{BHW94} or~\cite{Hen}). It is known that there exists a maximal $\varrho_s(K)\geq 1/(32d^2)$ such that $\cocn$ is a segment for $\varrho<\varrho_s$ (see~\cite{BHW95}). We prove the existence of a minimal $\varrho_c(K)\leq d+1$ such that if $\varrho>\varrho_c$ and $n$ is large then the shape of $\cocn$ can not be too far from the shape of $K$. For $d=2$, we verify that $\varrho_s=\varrho_c$. For $d\geq 3$, we present the first example of a convex body with known $\varrho_s$ and $\varrho_c$; namely, we have $\varrho_s=\varrho_c=1$ for the parallelotope.

Categories:52C17, 05B40

43. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1162)

Ku, Hsu-Tung; Ku, Mei-Chin; Zhang, Xin-Min
Isoperimetric inequalities on surfaces of constant curvature
In this paper we introduce the concepts of hyperbolic and elliptic areas and prove uncountably many new geometric isoperimetric inequalities on the surfaces of constant curvature.

Keywords:Gaussian curvature, Gauss-Bonnet theorem, polygon, pseudo-polygon, pseudo-perimeter, hyperbolic surface, Heron's formula, analytic and geometric isoperimetric inequalities
Categories:51M10, 51M25, 52A40, 53C20
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