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1. CJM Online first

Alfonseca, M. Angeles; Kim, Jaegil
On the Local Convexity of Intersection Bodies of Revolution
One of the fundamental results in Convex Geometry is Busemann's theorem, which states that the intersection body of a symmetric convex body is convex. Thus, it is only natural to ask if there is a quantitative version of Busemann's theorem, i.e., if the intersection body operation actually improves convexity. In this paper we concentrate on the symmetric bodies of revolution to provide several results on the (strict) improvement of convexity under the intersection body operation. It is shown that the intersection body of a symmetric convex body of revolution has the same asymptotic behavior near the equator as the Euclidean ball. We apply this result to show that in sufficiently high dimension the double intersection body of a symmetric convex body of revolution is very close to an ellipsoid in the Banach-Mazur distance. We also prove results on the local convexity at the equator of intersection bodies in the class of star bodies of revolution.

Keywords:convex bodies, intersection bodies of star bodies, Busemann's theorem, local convexity
Categories:52A20, 52A38, 44A12

2. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 783)

Izmestiev, Ivan
Infinitesimal Rigidity of Convex Polyhedra through the Second Derivative of the Hilbert-Einstein Functional
The paper is centered around a new proof of the infinitesimal rigidity of convex polyhedra. The proof is based on studying derivatives of the discrete Hilbert-Einstein functional on the space of "warped polyhedra" with a fixed metric on the boundary. The situation is in a sense dual to using derivatives of the volume in order to prove the Gauss infinitesimal rigidity of convex polyhedra. This latter kind of rigidity is related to the Minkowski theorem on the existence and uniqueness of a polyhedron with prescribed face normals and face areas. In the spherical and in the hyperbolic-de Sitter space, there is a perfect duality between the Hilbert-Einstein functional and the volume, as well as between both kinds of rigidity. We review some of the related work and discuss directions for future research.

Keywords:convex polyhedron, rigidity, Hilbert-Einstein functional, Minkowski theorem
Categories:52B99, 53C24

3. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1236)

De Bernardi, Carlo Alberto
Higher Connectedness Properties of Support Points and Functionals of Convex Sets
We prove that the set of all support points of a nonempty closed convex bounded set $C$ in a real infinite-dimensional Banach space $X$ is $\mathrm{AR(}\sigma$-$\mathrm{compact)}$ and contractible. Under suitable conditions, similar results are proved also for the set of all support functionals of $C$ and for the domain, the graph and the range of the subdifferential map of a proper convex l.s.c. function on $X$.

Keywords:convex set, support point, support functional, absolute retract, Leray-Schauder continuation principle
Categories:46A55, 46B99, 52A07

4. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 675)

Strungaru, Nicolae
On the Bragg Diffraction Spectra of a Meyer Set
Meyer sets have a relatively dense set of Bragg peaks and for this reason they may be considered as basic mathematical examples of (aperiodic) crystals. In this paper we investigate the pure point part of the diffraction of Meyer sets in more detail. The results are of two kinds. First we show that given a Meyer set and any positive intensity $a$ less than the maximum intensity of its Bragg peaks, the set of Bragg peaks whose intensity exceeds $a$ is itself a Meyer set (in the Fourier space). Second we show that if a Meyer set is modified by addition and removal of points in such a way that its density is not altered too much (the allowable amount being given explicitly as a proportion of the original density) then the newly obtained set still has a relatively dense set of Bragg peaks.

Keywords:diffraction, Meyer set, Bragg peaks
Category:52C23

5. CJM 2012 (vol 66 pp. 700)

He, Jianxun; Xiao, Jinsen
Inversion of the Radon Transform on the Free Nilpotent Lie Group of Step Two
Let $F_{2n,2}$ be the free nilpotent Lie group of step two on $2n$ generators, and let $\mathbf P$ denote the affine automorphism group of $F_{2n,2}$. In this article the theory of continuous wavelet transform on $F_{2n,2}$ associated with $\mathbf P$ is developed, and then a type of radial wavelets is constructed. Secondly, the Radon transform on $F_{2n,2}$ is studied and two equivalent characterizations of the range for Radon transform are given. Several kinds of inversion Radon transform formulae are established. One is obtained from the Euclidean Fourier transform, the others are from group Fourier transform. By using wavelet transform we deduce an inversion formula of the Radon transform, which does not require the smoothness of functions if the wavelet satisfies the differentiability property. Specially, if $n=1$, $F_{2,2}$ is the $3$-dimensional Heisenberg group $H^1$, the inversion formula of the Radon transform is valid which is associated with the sub-Laplacian on $F_{2,2}$. This result cannot be extended to the case $n\geq 2$.

Keywords:Radon transform, wavelet transform, free nilpotent Lie group, unitary representation, inversion formula, sub-Laplacian
Categories:43A85, 44A12, 52A38

6. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1401)

Zhao, Wei; Shen, Yibing
A Universal Volume Comparison Theorem for Finsler Manifolds and Related Results
In this paper, we establish a universal volume comparison theorem for Finsler manifolds and give the Berger-Kazdan inequality and Santaló's formula in Finsler geometry. Being based on these, we derive a Berger-Kazdan type comparison theorem and a Croke type isoperimetric inequality for Finsler manifolds.

Keywords:Finsler manifold, Berger-Kazdan inequality, Berger-Kazdan comparison theorem, Santaló's formula, Croke's isoperimetric inequality
Categories:53B40, 53C65, 52A38

7. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1036)

Koh, Doowon; Shen, Chun-Yen
Harmonic Analysis Related to Homogeneous Varieties in Three Dimensional Vector Spaces over Finite Fields
In this paper we study the extension problem, the averaging problem, and the generalized Erdős-Falconer distance problem associated with arbitrary homogeneous varieties in three dimensional vector spaces over finite fields. In the case when the varieties do not contain any plane passing through the origin, we obtain the best possible results on the aforementioned three problems. In particular, our result on the extension problem modestly generalizes the result by Mockenhaupt and Tao who studied the particular conical extension problem. In addition, investigating the Fourier decay on homogeneous varieties enables us to give complete mapping properties of averaging operators. Moreover, we improve the size condition on a set such that the cardinality of its distance set is nontrivial.

Keywords:extension problems, averaging operator, finite fields, Erdős-Falconer distance problems, homogeneous polynomial
Categories:42B05, 11T24, 52C17

8. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1254)

D'Azevedo, Antonio Breda; Jones, Gareth A.; Schulte, Egon
Constructions of Chiral Polytopes of Small Rank
An abstract polytope of rank $n$ is said to be chiral if its automorphism group has precisely two orbits on the flags, such that adjacent flags belong to distinct orbits. This paper describes a general method for deriving new finite chiral polytopes from old finite chiral polytopes of the same rank. In particular, the technique is used to construct many new examples in ranks $3$, $4$, and $5$.

Keywords:abstract regular polytope, chiral polytope, chiral maps
Categories:51M20, 52B15, 05C25

9. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1038)

Cohen, D.; Denham, G.; Falk, M.; Varchenko, A.
Critical Points and Resonance of Hyperplane Arrangements
If $\Phi_\lambda$ is a master function corresponding to a hyperplane arrangement $\mathcal A$ and a collection of weights $\lambda$, we investigate the relationship between the critical set of $\Phi_\lambda$, the variety defined by the vanishing of the one-form $\omega_\lambda=\operatorname{d} \log \Phi_\lambda$, and the resonance of $\lambda$. For arrangements satisfying certain conditions, we show that if $\lambda$ is resonant in dimension $p$, then the critical set of $\Phi_\lambda$ has codimension at most $p$. These include all free arrangements and all rank $3$ arrangements.

Keywords:hyperplane arrangement, master function, resonant weights, critical set
Categories:32S22, 55N25, 52C35

10. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1220)

Baake, Michael; Scharlau, Rudolf; Zeiner, Peter
Similar Sublattices of Planar Lattices
The similar sublattices of a planar lattice can be classified via its multiplier ring. The latter is the ring of rational integers in the generic case, and an order in an imaginary quadratic field otherwise. Several classes of examples are discussed, with special emphasis on concrete results. In particular, we derive Dirichlet series generating functions for the number of distinct similar sublattices of a given index, and relate them to zeta functions of orders in imaginary quadratic fields.

Categories:11H06, 11R11, 52C05, 82D25

11. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1293)

Kasprzyk, Alexander M.
Canonical Toric Fano Threefolds
An inductive approach to classifying all toric Fano varieties is given. As an application of this technique, we present a classification of the toric Fano threefolds with at worst canonical singularities. Up to isomorphism, there are $674,\!688$ such varieties.

Keywords:toric, Fano, threefold, canonical singularities, convex polytopes
Categories:14J30, 14J30, 14M25, 52B20

12. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1228)

Ardila, Federico; Fink, Alex; Rincón, Felipe
Valuations for Matroid Polytope Subdivisions
We prove that the ranks of the subsets and the activities of the bases of a matroid define valuations for the subdivisions of a matroid polytope into smaller matroid polytopes.

Categories:05B35, 52B40, 52B45, 52C22

13. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 975)

Bjorndahl, Christina; Karshon, Yael
Revisiting Tietze-Nakajima: Local and Global Convexity for Maps
A theorem of Tietze and Nakajima, from 1928, asserts that if a subset $X$ of $\mathbb{R}^n$ is closed, connected, and locally convex, then it is convex. We give an analogous ``local to global convexity" theorem when the inclusion map of $X$ to $\mathbb{R}^n$ is replaced by a map from a topological space $X$ to $\mathbb{R}^n$ that satisfies certain local properties. Our motivation comes from the Condevaux--Dazord--Molino proof of the Atiyah--Guillemin--Sternberg convexity theorem in symplectic geometry.

Categories:53D20, 52B99

14. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1404)

Saroglou, Christos
Characterizations of Extremals for some Functionals on Convex Bodies
We investigate equality cases in inequalities for Sylvester-type functionals. Namely, it was proven by Campi, Colesanti, and Gronchi that the quantity $$ \int_{x_0\in K}\cdots\int_{x_n\in K}[V(\textrm{conv}\{x_0,\dots,x_n\})]^pdx_0\cdots dx_n , n\geq d, p\geq 1 $$ is maximized by triangles among all planar convex bodies $K$ (parallelograms in the symmetric case). We show that these are the only maximizers, a fact proven by Giannopoulos for $p=1$. Moreover, if $h$: $\mathbb{R}_+\rightarrow \mathbb{R}_+$ is a strictly increasing function and $W_j$ is the $j$-th quermassintegral in $\mathbb{R}^d$, we prove that the functional $$ \int_{x_0\in K_0}\cdots\int_{x_n\in K_n}h(W_j(\textrm{conv}\{x_0,\dots,x_n\}))dx_0\cdots dx_n , n \geq d $$ is minimized among the $(n+1)$-tuples of convex bodies of fixed volumes if and only if $K_0,\dots,K_n$ are homothetic ellipsoids when $j=0$ (extending a result of Groemer) and Euclidean balls with the same center when $j>0$ (extending a result of Hartzoulaki and Paouris).

Categories:52A40, 52A22

15. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1300)

Hubard, Isabel; Orbani\'c, Alen; Weiss, Asia Ivi\'c
Monodromy Groups and Self-Invariance
For every polytope $\mathcal{P}$ there is the universal regular polytope of the same rank as $\mathcal{P}$ corresponding to the Coxeter group $\mathcal{C} =[\infty, \dots, \infty]$. For a given automorphism $d$ of $\mathcal{C}$, using monodromy groups, we construct a combinatorial structure $\mathcal{P}^d$. When $\mathcal{P}^d$ is a polytope isomorphic to $\mathcal{P}$ we say that $\mathcal{P}$ is self-invariant with respect to $d$, or $d$-invariant. We develop algebraic tools for investigating these operations on polytopes, and in particular give a criterion on the existence of a $d$\nobreakdash-auto\-morphism of a given order. As an application, we analyze properties of self-dual edge-transitive polyhedra and polyhedra with two flag-orbits. We investigate properties of medials of such polyhedra. Furthermore, we give an example of a self-dual equivelar polyhedron which contains no polarity (duality of order 2). We also extend the concept of Petrie dual to higher dimensions, and we show how it can be dealt with using self-invariance.

Keywords:maps, abstract polytopes, self-duality, monodromy groups, medials of polyhedra
Categories:51M20, 05C25, 05C10, 05C30, 52B70

16. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 904)

Saliola, Franco V.
The Face Semigroup Algebra of a Hyperplane Arrangement
This article presents a study of an algebra spanned by the faces of a hyperplane arrangement. The quiver with relations of the algebra is computed and the algebra is shown to be a Koszul algebra. It is shown that the algebra depends only on the intersection lattice of the hyperplane arrangement. A complete system of primitive orthogonal idempotents for the algebra is constructed and other algebraic structure is determined including: a description of the projective indecomposable modules, the Cartan invariants, projective resolutions of the simple modules, the Hochschild homology and cohomology, and the Koszul dual algebra. A new cohomology construction on posets is introduced, and it is shown that the face semigroup algebra is isomorphic to the cohomology algebra when this construction is applied to the intersection lattice of the hyperplane arrangement.

Categories:52C35, 05E25, 16S37

17. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 888)

Novik, Isabella; Swartz, Ed
Face Ring Multiplicity via CM-Connectivity Sequences
The multiplicity conjecture of Herzog, Huneke, and Srinivasan is verified for the face rings of the following classes of simplicial complexes: matroid complexes, complexes of dimension one and two, and Gorenstein complexes of dimension at most four. The lower bound part of this conjecture is also established for the face rings of all doubly Cohen--Macaulay complexes whose 1-skeleton's connectivity does not exceed the codimension plus one as well as for all $(d-1)$-dimensional $d$-Cohen--Macaulay complexes. The main ingredient of the proofs is a new interpretation of the minimal shifts in the resolution of the face ring $\field[\Delta]$ via the Cohen--Macaulay connectivity of the skeletons of $\Delta$.

Categories:13F55, 52B05;, 13H15;, 13D02;, 05B35

18. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 299)

Dawson, Robert J. MacG.; Moszy\'{n}ska, Maria
\v{C}eby\v{s}ev Sets in Hyperspaces over $\mathrm{R}^n$
A set in a metric space is called a \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev set} if it has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' to each point of the space. In this paper we generalize this notion, defining a set to be \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev relative to} another set if every point in the second set has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' in the first. We are interested in \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in some hyperspaces over $\R$, endowed with the Hausdorff metric, mainly the hyperspaces of compact sets, compact convex sets, and strictly convex compact sets. We present some new classes of \v{C}eby\v{s}ev and relatively \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in various hyperspaces. In particular, we show that certain nested families of sets are \v{C}eby\v{s}ev. As these families are characterized purely in terms of containment, without reference to the semi-linear structure of the underlying metric space, their properties differ markedly from those of known \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets.

Keywords:convex body, strictly convex set, \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, relative \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, nested family, strongly nested family, family of translates
Categories:41A52, 52A20

19. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 3)

Böröczky, Károly; Böröczky, Károly J.; Schütt, Carsten; Wintsche, Gergely
Convex Bodies of Minimal Volume, Surface Area and Mean Width with Respect to Thin Shells
Given $r>1$, we consider convex bodies in $\E^n$ which contain a fixed unit ball, and whose extreme points are of distance at least $r$ from the centre of the unit ball, and we investigate how well these convex bodies approximate the unit ball in terms of volume, surface area and mean width. As $r$ tends to one, we prove asymptotic formulae for the error of the approximation, and provide good estimates on the involved constants depending on the dimension.

Categories:52A27, 52A40

20. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1029)

Kalton, N. J.; Koldobsky, A.; Yaskin, V.; Yaskina, M.
The Geometry of $L_0$
Suppose that we have the unit Euclidean ball in $\R^n$ and construct new bodies using three operations --- linear transformations, closure in the radial metric, and multiplicative summation defined by $\|x\|_{K+_0L} = \sqrt{\|x\|_K\|x\|_L}.$ We prove that in dimension $3$ this procedure gives all origin-symmetric convex bodies, while this is no longer true in dimensions $4$ and higher. We introduce the concept of embedding of a normed space in $L_0$ that naturally extends the corresponding properties of $L_p$-spaces with $p\ne0$, and show that the procedure described above gives exactly the unit balls of subspaces of $L_0$ in every dimension. We provide Fourier analytic and geometric characterizations of spaces embedding in $L_0$, and prove several facts confirming the place of $L_0$ in the scale of $L_p$-spaces.

Categories:52A20, 52A21, 46B20

21. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1008)

Kaczynski, Tomasz; Mrozek, Marian; Trahan, Anik
Ideas from Zariski Topology in the Study of Cubical Homology
Cubical sets and their homology have been used in dynamical systems as well as in digital imaging. We take a fresh look at this topic, following Zariski ideas from algebraic geometry. The cubical topology is defined to be a topology in $\R^d$ in which a set is closed if and only if it is cubical. This concept is a convenient frame for describing a variety of important features of cubical sets. Separation axioms which, in general, are not satisfied here, characterize exactly those pairs of points which we want to distinguish. The noetherian property guarantees the correctness of the algorithms. Moreover, maps between cubical sets which are continuous and closed with respect to the cubical topology are precisely those for whom the homology map can be defined and computed without grid subdivisions. A combinatorial version of the Vietoris-Begle theorem is derived. This theorem plays the central role in an algorithm computing homology of maps which are continuous with respect to the Euclidean topology.

Categories:55-04, 52B05, 54C60, 68W05, 68W30, 68U10

22. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 820)

Moreno, J. P.; Papini, P. L.; Phelps, R. R.
Diametrically Maximal and Constant Width Sets in Banach Spaces
We characterize diametrically maximal and constant width sets in $C(K)$, where $K$ is any compact Hausdorff space. These results are applied to prove that the sum of two diametrically maximal sets needs not be diametrically maximal, thus solving a question raised in a paper by Groemer. A~characterization of diametrically maximal sets in $\ell_1^3$ is also given, providing a negative answer to Groemer's problem in finite dimensional spaces. We characterize constant width sets in $c_0(I)$, for every $I$, and then we establish the connections between the Jung constant of a Banach space and the existence of constant width sets with empty interior. Porosity properties of families of sets of constant width and rotundity properties of diametrically maximal sets are also investigated. Finally, we present some results concerning non-reflexive and Hilbert spaces.

Categories:52A05, 46B20

23. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 600)

Martinez-Maure, Yves
Geometric Study of Minkowski Differences of Plane Convex Bodies
In the Euclidean plane $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, we define the Minkowski difference $\mathcal{K}-\mathcal{L}$ of two arbitrary convex bodies $\mathcal{K}$, $\mathcal{L}$ as a rectifiable closed curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}\subset \mathbb{R} ^{2}$ that is determined by the difference $h=h_{\mathcal{K}}-h_{\mathcal{L} } $ of their support functions. This curve $\mathcal{H}_{h}$ is called the hedgehog with support function $h$. More generally, the object of hedgehog theory is to study the Brunn--Minkowski theory in the vector space of Minkowski differences of arbitrary convex bodies of Euclidean space $\mathbb{R} ^{n+1}$, defined as (possibly singular and self-intersecting) hypersurfaces of $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}$. Hedgehog theory is useful for: (i) studying convex bodies by splitting them into a sum in order to reveal their structure; (ii) converting analytical problems into geometrical ones by considering certain real functions as support functions. The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed study of plane hedgehogs, which constitute the basis of the theory. In particular: (i) we study their length measures and solve the extension of the Christoffel--Minkowski problem to plane hedgehogs; (ii) we characterize support functions of plane convex bodies among support functions of plane hedgehogs and support functions of plane hedgehogs among continuous functions; (iii) we study the mixed area of hedgehogs in $\mathbb{R}^{2}$ and give an extension of the classical Minkowski inequality (and thus of the isoperimetric inequality) to hedgehogs.

Categories:52A30, 52A10, 53A04, 52A38, 52A39, 52A40

24. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 844)

Williams, Gordon
Petrie Schemes
Petrie polygons, especially as they arise in the study of regular polytopes and Coxeter groups, have been studied by geometers and group theorists since the early part of the twentieth century. An open question is the determination of which polyhedra possess Petrie polygons that are simple closed curves. The current work explores combinatorial structures in abstract polytopes, called Petrie schemes, that generalize the notion of a Petrie polygon. It is established that all of the regular convex polytopes and honeycombs in Euclidean spaces, as well as all of the Gr\"unbaum--Dress polyhedra, possess Petrie schemes that are not self-intersecting and thus have Petrie polygons that are simple closed curves. Partial results are obtained for several other classes of less symmetric polytopes.

Keywords:Petrie polygon, polyhedron, polytope, abstract polytope, incidence complex, regular polytope, Coxeter group
Categories:52B15, 52B05

25. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 529)

Martínez-Finkelshtein, A.; Maymeskul, V.; Rakhmanov, E. A.; Saff, E. B.
Asymptotics for Minimal Discrete Riesz Energy on Curves in $\R^d$
We consider the $s$-energy $$ E(\ZZ_n;s)=\sum_{i \neq j} K(\|z_{i,n}-z_{j,n}\|;s) $$ for point sets $\ZZ_n=\{ z_{k,n}:k=0,\dots,n\}$ on certain compact sets $\Ga$ in $\R^d$ having finite one-dimensional Hausdorff measure, where $$ K(t;s)= \begin{cases} t^{-s} ,& \mbox{if } s>0, \\ -\ln t, & \mbox{if } s=0, \end{cases} $$ is the Riesz kernel. Asymptotics for the minimum $s$-energy and the distribution of minimizing sequences of points is studied. In particular, we prove that, for $s\geq 1$, the minimizing nodes for a rectifiable Jordan curve $\Ga$ distribute asymptotically uniformly with respect to arclength as $n\to\infty$.

Keywords:Riesz energy, Minimal discrete energy,, Rectifiable curves, Best-packing on curves
Categories:52A40, 31C20
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