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1. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 354)

Kellerhals, Ruth; Kolpakov, Alexander
 The Minimal Growth Rate of Cocompact Coxeter Groups in Hyperbolic 3-space Due to work of W. Parry it is known that the growth rate of a hyperbolic Coxeter group acting cocompactly on ${\mathbb H^3}$ is a Salem number. This being the arithmetic situation, we prove that the simplex group (3,5,3) has smallest growth rate among all cocompact hyperbolic Coxeter groups, and that it is as such unique. Our approach provides a different proof for the analog situation in ${\mathbb H^2}$ where E. Hironaka identified Lehmer's number as the minimal growth rate among all cocompact planar hyperbolic Coxeter groups and showed that it is (uniquely) achieved by the Coxeter triangle group (3,7). Keywords:hyperbolic Coxeter group, growth rate, Salem numberCategories:20F55, 22E40, 51F15

2. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 222)

Sauer, N. W.
 Distance Sets of Urysohn Metric Spaces A metric space $\mathrm{M}=(M;\operatorname{d})$ is {\em homogeneous} if for every isometry $f$ of a finite subspace of $\mathrm{M}$ to a subspace of $\mathrm{M}$ there exists an isometry of $\mathrm{M}$ onto $\mathrm{M}$ extending $f$. The space $\mathrm{M}$ is {\em universal} if it isometrically embeds every finite metric space $\mathrm{F}$ with $\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{F})\subseteq \operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})$. (With $\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})$ being the set of distances between points in $\mathrm{M}$.) A metric space $\boldsymbol{U}$ is an {\em Urysohn} metric space if it is homogeneous, universal, separable and complete. (It is not difficult to deduce that an Urysohn metric space $\boldsymbol{U}$ isometrically embeds every separable metric space $\mathrm{M}$ with $\operatorname{dist}(\mathrm{M})\subseteq \operatorname{dist}(\boldsymbol{U})$.) The main results are: (1) A characterization of the sets $\operatorname{dist}(\boldsymbol{U})$ for Urysohn metric spaces $\boldsymbol{U}$. (2) If $R$ is the distance set of an Urysohn metric space and $\mathrm{M}$ and $\mathrm{N}$ are two metric spaces, of any cardinality with distances in $R$, then they amalgamate disjointly to a metric space with distances in $R$. (3) The completion of every homogeneous, universal, separable metric space $\mathrm{M}$ is homogeneous. Keywords:partitions of metric spaces, Ramsey theory, metric geometry, Urysohn metric space, oscillation stabilityCategories:03E02, 22F05, 05C55, 05D10, 22A05, 51F99

3. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1359)

Nozaki, Hiroshi; Sawa, Masanori
 Note on Cubature Formulae and Designs Obtained from Group Orbits In 1960, Sobolev proved that for a finite reflection group $G$, a $G$-invariant cubature formula is of degree $t$ if and only if it is exact for all $G$-invariant polynomials of degree at most $t$. In this paper, we find some observations on invariant cubature formulas and Euclidean designs in connection with the Sobolev theorem. First, we give an alternative proof of theorems by Xu (1998) on necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of cubature formulas with some strong symmetry. The new proof is shorter and simpler compared to the original one by Xu, and moreover gives a general interpretation of the analytically-written conditions of Xu's theorems. Second, we extend a theorem by Neumaier and Seidel (1988) on Euclidean designs to invariant Euclidean designs, and thereby classify tight Euclidean designs obtained from unions of the orbits of the corner vectors. This result generalizes a theorem of Bajnok (2007) which classifies tight Euclidean designs invariant under the Weyl group of type $B$ to other finite reflection groups. Keywords:cubature formula, Euclidean design, radially symmetric integral, reflection group, Sobolev theoremCategories:65D32, 05E99, 51M99

4. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 123)

Lee, Jae-Hyouk
 Gosset Polytopes in Picard Groups of del Pezzo Surfaces In this article, we study the correspondence between the geometry of del Pezzo surfaces $S_{r}$ and the geometry of the $r$-dimensional Gosset polytopes $(r-4)_{21}$. We construct Gosset polytopes $(r-4)_{21}$ in $\operatorname{Pic} S_{r}\otimes\mathbb{Q}$ whose vertices are lines, and we identify divisor classes in $\operatorname{Pic} S_{r}$ corresponding to $(a-1)$-simplexes ($a\leq r$), $(r-1)$-simplexes and $(r-1)$-crosspolytopes of the polytope $(r-4)_{21}$. Then we explain how these classes correspond to skew $a$-lines($a\leq r$), exceptional systems, and rulings, respectively. As an application, we work on the monoidal transform for lines to study the local geometry of the polytope $(r-4)_{21}$. And we show that the Gieser transformation and the Bertini transformation induce a symmetry of polytopes $3_{21}$ and $4_{21}$, respectively. Categories:51M20, 14J26, 22E99

5. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1254)

D'Azevedo, Antonio Breda; Jones, Gareth A.; Schulte, Egon
 Constructions of Chiral Polytopes of Small Rank An abstract polytope of rank $n$ is said to be chiral if its automorphism group has precisely two orbits on the flags, such that adjacent flags belong to distinct orbits. This paper describes a general method for deriving new finite chiral polytopes from old finite chiral polytopes of the same rank. In particular, the technique is used to construct many new examples in ranks $3$, $4$, and $5$. Keywords:abstract regular polytope, chiral polytope, chiral mapsCategories:51M20, 52B15, 05C25

6. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1300)

Hubard, Isabel; Orbani\'c, Alen; Weiss, Asia Ivi\'c
 Monodromy Groups and Self-Invariance For every polytope $\mathcal{P}$ there is the universal regular polytope of the same rank as $\mathcal{P}$ corresponding to the Coxeter group $\mathcal{C} =[\infty, \dots, \infty]$. For a given automorphism $d$ of $\mathcal{C}$, using monodromy groups, we construct a combinatorial structure $\mathcal{P}^d$. When $\mathcal{P}^d$ is a polytope isomorphic to $\mathcal{P}$ we say that $\mathcal{P}$ is self-invariant with respect to $d$, or $d$-invariant. We develop algebraic tools for investigating these operations on polytopes, and in particular give a criterion on the existence of a $d$\nobreakdash-auto\-morphism of a given order. As an application, we analyze properties of self-dual edge-transitive polyhedra and polyhedra with two flag-orbits. We investigate properties of medials of such polyhedra. Furthermore, we give an example of a self-dual equivelar polyhedron which contains no polarity (duality of order 2). We also extend the concept of Petrie dual to higher dimensions, and we show how it can be dealt with using self-invariance. Keywords:maps, abstract polytopes, self-duality, monodromy groups, medials of polyhedraCategories:51M20, 05C25, 05C10, 05C30, 52B70

7. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1407)

Will, Pierre
 Traces, Cross-Ratios and 2-Generator Subgroups of $\SU(2,1)$ In this work, we investigate how to decompose a pair $(A,B)$ of loxodromic isometries of the complex hyperbolic plane $\mathbf H^{2}_{\mathbb C}$ under the form $A=I_1I_2$ and $B=I_3I_2$, where the $I_k$'s are involutions. The main result is a decomposability criterion, which is expressed in terms of traces of elements of the group $\langle A,B\rangle$. Categories:14L24, 22E40, 32M15, 51M10

8. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 740)

Caprace, Pierre-Emmanuel; Haglund, Frédéric
 On Geometric Flats in the CAT(0) Realization of Coxeter Groups and Tits Buildings Given a complete CAT(0) space $X$ endowed with a geometric action of a group $\Gamma$, it is known that if $\Gamma$ contains a free abelian group of rank $n$, then $X$ contains a geometric flat of dimension $n$. We prove the converse of this statement in the special case where $X$ is a convex subcomplex of the CAT(0) realization of a Coxeter group $W$, and $\Gamma$ is a subgroup of $W$. In particular a convex cocompact subgroup of a Coxeter group is Gromov-hyperbolic if and only if it does not contain a free abelian group of rank 2. Our result also provides an explicit control on geometric flats in the CAT(0) realization of arbitrary Tits buildings. Keywords:Coxeter group, flat rank, $\cat0$ space, buildingCategories:20F55, 51F15, 53C23, 20E42, 51E24

9. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 1068)

Steinbach, Anja; Van Maldeghem, Hendrik
 Regular Embeddings of Generalized Hexagons We classify the generalized hexagons which are laxly embedded in projective space such that the embedding is flat and polarized. Besides the standard examples related to the hexagons defined over the algebraic groups of type $\ssG_2$, $^3\ssD_4$ and $^6\ssD_4$ (and occurring in projective dimensions $5,6,7$), we find new examples in unbounded dimension related to the mixed groups of type $\ssG_2$. Keywords:Moufang generalized hexagons, embeddings, mixed hexagons, classical, hexagonsCategories:51E12, 51A45

10. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 310)

Llibre, Jaume; Schlomiuk, Dana
 The Geometry of Quadratic Differential Systems with a Weak Focus of Third Order In this article we determine the global geometry of the planar quadratic differential systems with a weak focus of third order. This class plays a significant role in the context of Hilbert's 16-th problem. Indeed, all examples of quadratic differential systems with at least four limit cycles, were obtained by perturbing a system in this family. We use the algebro-geometric concepts of divisor and zero-cycle to encode global properties of the systems and to give structure to this class. We give a theorem of topological classification of such systems in terms of integer-valued affine invariants. According to the possible values taken by them in this family we obtain a total of $18$ topologically distinct phase portraits. We show that inside the class of all quadratic systems with the topology of the coefficients, there exists a neighborhood of the family of quadratic systems with a weak focus of third order and which may have graphics but no polycycle in the sense of \cite{DRR} and no limit cycle, such that any quadratic system in this neighborhood has at most four limit cycles. Categories:34C40, 51F14, 14D05, 14D25

11. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1080)

Kellerhals, Ruth
 Quaternions and Some Global Properties of Hyperbolic $5$-Manifolds We provide an explicit thick and thin decomposition for oriented hyperbolic manifolds $M$ of dimension $5$. The result implies improved universal lower bounds for the volume $\rmvol_5(M)$ and, for $M$ compact, new estimates relating the injectivity radius and the diameter of $M$ with $\rmvol_5(M)$. The quantification of the thin part is based upon the identification of the isometry group of the universal space by the matrix group $\PS_\Delta {\rm L} (2,\mathbb{H})$ of quaternionic $2\times 2$-matrices with Dieudonn\'e determinant $\Delta$ equal to $1$ and isolation properties of $\PS_\Delta {\rm L} (2,\mathbb{H})$. Categories:53C22, 53C25, 57N16, 57S30, 51N30, 20G20, 22E40

12. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 239)

Cartwright, Donald I.; Steger, Tim
 Elementary Symmetric Polynomials in Numbers of Modulus $1$ We describe the set of numbers $\sigma_k(z_1,\ldots,z_{n+1})$, where $z_1,\ldots,z_{n+1}$ are complex numbers of modulus $1$ for which $z_1z_2\cdots z_{n+1}=1$, and $\sigma_k$ denotes the $k$-th elementary symmetric polynomial. Consequently, we give sharp constraints on the coefficients of a complex polynomial all of whose roots are of the same modulus. Another application is the calculation of the spectrum of certain adjacency operators arising naturally on a building of type ${\tilde A}_n$. Categories:05E05, 33C45, 30C15, 51E24

13. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 809)

Robertson, Guyan; Steger, Tim
 Asymptotic $K$-Theory for Groups Acting on $\tA_2$ Buildings Let $\Gamma$ be a torsion free lattice in $G=\PGL(3, \mathbb{F})$ where $\mathbb{F}$ is a nonarchimedean local field. Then $\Gamma$ acts freely on the affine Bruhat-Tits building $\mathcal{B}$ of $G$ and there is an induced action on the boundary $\Omega$ of $\mathcal{B}$. The crossed product $C^*$-algebra $\mathcal{A}(\Gamma)=C(\Omega) \rtimes \Gamma$ depends only on $\Gamma$ and is classified by its $K$-theory. This article shows how to compute the $K$-theory of $\mathcal{A}(\Gamma)$ and of the larger class of rank two Cuntz-Krieger algebras. Keywords:$K$-theory, $C^*$-algebra, affine buildingCategories:46L80, 51E24

14. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1240)

Monson, B.; Weiss, A. Ivić
 Realizations of Regular Toroidal Maps We determine and completely describe all pure realizations of the finite regular toroidal polyhedra of types $\{3,6\}$ and $\{6,3\}$. Keywords:regular maps, realizations of polytopesCategories:51M20, 20F55

15. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1230)

Hartley, Michael I.; McMullen, Peter; Schulte, Egon
 Symmetric Tessellations on Euclidean Space-Forms It is shown here that, for $n \geq 2$, the $n$-torus is the only $n$-dimensional compact euclidean space-form which can admit a regular or chiral tessellation. Further, such a tessellation can only be chiral if $n = 2$. Keywords:polyhedra and polytopes, regular figures, division of spaceCategory:51M20

16. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1175)

Lehrer, G. I.; Springer, T. A.
 Reflection Subquotients of Unitary Reflection Groups Let $G$ be a finite group generated by (pseudo-) reflections in a complex vector space and let $g$ be any linear transformation which normalises $G$. In an earlier paper, the authors showed how to associate with any maximal eigenspace of an element of the coset $gG$, a subquotient of $G$ which acts as a reflection group on the eigenspace. In this work, we address the questions of irreducibility and the coexponents of this subquotient, as well as centralisers in $G$ of certain elements of the coset. A criterion is also given in terms of the invariant degrees of $G$ for an integer to be regular for $G$. A key tool is the investigation of extensions of invariant vector fields on the eigenspace, which leads to some results and questions concerning the geometry of intersections of invariant hypersurfaces. Categories:51F15, 20H15, 20G40, 20F55, 14C17

17. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1149)

Cohen, A. M.; Cuypers, H.; Sterk, H.
 Linear Groups Generated by Reflection Tori A reflection is an invertible linear transformation of a vector space fixing a given hyperplane, its axis, vectorwise and a given complement to this hyperplane, its center, setwise. A reflection torus is a one-dimensional group generated by all reflections with fixed axis and center. In this paper we classify subgroups of general linear groups (in arbitrary dimension and defined over arbitrary fields) generated by reflection tori. Categories:20Hxx, 20Gxx, 51A50

18. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 1277)

Shephard, G. C.
 Isomorphism Invariants for Projective Configurations An isomorphism invariant is an expression, defined for a configuration in the projective plane, which takes the same value for all isomorphic configurations. Examples are given as well as a general method (Nehring sequences) for constructing such invariants. Category:51N15

19. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 347)

Mühlherr, Bernhard; Van Maldeghem, Hendrik
 Exceptional Moufang Quadrangles of Type $\mathsf{F}_4$ In this paper, we present a geometric construction of the Moufang quadrangles discovered by Richard Weiss (see Tits \& Weiss \cite{Tit-Wei:97} or Van Maldeghem \cite{Mal:97}). The construction uses fixed point free involutions in certain mixed quadrangles, which are then extended to involutions of certain buildings of type $\ssF_4$. The fixed flags of each such involution constitute a generalized quadrangle. This way, not only the new exceptional quadrangles can be constructed, but also some special type of mixed quadrangles. Categories:51E12, 51E24

20. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 426)

McMullen, Peter
 The groups of the regular star-polytopes No abstract. Categories:51M20, 52C99

21. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1162)

Ku, Hsu-Tung; Ku, Mei-Chin; Zhang, Xin-Min
 Isoperimetric inequalities on surfaces of constant curvature In this paper we introduce the concepts of hyperbolic and elliptic areas and prove uncountably many new geometric isoperimetric inequalities on the surfaces of constant curvature. Keywords:Gaussian curvature, Gauss-Bonnet theorem, polygon, pseudo-polygon, pseudo-perimeter, hyperbolic surface, Heron's formula, analytic and geometric isoperimetric inequalitiesCategories:51M10, 51M25, 52A40, 53C20