51. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 506)
 Gross, Leonard; Grothaus, Martin

Reverse Hypercontractivity for Subharmonic Functions
Contractivity and hypercontractivity properties of semigroups
are now well understood when the generator, $A$, is a Dirichlet form
operator.
It has been shown that in some holomorphic function spaces the
semigroup operators, $e^{tA}$, can be bounded {\it below} from
$L^p$ to $L^q$ when $p,q$ and $t$ are suitably related.
We will show that such lower boundedness occurs also in spaces
of subharmonic functions.
Keywords:Reverse hypercontractivity, subharmonic Categories:58J35, 47D03, 47D07, 32Q99, 60J35 

52. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 225)
 BoossBavnbek, Bernhelm; Lesch, Matthias; Phillips, John

Unbounded Fredholm Operators and Spectral Flow
We study the gap (= ``projection norm'' = ``graph distance'') topology
of the space of all (not necessarily bounded) selfadjoint Fredholm
operators in a separable Hilbert space by the Cayley transform and
direct methods. In particular, we show the surprising result that
this space is connected in contrast to the bounded case. Moreover, we
present a rigorous definition of spectral flow of a path of such
operators (actually alternative but mutually equivalent definitions)
and prove the homotopy invariance. As an example, we discuss operator
curves on manifolds with boundary.
Categories:58J30, 47A53, 19K56, 58J32 

53. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 61)
 Binding, Paul; Strauss, Vladimir

On Operators with Spectral Square but without Resolvent Points
Decompositions of spectral type are
obtained for closed Hilbert space operators with empty resolvent
set, but whose square has closure which is spectral. Krein space
situations are also discussed.
Keywords:unbounded operators, closed operators,, spectral resolution, indefinite metric Categories:47A05, 47A15, 47B40, 47B50, 46C20 

54. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 742)
 Jiang, Chunlan

Similarity Classification of CowenDouglas Operators
Let $\cal H$ be a complex separable Hilbert space
and ${\cal L}({\cal H})$ denote the collection of
bounded linear operators on ${\cal H}$.
An operator $A$ in ${\cal L}({\cal H})$
is said to be strongly irreducible, if
${\cal A}^{\prime}(T)$, the commutant of $A$, has no nontrivial idempotent.
An operator $A$ in ${\cal L}({\cal H})$ is said to a CowenDouglas
operator, if there exists $\Omega$, a connected open subset of
$C$, and $n$, a positive integer, such that
(a) ${\Omega}{\subset}{\sigma}(A)=\{z{\in}C; Az {\text {not invertible}}\};$
(b) $\ran(Az)={\cal H}$, for $z$ in $\Omega$;
(c) $\bigvee_{z{\in}{\Omega}}$\ker$(Az)={\cal H}$ and
(d) $\dim \ker(Az)=n$ for $z$ in $\Omega$.
In the paper, we give a similarity classification of strongly
irreducible CowenDouglas operators by using the $K_0$group of
the commutant algebra as an invariant.
Categories:47A15, 47C15, 13E05, 13F05 

55. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 277)
56. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 134)
 Li, ChiKwong; Sourour, Ahmed Ramzi

Linear Operators on Matrix Algebras that Preserve the Numerical Range, Numerical Radius or the States
Every norm $\nu$ on $\mathbf{C}^n$ induces two norm numerical
ranges on the algebra $M_n$ of all $n\times n$ complex matrices,
the spatial numerical range
$$
W(A)= \{x^*Ay : x, y \in \mathbf{C}^n,\nu^D(x) = \nu(y) = x^*y = 1\},
$$
where $\nu^D$ is the norm dual to $\nu$, and the algebra numerical range
$$
V(A) = \{ f(A) : f \in \mathcal{S} \},
$$
where $\mathcal{S}$ is the set of states on the normed algebra
$M_n$ under the operator norm induced by $\nu$. For a symmetric
norm $\nu$, we identify all linear maps on $M_n$ that preserve
either one of the two norm numerical ranges or the set of states or
vector states. We also identify the numerical radius isometries,
{\it i.e.}, linear maps that preserve the (one) numerical radius
induced by either numerical range. In particular, it is shown that
if $\nu$ is not the $\ell_1$, $\ell_2$, or $\ell_\infty$ norms,
then the linear maps that preserve either numerical range or either
set of states are ``inner'', {\it i.e.}, of the form $A\mapsto
Q^*AQ$, where $Q$ is a product of a diagonal unitary matrix and a
permutation matrix and the numerical radius isometries are
unimodular scalar multiples of such inner maps. For the $\ell_1$
and the $\ell_\infty$ norms, the results are quite different.
Keywords:Numerical range, numerical radius, state, isometry Categories:15A60, 15A04, 47A12, 47A30 

57. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1264)
 Havin, Victor; Mashreghi, Javad

Admissible Majorants for Model Subspaces of $H^2$, Part II: Fast Winding of the Generating Inner Function
This paper is a continuation of Part I [6]. We consider the model
subspaces $K_\Theta=H^2\ominus\Theta H^2$ of the Hardy space $H^2$
generated by an inner function $\Theta$ in the upper half plane. Our
main object is the class of admissible majorants for $K_\Theta$,
denoted by Adm $\Theta$ and consisting of all functions $\omega$
defined on $\mathbb{R}$ such that there exists an $f \ne 0$, $f \in
K_\Theta$ satisfying $f(x)\leq\omega(x)$ almost everywhere on
$\mathbb{R}$. Firstly, using some simple Hilbert transform techniques,
we obtain a general multiplier theorem applicable to any $K_\Theta$
generated by a meromorphic inner function. In contrast with
[6], we consider the generating functions $\Theta$ such that
the unit vector $\Theta(x)$ winds up fast as $x$ grows from $\infty$
to $\infty$. In particular, we consider $\Theta=B$ where $B$ is a
Blaschke product with ``horizontal'' zeros, i.e., almost
uniformly distributed in a strip parallel to and separated from $\mathbb{R}$.
It is shown, among other things, that for any such $B$, any even
$\omega$ decreasing on $(0,\infty)$ with a finite logarithmic integral
is in Adm $B$ (unlike the ``vertical'' case treated in [6]),
thus generalizing (with a new proof) a classical result related to
Adm $\exp(i\sigma z)$, $\sigma>0$. Some oscillating $\omega$'s in
Adm $B$ are also described. Our theme is related to the
BeurlingMalliavin multiplier theorem devoted to Adm $\exp(i\sigma z)$,
$\sigma>0$, and to de Branges' space $\mathcal{H}(E)$.
Keywords:Hardy space, inner function, shift operator, model, subspace, Hilbert transform, admissible majorant Categories:30D55, 47A15 

58. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1231)
 Havin, Victor; Mashreghi, Javad

Admissible Majorants for Model Subspaces of $H^2$, Part I: Slow Winding of the Generating Inner Function
A model subspace $K_\Theta$ of the Hardy space $H^2 = H^2
(\mathbb{C}_+)$ for the upper half plane $\mathbb{C}_+$ is
$H^2(\mathbb{C}_+) \ominus \Theta H^2(\mathbb{C}_+)$ where $\Theta$
is an inner function in $\mathbb{C}_+$. A function $\omega \colon
\mathbb{R}\mapsto[0,\infty)$ is called an admissible
majorant for $K_\Theta$ if there exists an $f \in K_\Theta$, $f
\not\equiv 0$, $f(x)\leq \omega(x)$ almost everywhere on
$\mathbb{R}$. For some (mainly meromorphic) $\Theta$'s some parts
of Adm $\Theta$ (the set of all admissible majorants for
$K_\Theta$) are explicitly described. These descriptions depend on
the rate of growth of $\arg \Theta$ along $\mathbb{R}$. This paper
is about slowly growing arguments (slower than $x$). Our results
exhibit the dependence of Adm $B$ on the geometry of the zeros of
the Blaschke product $B$. A complete description of Adm $B$ is
obtained for $B$'s with purely imaginary (``vertical'') zeros. We
show that in this case a unique minimal admissible majorant exists.
Keywords:Hardy space, inner function, shift operator, model, subspace, Hilbert transform, admissible majorant Categories:30D55, 47A15 

59. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 449)
 Albeverio, Sergio; Makarov, Konstantin A.; Motovilov, Alexander K.

Graph Subspaces and the Spectral Shift Function
We obtain a new representation for the solution to the operator
Sylvester equation in the form of a Stieltjes operator integral.
We also formulate new sufficient conditions for the strong
solvability of the operator Riccati equation that ensures the
existence of reducing graph subspaces for block operator matrices.
Next, we extend the concept of the LifshitsKrein spectral shift
function associated with a pair of selfadjoint operators to the
case of pairs of admissible operators that are similar to
selfadjoint operators. Based on this new concept we express the
spectral shift function arising in a perturbation problem for block
operator matrices in terms of the angular operators associated with
the corresponding perturbed and unperturbed eigenspaces.
Categories:47B44, 47A10, 47A20, 47A40 

60. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 379)
 Stessin, Michael; Zhu, Kehe

Generalized Factorization in Hardy Spaces and the Commutant of Toeplitz Operators
Every classical inner function $\varphi$ in the unit disk gives rise to
a certain factorization of functions in Hardy spaces. This factorization,
which we call the generalized Riesz factorization, coincides with the
classical Riesz factorization when $\varphi(z)=z$. In this paper we prove
several results about the generalized Riesz factorization, and we apply
this factorization theory to obtain a new description of the commutant
of analytic Toeplitz operators with inner symbols on a Hardy space. We
also discuss several related issues in the context of the Bergman space.
Categories:47B35, 30D55, 47A15 

61. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1142)
62. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 998)
 Dimassi, Mouez

Resonances for Slowly Varying Perturbations of a Periodic SchrÃ¶dinger Operator
We study the resonances of the operator $P(h) = \Delta_x + V(x) +
\varphi(hx)$. Here $V$ is a periodic potential, $\varphi$ a
decreasing perturbation and $h$ a small positive constant. We prove
the existence of shape resonances near the edges of the spectral bands
of $P_0 = \Delta_x + V(x)$, and we give its asymptotic expansions in
powers of $h^{\frac12}$.
Categories:35P99, 47A60, 47A40 

63. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 1031)
 Sampson, G.; Szeptycki, P.

The Complete $(L^p,L^p)$ Mapping Properties of Some Oscillatory Integrals in Several Dimensions
We prove that the operators $\int_{\mathbb{R}_+^2} e^{ix^a \cdot
y^b} \varphi (x,y) f(y)\, dy$ map $L^p(\mathbb{R}^2)$ into itself
for $p \in J =\bigl[\frac{a_l+b_l}{a_l+(\frac{b_l r}{2})},\frac{a_l+b_l}
{a_l(1\frac{r}{2})}\bigr]$ if $a_l,b_l\ge 1$ and $\varphi(x,y)=xy^{r}$,
$0\le r <2$, the result is sharp. Generalizations to dimensions $d>2$
are indicated.
Categories:42B20, 46B70, 47G10 

64. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 756)
65. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 506)
 Davidson, Kenneth R.; Kribs, David W.; Shpigel, Miron E.

Isometric Dilations of NonCommuting Finite Rank $n$Tuples
A contractive $n$tuple $A=(A_1,\dots,A_n)$ has a minimal joint
isometric dilation $S=\break
(S_1,\dots,S_n)$ where the $S_i$'s are
isometries with pairwise orthogonal ranges. This determines a
representation of the CuntzToeplitz algebra. When $A$ acts on a
finite dimensional space, the $\wot$closed nonselfadjoint algebra
$\fS$ generated by $S$ is completely described in terms of the
properties of $A$. This provides complete unitary invariants for the
corresponding representations. In addition, we show that the algebra
$\fS$ is always hyperreflexive. In the last section, we describe
similarity invariants. In particular, an $n$tuple $B$ of $d\times d$
matrices is similar to an irreducible $n$tuple $A$ if and only if
a certain finite set of polynomials vanish on $B$.
Category:47L80 

66. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 1221)
 Hopenwasser, Alan; Peters, Justin R.; Power, Stephen C.

Nest Representations of TAF Algebras
A nest representation of a strongly maximal TAF algebra $A$ with
diagonal $D$ is a representation $\pi$ for which $\lat \pi(A)$ is
totally ordered. We prove that $\ker \pi$ is a meet irreducible ideal
if the spectrum of $A$ is totally ordered or if (after an appropriate
similarity) the von Neumann algebra $\pi(D)''$ contains an atom.
Keywords:nest representation, meet irreducible ideal, strongly maximal TAF algebra Categories:47L40, 47L35 

67. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 849)
 Sukochev, F. A.

Operator Estimates for Fredholm Modules
We study estimates of the type
$$
\Vert \phi(D)  \phi(D_0) \Vert_{\emt} \leq C \cdot \Vert D  D_0
\Vert^{\alpha}, \quad \alpha = \frac12, 1
$$
where $\phi(t) = t(1 + t^2)^{1/2}$, $D_0 = D_0^*$ is an unbounded
linear operator affiliated with a semifinite von Neumann algebra
$\calM$, $D  D_0$ is a bounded selfadjoint linear operator from
$\calM$ and $(1 + D_0^2)^{1/2} \in \emt$, where $\emt$ is a symmetric
operator space associated with $\calM$. In particular, we prove that
$\phi(D)  \phi(D_0)$ belongs to the noncommutative $L_p$space for
some $p \in (1,\infty)$, provided $(1 + D_0^2)^{1/2}$ belongs to the
noncommutative weak $L_r$space for some $r \in [1,p)$. In the case
$\calM = \calB (\calH)$ and $1 \leq p \leq 2$, we show that this
result continues to hold under the weaker assumption $(1 +
D_0^2)^{1/2} \in \calC_p$. This may be regarded as an odd
counterpart of A.~Connes' result for the case of even Fredholm
modules.
Categories:46L50, 46E30, 46L87, 47A55, 58B15 

68. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 468)
69. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 119)
70. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 197)
 Radjavi, Heydar

Sublinearity and Other Spectral Conditions on a Semigroup
Subadditivity, sublinearity, submultiplicativity, and other
conditions are considered for spectra of pairs of operators on a
Hilbert space. Sublinearity, for example, is a weakening of the
wellknown property~$L$ and means $\sigma(A+\lambda B) \subseteq
\sigma(A) + \lambda \sigma(B)$ for all scalars $\lambda$. The
effect of these conditions is examined on commutativity,
reducibility, and triangularizability of multiplicative semigroups
of operators. A sample result is that sublinearity of spectra
implies simultaneous triangularizability for a semigroup of compact
operators.
Categories:47A15, 47D03, 15A30, 20A20, 47A10, 47B10 

71. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 850)
 Muhly, Paul S.; Solel, Baruch

Tensor Algebras, Induced Representations, and the Wold Decomposition
Our objective in this sequel to \cite{MSp96a} is to develop extensions,
to representations of tensor algebras over $C^{*}$correspondences, of
two fundamental facts about isometries on Hilbert space: The Wold
decomposition theorem and Beurling's theorem, and to apply these to
the analysis of the invariant subspace structure of certain subalgebras
of CuntzKrieger algebras.
Keywords:tensor algebras, correspondence, induced representation, Wold decomposition, Beurling's theorem Categories:46L05, 46L40, 46L89, 47D15, 47D25, 46M10, 46M99, 47A20, 47A45, 47B35 

72. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 566)
 Ferenczi, V.

Quotient Hereditarily Indecomposable Banach Spaces
A Banach space $X$ is said to be {\it quotient hereditarily
indecomposable\/} if no infinite dimensional quotient of a subspace
of $X$ is decomposable. We provide an example of a quotient
hereditarily indecomposable space, namely the space $X_{\GM}$
constructed by W.~T.~Gowers and B.~Maurey in \cite{GM}. Then we
provide an example of a reflexive hereditarily indecomposable space
$\hat{X}$ whose dual is not hereditarily indecomposable; so
$\hat{X}$ is not quotient hereditarily indecomposable. We also
show that every operator on $\hat{X}^*$ is a strictly singular
perturbation of an homothetic map.
Categories:46B20, 47B99 

73. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 673)
 Carey, Alan; Phillips, John

Fredholm modules and spectral flow
An {\it odd unbounded\/} (respectively, $p${\it summable})
{\it Fredholm module\/} for a unital Banach $\ast$algebra, $A$, is a pair $(H,D)$
where $A$ is represented on the Hilbert space, $H$, and $D$ is an unbounded
selfadjoint operator on $H$ satisfying:
\item{(1)} $(1+D^2)^{1}$ is compact (respectively, $\Trace\bigl((1+D^2)^{(p/2)}\bigr)
<\infty$), and
\item{(2)} $\{a\in A\mid [D,a]$ is bounded$\}$ is a dense
$\ast$subalgebra of $A$.
If $u$ is a unitary in the dense $\ast$subalgebra mentioned in (2) then
$$
uDu^\ast=D+u[D,u^{\ast}]=D+B
$$
where $B$ is a bounded selfadjoint operator. The path
$$
D_t^u:=(1t) D+tuDu^\ast=D+tB
$$
is a ``continuous'' path of unbounded selfadjoint ``Fredholm'' operators.
More precisely, we show that
$$
F_t^u:=D_t^u \bigl(1+(D_t^u)^2\bigr)^{{1\over 2}}
$$
is a normcontinuous path of (bounded) selfadjoint Fredholm
operators. The {\it spectral flow\/} of this path $\{F_t^u\}$ (or $\{
D_t^u\}$) is roughly speaking the net number of eigenvalues that pass
through $0$ in the positive direction as $t$ runs from $0$ to $1$.
This integer,
$$
\sf(\{D_t^u\}):=\sf(\{F_t^u\}),
$$
recovers the pairing of the $K$homology class $[D]$ with the $K$theory
class [$u$].
We use I.~M.~Singer's idea (as did E.~Getzler in the $\theta$summable
case) to consider the operator $B$ as a parameter in the Banach manifold,
$B_{\sa}(H)$, so that spectral flow can be exhibited as the integral
of a closed $1$form on this manifold. Now, for $B$ in our manifold,
any $X\in T_B(B_{\sa}(H))$ is given by an $X$ in $B_{\sa}(H)$ as the
derivative at $B$ along the curve $t\mapsto B+tX$ in the manifold.
Then we show that for $m$ a sufficiently large halfinteger:
$$
\alpha (X)={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}}\Tr \Bigl(X\bigl(1+(D+B)^2\bigr)^{m}\Bigr)
$$
is a closed $1$form. For any piecewise smooth path $\{D_t=D+B_t\}$ with
$D_0$ and $D_1$ unitarily equivalent we show that
$$
\sf(\{D_t\})={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}} \int_0^1\Tr \Bigl({d\over {dt}}
(D_t)(1+D_t^2)^{m}\Bigr)\,dt
$$
the integral of the $1$form $\alpha$. If $D_0$ and $D_1$ are not unitarily
equivalent, we must add a pair of correction terms to the righthand
side. We also prove a bounded finitely summable version of the form:
$$
\sf(\{F_t\})={1\over C_n}\int_0^1\Tr\Bigl({d\over dt}(F_t)(1F_t^2)^n\Bigr)\,dt
$$
for $n\geq{{p1}\over 2}$ an integer. The unbounded case is proved by
reducing to the bounded case via the map $D\mapsto F=D(1+D^2
)^{{1\over 2}}$. We prove simultaneously a type II version of our
results.
Categories:46L80, 19K33, 47A30, 47A55 

74. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 538)
75. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 658)
 Symesak, Frédéric

Hankel operators on pseudoconvex domains of finite type in ${\Bbb C}^2$
The aim of this paper is to study small Hankel operators $h$ on the
Hardy space or on weighted Bergman spaces, where $\Omega$ is a
finite type domain in ${\Bbbvii C}^2$ or a strictly pseudoconvex
domain in ${\Bbbvii C}^n$. We give a sufficient condition on the
symbol $f$ so that $h$ belongs to the Schatten class ${\cal S}_p$,
$1\le p<+\infty$.
Categories:32A37, 47B35, 47B10, 46E22 
