126. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 1164)
 Elliott, George A.; Villadsen, Jesper

Perforated Ordered $\K_0$Groups
A simple $\C^*$algebra is constructed for which the Murrayvon
Neumann equivalence classes of projections, with the usual
additioninduced by addition of orthogonal projectionsform the
additive semigroup
$$
\{0,2,3,\dots\}.
$$
(This is a particularly simple instance of the phenomenon of
perforation of the ordered $\K_0$group, which has long been known in
the commutative casefor instance, in the case of the
foursphereand was recently observed by the second author in the
case of a simple $\C^*$algebra.)
Categories:46L35, 46L80 

127. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 920)
 Evans, W. D.; Opic, B.

Real Interpolation with Logarithmic Functors and Reiteration
We present ``reiteration theorems'' with limiting values
$\theta=0$ and $\theta = 1$ for a real interpolation method
involving brokenlogarithmic functors. The resulting spaces
lie outside of the original scale of spaces and to describe them
new interpolation functors are introduced. For an ordered couple
of (quasi) Banach spaces similar results were presented without
proofs by Doktorskii in [D].
Keywords:real interpolation, brokenlogarithmic functors, reiteration, weighted inequalities Categories:46B70, 26D10, 46E30 

128. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 999)
 Mankiewicz, Piotr

Compact Groups of Operators on Subproportional Quotients of $l^m_1$
It is proved that a ``typical'' $n$dimensional quotient $X_n$ of
$l^m_1$ with $n = m^{\sigma}$, $0 < \sigma < 1$, has the property
$$
\Average \int_G \Tx\_{X_n} \,dh_G(T) \geq
\frac{c}{\sqrt{n\log^3 n}} \biggl( n  \int_G \tr T \,dh_G (T)
\biggr),
$$
for every compact group $G$ of operators acting on $X_n$, where
$d_G(T)$ stands for the normalized Haar measure on $G$ and the average
is taken over all extreme points of the unit ball of $X_n$. Several
consequences of this estimate are presented.
Categories:46B20, 46B09 

129. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 849)
 Sukochev, F. A.

Operator Estimates for Fredholm Modules
We study estimates of the type
$$
\Vert \phi(D)  \phi(D_0) \Vert_{\emt} \leq C \cdot \Vert D  D_0
\Vert^{\alpha}, \quad \alpha = \frac12, 1
$$
where $\phi(t) = t(1 + t^2)^{1/2}$, $D_0 = D_0^*$ is an unbounded
linear operator affiliated with a semifinite von Neumann algebra
$\calM$, $D  D_0$ is a bounded selfadjoint linear operator from
$\calM$ and $(1 + D_0^2)^{1/2} \in \emt$, where $\emt$ is a symmetric
operator space associated with $\calM$. In particular, we prove that
$\phi(D)  \phi(D_0)$ belongs to the noncommutative $L_p$space for
some $p \in (1,\infty)$, provided $(1 + D_0^2)^{1/2}$ belongs to the
noncommutative weak $L_r$space for some $r \in [1,p)$. In the case
$\calM = \calB (\calH)$ and $1 \leq p \leq 2$, we show that this
result continues to hold under the weaker assumption $(1 +
D_0^2)^{1/2} \in \calC_p$. This may be regarded as an odd
counterpart of A.~Connes' result for the case of even Fredholm
modules.
Categories:46L50, 46E30, 46L87, 47A55, 58B15 

130. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 789)
 Kamińska, Anna; Mastyło, Mieczysław

The DunfordPettis Property for Symmetric Spaces
A complete description of symmetric spaces on a separable measure
space with the DunfordPettis property is given. It is shown that
$\ell^1$, $c_0$ and $\ell^{\infty}$ are the only symmetric sequence
spaces with the DunfordPettis property, and that in the class of
symmetric spaces on $(0, \alpha)$, $0 < \alpha \leq \infty$, the only
spaces with the DunfordPettis property are $L^1$, $L^{\infty}$, $L^1
\cap L^{\infty}$, $L^1 + L^{\infty}$, $(L^{\infty})^\circ$ and $(L^1 +
L^{\infty})^\circ$, where $X^\circ$ denotes the norm closure of $L^1
\cap L^{\infty}$ in $X$. It is also proved that all Banach dual
spaces of $L^1 \cap L^{\infty}$ and $L^1 + L^{\infty}$ have the
DunfordPettis property. New examples of Banach spaces showing that
the DunfordPettis property is not a threespace property are also
presented. As applications we obtain that the spaces $(L^1 +
L^{\infty})^\circ$ and $(L^{\infty})^\circ$ have a unique symmetric
structure, and we get a characterization of the DunfordPettis
property of some K\"otheBochner spaces.
Categories:46E30, 46B42 

131. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 633)
 Walters, Samuel G.

Chern Characters of Fourier Modules
Let $A_\theta$ denote the rotation algebrathe universal $C^\ast$algebra
generated by unitaries $U,V$ satisfying $VU=e^{2\pi i\theta}UV$, where
$\theta$ is a fixed real number. Let $\sigma$ denote the Fourier
automorphism of $A_\theta$ defined by $U\mapsto V$, $V\mapsto U^{1}$,
and let $B_\theta = A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}/4\mathbb{Z}$ denote
the associated $C^\ast$crossed product. It is shown that there is a
canonical inclusion $\mathbb{Z}^9 \hookrightarrow K_0(B_\theta)$ for each
$\theta$ given by nine canonical modules. The unbounded trace functionals
of $B_\theta$ (yielding the Chern characters here) are calculated to obtain
the cyclic cohomology group of order zero $\HC^0(B_\theta)$ when
$\theta$ is irrational. The Chern characters of the nine modulesand more
importantly, the Fourier moduleare computed and shown to involve techniques
from the theory of Jacobi's theta functions. Also derived are explicit
equations connecting unbounded traces across strong Morita equivalence, which
turn out to be noncommutative extensions of certain theta function equations.
These results provide the basis for showing that for a dense $G_\delta$ set
of values of $\theta$ one has $K_0(B_\theta)\cong\mathbb{Z}^9$ and is
generated by the nine classes constructed here.
Keywords:$C^\ast$algebras, unbounded traces, Chern characters, irrational rotation algebras, $K$groups Categories:46L80, 46L40 

132. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 745)
 Echterhoff, Siegfried; Quigg, John

Induced Coactions of Discrete Groups on $C^*$Algebras
Using the close relationship between coactions of discrete groups and
Fell bundles, we introduce a procedure for inducing a $C^*$coaction
$\delta\colon D\to D\otimes C^*(G/N)$ of a quotient group $G/N$ of a
discrete group $G$ to a $C^*$coaction $\Ind\delta\colon\Ind D\to \Ind
D\otimes C^*(G)$ of $G$. We show that induced coactions behave in many
respects similarly to induced actions. In particular, as an analogue of
the well known imprimitivity theorem for induced actions we prove that
the crossed products $\Ind D\times_{\Ind\delta}G$ and $D\times_{\delta}G/N$
are always Morita equivalent. We also obtain nonabelian analogues of a
theorem of Olesen and Pedersen which show that there is a duality between
induced coactions and twisted actions in the sense of Green. We further
investigate amenability of Fell bundles corresponding to induced coactions.
Category:46L55 

133. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 850)
 Muhly, Paul S.; Solel, Baruch

Tensor Algebras, Induced Representations, and the Wold Decomposition
Our objective in this sequel to \cite{MSp96a} is to develop extensions,
to representations of tensor algebras over $C^{*}$correspondences, of
two fundamental facts about isometries on Hilbert space: The Wold
decomposition theorem and Beurling's theorem, and to apply these to
the analysis of the invariant subspace structure of certain subalgebras
of CuntzKrieger algebras.
Keywords:tensor algebras, correspondence, induced representation, Wold decomposition, Beurling's theorem Categories:46L05, 46L40, 46L89, 47D15, 47D25, 46M10, 46M99, 47A20, 47A45, 47B35 

134. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 566)
 Ferenczi, V.

Quotient Hereditarily Indecomposable Banach Spaces
A Banach space $X$ is said to be {\it quotient hereditarily
indecomposable\/} if no infinite dimensional quotient of a subspace
of $X$ is decomposable. We provide an example of a quotient
hereditarily indecomposable space, namely the space $X_{\GM}$
constructed by W.~T.~Gowers and B.~Maurey in \cite{GM}. Then we
provide an example of a reflexive hereditarily indecomposable space
$\hat{X}$ whose dual is not hereditarily indecomposable; so
$\hat{X}$ is not quotient hereditarily indecomposable. We also
show that every operator on $\hat{X}^*$ is a strictly singular
perturbation of an homothetic map.
Categories:46B20, 47B99 

135. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 309)
 Leung, Denny H.; Tang, WeeKee

Symmetric sequence subspaces of $C(\alpha)$, II
If $\alpha$ is an ordinal, then the space of all ordinals less than or
equal to $\alpha$ is a compact Hausdorff space when endowed with the
order topology. Let $C(\alpha)$ be the space of all continuous
realvalued functions defined on the ordinal interval $[0,
\alpha]$. We characterize the symmetric sequence spaces which embed
into $C(\alpha)$ for some countable ordinal $\alpha$. A hierarchy
$(E_\alpha)$ of symmetric sequence spaces is constructed so that, for
each countable ordinal $\alpha$, $E_\alpha$ embeds into
$C(\omega^{\omega^\alpha})$, but does not embed into
$C(\omega^{\omega^\beta})$ for any $\beta < \alpha$.
Categories:03E13, 03E15, 46B03, 46B45, 46E15, 54G12 

136. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 26)
 Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, Boris S.

Separable Reduction and Supporting Properties of FrÃ©chetLike Normals in Banach Spaces
We develop a method of separable reduction for Fr\'{e}chetlike
normals and $\epsilon$normals to arbitrary sets in general Banach
spaces. This method allows us to reduce certain problems involving
such normals in nonseparable spaces to the separable case. It is
particularly helpful in Asplund spaces where every separable subspace
admits a Fr\'{e}chet smooth renorm. As an applicaton of the separable
reduction method in Asplund spaces, we provide a new direct proof of a
nonconvex extension of the celebrated BishopPhelps density theorem.
Moreover, in this way we establish new characterizations of Asplund
spaces in terms of $\epsilon$normals.
Keywords:nonsmooth analysis, Banach spaces, separable reduction, FrÃ©chetlike normals and subdifferentials, supporting properties, Asplund spaces Categories:49J52, 58C20, 46B20 

137. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 147)
 Suárez, Daniel

Homeomorphic Analytic Maps into the Maximal Ideal Space of $H^\infty$
Let $m$ be a point of the maximal ideal space of $\papa$ with
nontrivial Gleason part $P(m)$. If $L_m \colon \disc \rr P(m)$ is the
Hoffman map, we show that $\papa \circ L_m$ is a closed subalgebra
of $\papa$. We characterize the points $m$ for which $L_m$ is a
homeomorphism in terms of interpolating sequences, and we show that in
this case $\papa \circ L_m$ coincides with $\papa$. Also, if
$I_m$ is the ideal of functions in $\papa$ that identically vanish
on $P(m)$, we estimate the distance of any $f\in \papa$ to $I_m$.
Categories:30H05, 46J20 

138. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 1236)
139. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 1138)
 Chalov, P. A.; Terzioğlu, T.; Zahariuta, V. P.

Compound invariants and mixed $F$, $\DF$power spaces
The problems on isomorphic classification and quasiequivalence of bases
are studied for the class of mixed $F$, $\DF$power series spaces,
{\it i.e.} the spaces of the following kind
$$
G(\la,a)=\lim_{p \to \infty} \proj \biggl(\lim_{q \to \infty}\ind
\Bigl(\ell_1\bigl(a_i (p,q)\bigr)\Bigr)\biggr),
$$
where $a_i (p,q)=\exp\bigl((p\la_i q)a_i\bigr)$, $p,q \in \N$, and
$\la =( \la_i)_{i \in \N}$, $a=(a_i)_{i \in \N}$ are
some sequences of positive numbers. These spaces, up to isomorphisms,
are basis subspaces of tensor products of power series spaces of $F$ and
$\DF$types, respectively. The $m$rectangle characteristic
$\mu_m^{\lambda,a}(\delta,\varepsilon; \tau,t)$, $m \in \N$ of the
space $G(\la,a)$ is defined as the number of members of the sequence
$(\la_i, a_i)_{i \in \N}$ which are contained in the union of $m$
rectangles $P_k = (\delta_k, \varepsilon_k] \times (\tau_k, t_k]$,
$k = 1,2, \ldots, m$. It is shown that each $m$rectangle characteristic
is an invariant on the considered class under some proper definition of an
equivalency relation. The main tool are new compound invariants, which
combine some version of the classical approximative dimensions (Kolmogorov,
Pe{\l}czynski) with appropriate geometrical and interpolational operations
under neighborhoods of the origin (taken from a given basis).
Categories:46A04, 46A45, 46M05 

140. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 673)
 Carey, Alan; Phillips, John

Fredholm modules and spectral flow
An {\it odd unbounded\/} (respectively, $p${\it summable})
{\it Fredholm module\/} for a unital Banach $\ast$algebra, $A$, is a pair $(H,D)$
where $A$ is represented on the Hilbert space, $H$, and $D$ is an unbounded
selfadjoint operator on $H$ satisfying:
\item{(1)} $(1+D^2)^{1}$ is compact (respectively, $\Trace\bigl((1+D^2)^{(p/2)}\bigr)
<\infty$), and
\item{(2)} $\{a\in A\mid [D,a]$ is bounded$\}$ is a dense
$\ast$subalgebra of $A$.
If $u$ is a unitary in the dense $\ast$subalgebra mentioned in (2) then
$$
uDu^\ast=D+u[D,u^{\ast}]=D+B
$$
where $B$ is a bounded selfadjoint operator. The path
$$
D_t^u:=(1t) D+tuDu^\ast=D+tB
$$
is a ``continuous'' path of unbounded selfadjoint ``Fredholm'' operators.
More precisely, we show that
$$
F_t^u:=D_t^u \bigl(1+(D_t^u)^2\bigr)^{{1\over 2}}
$$
is a normcontinuous path of (bounded) selfadjoint Fredholm
operators. The {\it spectral flow\/} of this path $\{F_t^u\}$ (or $\{
D_t^u\}$) is roughly speaking the net number of eigenvalues that pass
through $0$ in the positive direction as $t$ runs from $0$ to $1$.
This integer,
$$
\sf(\{D_t^u\}):=\sf(\{F_t^u\}),
$$
recovers the pairing of the $K$homology class $[D]$ with the $K$theory
class [$u$].
We use I.~M.~Singer's idea (as did E.~Getzler in the $\theta$summable
case) to consider the operator $B$ as a parameter in the Banach manifold,
$B_{\sa}(H)$, so that spectral flow can be exhibited as the integral
of a closed $1$form on this manifold. Now, for $B$ in our manifold,
any $X\in T_B(B_{\sa}(H))$ is given by an $X$ in $B_{\sa}(H)$ as the
derivative at $B$ along the curve $t\mapsto B+tX$ in the manifold.
Then we show that for $m$ a sufficiently large halfinteger:
$$
\alpha (X)={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}}\Tr \Bigl(X\bigl(1+(D+B)^2\bigr)^{m}\Bigr)
$$
is a closed $1$form. For any piecewise smooth path $\{D_t=D+B_t\}$ with
$D_0$ and $D_1$ unitarily equivalent we show that
$$
\sf(\{D_t\})={1\over {\tilde {C}_m}} \int_0^1\Tr \Bigl({d\over {dt}}
(D_t)(1+D_t^2)^{m}\Bigr)\,dt
$$
the integral of the $1$form $\alpha$. If $D_0$ and $D_1$ are not unitarily
equivalent, we must add a pair of correction terms to the righthand
side. We also prove a bounded finitely summable version of the form:
$$
\sf(\{F_t\})={1\over C_n}\int_0^1\Tr\Bigl({d\over dt}(F_t)(1F_t^2)^n\Bigr)\,dt
$$
for $n\geq{{p1}\over 2}$ an integer. The unbounded case is proved by
reducing to the bounded case via the map $D\mapsto F=D(1+D^2
)^{{1\over 2}}$. We prove simultaneously a type II version of our
results.
Categories:46L80, 19K33, 47A30, 47A55 

141. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 658)
 Symesak, Frédéric

Hankel operators on pseudoconvex domains of finite type in ${\Bbb C}^2$
The aim of this paper is to study small Hankel operators $h$ on the
Hardy space or on weighted Bergman spaces, where $\Omega$ is a
finite type domain in ${\Bbbvii C}^2$ or a strictly pseudoconvex
domain in ${\Bbbvii C}^n$. We give a sufficient condition on the
symbol $f$ so that $h$ belongs to the Schatten class ${\cal S}_p$,
$1\le p<+\infty$.
Categories:32A37, 47B35, 47B10, 46E22 

142. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 323)
 Dykema, Kenneth J.; Rørdam, Mikael

Purely infinite, simple $C^\ast$algebras arising from free product constructions
Examples of simple, separable, unital, purely infinite
$C^\ast$algebras are constructed, including:
\item{(1)} some that are not approximately divisible;
\item{(2)} those that arise as crossed products of any of a certain class of
$C^\ast$algebras by any of a certain class of nonunital endomorphisms;
\item{(3)} those that arise as reduced free products of pairs of
$C^\ast$algebras with respect to any from a certain class of states.
Categories:46L05, 46L45 

143. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1188)
 Leen, Michael J.

Factorization in the invertible group of a $C^*$algebra
In this paper we consider the following problem:
Given a unital \cs\ $A$ and a collection of elements $S$ in the
identity component of the invertible group of $A$, denoted \ino,
characterize the group of finite products of elements of $S$. The
particular $C^*$algebras studied in this paper are either
unital purely infinite simple or of the form \tenp, where $A$ is
any \cs\ and $K$ is the compact operators on an infinite dimensional
separable Hilbert space. The types of elements used in the
factorizations are unipotents ($1+$ nilpotent), positive invertibles
and symmetries ($s^2=1$). First we determine the groups of finite
products for each collection of elements in \tenp. Then we give
upper bounds on the number of factors needed in these cases. The main
result, which uses results for \tenp, is that for $A$ unital purely
infinite and simple, \ino\ is generated by each of these collections
of elements.
Category:46L05 

144. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1242)
 Randrianantoanina, Beata

$1$complemented subspaces of spaces with $1$unconditional bases
We prove that if $X$ is a complex strictly monotone sequence
space with $1$un\con\di\tion\al basis, $Y \subseteq X$ has no bands
isometric to $\ell_2^2$ and $Y$ is the range of normone projection from
$X$, then $Y$ is a closed linear span a family of mutually
disjoint vectors in $X$.
We completely characterize $1$complemented subspaces and normone
projections in complex spaces $\ell_p(\ell_q)$ for $1 \leq p, q <
\infty$.
Finally we give a full description of the subspaces that are spanned
by a family of disjointly supported vectors and which are
$1$complemented in (real or complex) Orlicz or Lorentz sequence
spaces. In particular if an Orlicz or
Lorentz space $X$ is not isomorphic to $\ell_p$ for some $1 \leq p <
\infty$ then the only subspaces
of $X$ which are $1$complemented and disjointly supported are the
closed linear spans of block bases with constant
coefficients.
Categories:46B20, 46B45, 41A65 

145. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 963)
 Lin, Huaxin

Homomorphisms from $C(X)$ into $C^*$algebras
Let $A$ be a simple $C^*$algebra
with real rank zero, stable rank one and weakly
unperforated $K_0(A)$ of countable rank. We show that
a monomorphism $\phi\colon C(S^2) \to A$ can be approximated
pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into $A$ with
finite dimensional range if and only if certain index
vanishes. In particular, we show that every homomorphism
$\phi$ from $C(S^2)$ into a UHFalgebra can be approximated
pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into the UHFalgebra
with finite dimensional range. As an application, we show
that if $A$ is a simple $C^*$algebra of real rank zero
and is an inductive limit of matrices over $C(S^2)$ then
$A$ is an AFalgebra. Similar results for tori are also
obtained. Classification of ${\bf Hom}\bigl(C(X),A\bigr)$
for lower dimensional spaces is also studied.
Keywords:Homomorphism of $C(S^2)$, approximation, real, rank zero, classification Categories:46L05, 46L80, 46L35 

146. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 160)
147. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 100)
 Lance, T. L.; Stessin, M. I.

Multiplication Invariant Subspaces of Hardy Spaces
This paper studies closed subspaces $L$
of the Hardy spaces $H^p$ which are $g$invariant ({\it i.e.},
$g\cdot L \subseteq L)$ where $g$ is inner, $g\neq 1$. If
$p=2$, the Wold decomposition theorem implies that there is
a countable ``$g$basis'' $f_1, f_2,\ldots$ of
$L$ in the sense that $L$ is a direct sum of spaces
$f_j\cdot H^2[g]$ where $H^2[g] = \{f\circ g \mid f\in H^2\}$.
The basis elements $f_j$ satisfy the
additional property that $\int_T f_j^2 g^k=0$,
$k=1,2,\ldots\,.$ We call such functions $g$$2$inner.
It also
follows that any $f\in H^2$ can be factored $f=h_{f,2}\cdot
(F_2\circ g)$ where $h_{f,2}$ is $g$$2$inner and $F$ is
outer, generalizing the classical Riesz factorization.
Using $L^p$ estimates for the canonical decomposition of
$H^2$, we find a factorization $f=h_{f,p} \cdot (F_p \circ
g)$ for $f\in H^p$. If $p\geq 1$ and $g$ is a finite
Blaschke product we obtain, for any $g$invariant
$L\subseteq H^p$, a finite $g$basis of $g$$p$inner
functions.
Categories:30H05, 46E15, 47B38 
