76. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 189)
 Lin, Huaxin

Furstenberg Transformations and Approximate Conjugacy
Let $\alpha$ and
$\beta$ be two Furstenberg transformations on $2$torus associated
with irrational numbers $\theta_1,$ $\theta_2,$ integers $d_1, d_2$ and Lipschitz functions
$f_1$ and $f_2$. It is shown that $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are approximately conjugate in a
measure theoretical sense if (and only
if) $\overline{\theta_1\pm \theta_2}=0$ in $\R/\Z.$ Closely related to the classification of simple
amenable \CAs, it is shown that $\af$ and $\bt$ are approximately $K$conjugate if (and only if)
$\overline{\theta_1\pm \theta_2}=0$ in $\R/\Z$ and $d_1=d_2.$ This
is also shown to be equivalent to the condition that the associated crossed product \CAs are isomorphic.
Keywords:Furstenberg transformations, approximate conjugacy Categories:37A55, 46L35 

77. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1135)
 Björn, Anders; Björn, Jana; Shanmugalingam, Nageswari

Sobolev Extensions of HÃ¶lder Continuous and Characteristic Functions on Metric Spaces
We study when characteristic and H\"older continuous functions
are traces of Sobolev functions on doubling metric measure spaces.
We provide analytic and geometric conditions sufficient for extending
characteristic and H\"older continuous functions into globally defined
Sobolev functions.
Keywords:characteristic function, Newtonian function, metric space, resolutivity, HÃ¶lder continuous, Perron solution, $p$harmonic, Sobolev extension, Whitney covering Categories:46E35, 31C45 

78. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1029)
 Kalton, N. J.; Koldobsky, A.; Yaskin, V.; Yaskina, M.

The Geometry of $L_0$
Suppose that we have the unit Euclidean ball in
$\R^n$ and construct new bodies using three operations  linear
transformations, closure in the radial metric, and multiplicative
summation defined by $\x\_{K+_0L} = \sqrt{\x\_K\x\_L}.$ We prove
that in dimension $3$ this procedure gives all originsymmetric convex
bodies, while this is no longer true in dimensions $4$ and higher. We
introduce the concept of embedding of a normed space in $L_0$ that
naturally extends the corresponding properties of $L_p$spaces with
$p\ne0$, and show that the procedure described above gives exactly the
unit balls of subspaces of $L_0$ in every dimension. We provide
Fourier analytic and geometric characterizations of spaces embedding
in $L_0$, and prove several facts confirming the place of $L_0$ in the
scale of $L_p$spaces.
Categories:52A20, 52A21, 46B20 

79. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 897)
 Bruneau, Laurent

The Ground State Problem for a Quantum Hamiltonian Model Describing Friction
In this paper, we consider the quantum version of a Hamiltonian model
describing friction.
This model consists of
a particle which interacts with a bosonic reservoir representing a
homogeneous medium through which the particle moves. We show that if
the particle is confined, then the Hamiltonian admits a ground state
if and only if a suitable infrared condition is satisfied. The latter
is violated in the case of linear friction, but satisfied when the
friction force is proportional to a higher power of the particle
speed.
Categories:81Q10, 46N50 

80. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 966)
 Forrest, Brian E.; Runde, Volker; Spronk, Nico

Operator Amenability of the Fourier Algebra in the $\cb$Multiplier Norm
Let $G$ be a locally compact group, and let $A_{\cb}(G)$ denote the
closure of $A(G)$, the Fourier algebra of $G$, in the space of completely
bounded multipliers of $A(G)$. If $G$ is a weakly amenable, discrete group
such that $\cstar(G)$ is residually finitedimensional, we show that
$A_{\cb}(G)$ is operator amenable. In particular,
$A_{\cb}(\free_2)$ is operator amenable even though $\free_2$, the free
group in two generators, is not an amenable group. Moreover, we show that
if $G$ is a discrete group such that $A_{\cb}(G)$ is operator amenable,
a closed ideal of $A(G)$ is weakly completely complemented in $A(G)$
if and only if it has an approximate identity bounded in the $\cb$multiplier
norm.
Keywords:$\cb$multiplier norm, Fourier algebra, operator amenability, weak amenability Categories:43A22, 43A30, 46H25, 46J10, 46J40, 46L07, 47L25 

81. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 614)
 Labuschagne, C. C. A.

Preduals and Nuclear Operators Associated with Bounded, $p$Convex, $p$Concave and Positive $p$Summing Operators
We use Krivine's form of the Grothendieck inequality
to renorm the space of bounded linear maps acting between Banach
lattices. We
construct preduals and describe the nuclear operators
associated with these preduals for this renormed space
of bounded operators as well as for
the spaces of $p$convex,
$p$concave and positive $p$summing operators acting
between Banach lattices and Banach spaces.
The nuclear operators obtained are described in
terms of factorizations through
classical Banach spaces via positive operators.
Keywords:$p$convex operator, $p$concave operator, $p$summing operator, Banach space, Banach lattice, nuclear operator, sequence space Categories:46B28, 47B10, 46B42, 46B45 

82. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 343)
 Lin, Huaxin

Weak Semiprojectivity in Purely Infinite Simple $C^*$Algebras
Let $A$ be a separable amenable purely infinite simple \CA which
satisfies the Universal Coefficient Theorem. We prove that $A$ is
weakly semiprojective if and only if $K_i(A)$ is a countable
direct sum of finitely generated groups ($i=0,1$). Therefore, if
$A$ is such a \CA, for any $\ep>0$ and any finite subset ${\mathcal
F}\subset A$ there exist $\dt>0$ and a finite subset ${\mathcal
G}\subset A$ satisfying the following: for any contractive
positive linear map $L: A\to B$ (for any \CA $B$) with $
\L(ab)L(a)L(b)\<\dt$ for $a, b\in {\mathcal G}$
there exists a homomorphism $h\from A\to B$ such that
$ \h(a)L(a)\<\ep$ for $a\in {\mathcal F}$.
Keywords:weakly semiprojective, purely infinite simple $C^*$algebras Categories:46L05, 46L80 

83. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 276)
 Bernardis, A. L.; MartínReyes, F. J.; Salvador, P. Ortega

Weighted Inequalities for HardySteklov Operators
We characterize the pairs of weights $(v,w)$ for which the
operator $Tf(x)=g(x)\int_{s(x)}^{h(x)}f$ with $s$ and $h$
increasing and continuous functions is of strong type
$(p,q)$ or weak type $(p,q)$ with respect to the pair
$(v,w)$ in the case $0
Keywords:HardySteklov operator, weights, inequalities Categories:26D15, 46E30, 42B25 

84. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 63)
 Ferenczi, Valentin; Galego, Elói Medina

Some Results on the SchroederBernstein Property for Separable Banach Spaces
We construct a continuum of mutually
nonisomorphic
separable Banach spaces which are complemented in each other.
Consequently, the SchroederBernstein Index of any of these spaces is
$2^{\aleph_0}$. Our
construction is based on a Banach space introduced by W. T. Gowers
and
B. Maurey in 1997.
We also use classical descriptive set theory methods, as in some
work of the first author and C. Rosendal, to improve some results
of P. G. Casazza and
of N. J. Kalton on the
SchroederBernstein Property for
spaces with an unconditional finitedimensional Schauder
decomposition.
Keywords:complemented subspaces,, SchroederBernstein property Categories:46B03, 46B20 

85. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 3)
 Biller, Harald

Holomorphic Generation of Continuous Inverse Algebras
We study complex commutative Banach algebras
(and, more generally, continuous
inverse algebras) in which the holomorphic functions of a fixed $n$tuple
of elements are dense. In particular, we characterize the compact subsets
of~$\C^n$ which appear as joint spectra of such $n$tuples. The
characterization is compared with several established notions of holomorphic
convexity by means of approximation
conditions.
Keywords:holomorphic functional calculus, commutative continuous inverse algebra, holomorphic convexity, Stein compacta, meromorphic convexity, holomorphic approximation Categories:46H30, 32A38, 32E30, 41A20, 46J15 

86. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1144)
 Hamana, Masamichi

Partial $*$Automorphisms, Normalizers, and Submodules in Monotone Complete $C^*$Algebras
For monotone complete $C^*$algebras
$A\subset B$ with $A$ contained in $B$ as a monotone closed
$C^*$subalgebra, the relation $X = AsA$
gives a bijection between the set of all
monotone closed linear subspaces $X$ of $B$ such that
$AX + XA \subset X$
and
$XX^* + X^*X \subset A$
and a set of certain partial
isometries $s$ in the ``normalizer" of $A$ in $B$,
and similarly for the map $s \mapsto \Ad s$
between the latter set and a set of certain ``partial $*$automorphisms"
of $A$.
We introduce natural inverse semigroup
structures in the set of such $X$'s and the set of
partial $*$automorphisms of $A$, modulo a certain relation, so that
the composition of these maps induces an inverse semigroup
homomorphism between them.
For a large enough $B$ the homomorphism becomes surjective and
all the partial $*$automorphisms of
$A$ are realized via partial isometries in $B$.
In particular, the inverse semigroup associated with
a type ${\rm II}_1$ von Neumann factor,
modulo the outer automorphism group,
can be viewed as the fundamental group of the factor.
We also consider the $C^*$algebra version of these results.
Categories:46L05, 46L08, 46L40, 20M18 

87. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1268)
 Sims, Aidan

GaugeInvariant Ideals in the $C^*$Algebras of Finitely Aligned HigherRank Graphs
We produce a complete description of the lattice of gaugeinvariant
ideals in $C^*(\Lambda)$ for a finitely aligned $k$graph
$\Lambda$. We provide a condition on $\Lambda$ under which every ideal
is gaugeinvariant. We give conditions on $\Lambda$ under which
$C^*(\Lambda)$ satisfies the hypotheses of the KirchbergPhillips
classification theorem.
Keywords:Graphs as categories, graph algebra, $C^*$algebra Category:46L05 

88. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 768)
 Hu, Zhiguo; Neufang, Matthias

Decomposability of von Neumann Algebras and the Mazur Property of Higher Level
The decomposability
number of a von Neumann algebra $\m$ (denoted by $\dec(\m)$) is the
greatest cardinality of a family of pairwise orthogonal nonzero
projections in $\m$. In this paper, we explore the close
connection between $\dec(\m)$ and the cardinal level of the Mazur
property for the predual $\m_*$ of $\m$, the study of which was
initiated by the second author. Here, our main focus is on
those von Neumann algebras whose preduals constitute such
important Banach algebras on a locally compact group $G$ as the
group algebra $\lone$, the Fourier algebra $A(G)$, the measure
algebra $M(G)$, the algebra $\luc^*$, etc. We show that for
any of these von Neumann algebras, say $\m$, the cardinal number
$\dec(\m)$ and a certain cardinal level of the Mazur property of $\m_*$
are completely encoded in the underlying group structure. In fact,
they can be expressed precisely by two dual cardinal
invariants of $G$: the compact covering number $\kg$ of $G$ and
the least cardinality $\bg$ of an open basis at the identity of
$G$. We also present an application of the Mazur property of higher
level to the topological centre problem for the Banach algebra
$\ag^{**}$.
Keywords:Mazur property, predual of a von Neumann algebra, locally compact group and its cardinal invariants, group algebra, Fourier algebra, topological centre Categories:22D05, 43A20, 43A30, 03E55, 46L10 

89. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 859)
 Read, C. J.

Nonstandard Ideals from Nonstandard Dual Pairs for $L^1(\omega)$ and $l^1(\omega)$
The Banach convolution algebras $l^1(\omega)$
and their continuous counterparts $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$
are much
studied, because (when the submultiplicative weight function
$\omega$ is radical) they are pretty much the prototypic examples
of commutative radical Banach algebras. In cases of ``nice''
weights $\omega$, the only closed ideals they have are the obvious,
or ``standard'', ideals. But in the
general case, a brilliant but very difficult paper of Marc Thomas
shows that nonstandard ideals exist in $l^1(\omega)$. His
proof was successfully exported to the continuous case
$L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$ by Dales and McClure, but remained
difficult. In this paper we first present a small improvement: a
new and easier proof of the existence of nonstandard ideals in
$l^1(\omega)$ and $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$. The new proof is based on
the idea of a ``nonstandard dual pair'' which we introduce.
We are then able to make a much larger improvement: we
find nonstandard ideals in $L^1(\bR^+,\omega)$ containing functions
whose supports extend all the way down to zero in $\bR^+$, thereby solving
what has become a notorious problem in the area.
Keywords:Banach algebra, radical, ideal, standard ideal, semigroup Categories:46J45, 46J20, 47A15 

90. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 820)
 Moreno, J. P.; Papini, P. L.; Phelps, R. R.

Diametrically Maximal and Constant Width Sets in Banach Spaces
We characterize diametrically maximal and constant width
sets in $C(K)$, where $K$ is any compact Hausdorff space. These
results are applied to prove that the sum of two diametrically
maximal sets needs not be diametrically maximal, thus solving a
question raised in a paper by Groemer. A~characterization of
diametrically maximal sets in $\ell_1^3$ is also given, providing
a negative answer to Groemer's problem in finite dimensional
spaces. We characterize constant width sets in $c_0(I)$, for
every $I$, and then we establish the connections between the Jung
constant of a Banach space and the existence of constant width
sets with empty interior. Porosity properties of families of sets
of constant width and rotundity properties of diametrically
maximal sets are also investigated. Finally, we present some
results concerning nonreflexive and Hilbert spaces.
Categories:52A05, 46B20 

91. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 691)
 Bendikov, A.; SaloffCoste, L.

Hypoelliptic BiInvariant Laplacians on Infinite Dimensional Compact Groups
On a compact connected group $G$, consider the infinitesimal
generator $L$ of a central symmetric Gaussian convolution
semigroup $(\mu_t)_{t>0}$. Using appropriate notions of distribution
and smooth function spaces, we prove that $L$ is hypoelliptic if and only if
$(\mu_t)_{t>0} $ is absolutely continuous with respect to Haar measure
and admits a continuous density $x\mapsto \mu_t(x)$, $t>0$, such that
$\lim_{t\ra 0} t\log \mu_t(e)=0$. In particular, this condition holds
if and only if any Borel measure $u$ which is solution of $Lu=0$
in an open set $\Omega$ can be represented by a continuous
function in $\Omega$. Examples are discussed.
Categories:60B15, 43A77, 35H10, 46F25, 60J45, 60J60 

92. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 548)
 Galanopoulos, P.; Papadimitrakis, M.

Hausdorff and QuasiHausdorff Matrices on Spaces of Analytic Functions
We consider Hausdorff and quasiHausdorff matrices as operators
on classical spaces of analytic functions such as the Hardy and
the Bergman spaces, the Dirichlet space, the Bloch spaces and $\BMOA$. When the generating
sequence of the matrix is the moment sequence of a measure $\mu$,
we find the conditions on $\mu$ which are equivalent to the boundedness
of the matrix on the various spaces.
Categories:47B38, 46E15, 40G05, 42A20 

93. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 492)
 Chua, SengKee

Extension Theorems on Weighted Sobolev Spaces and Some Applications
We extend the extension theorems to weighted Sobolev spaces
$L^p_{w,k}(\mathcal D)$ on $(\varepsilon,\delta)$ domains with doubling weight $w$
that satisfies a Poincar\'e inequality and such that $w^{1/p}$ is locally
$L^{p'}$. We also make use of the main theorem to improve weighted
Sobolev interpolation inequalities.
Keywords:PoincarÃ© inequalities, $A_p$ weights, doubling weights, $(\ep,\delta)$ domain, $(\ep,\infty)$ domain Category:46E35 

94. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 39)
 Exel, R.; Vershik, A.

$C^*$Algebras of Irreversible Dynamical Systems
We show that certain $C^*$algebras which have been studied by,
among others, Arzumanian, Vershik, Deaconu, and Renault, in
connection with a measurepreserving transformation of a measure space
or a covering map of a compact space, are special cases of the
endomorphism crossedproduct construction recently introduced by the
first named author. As a consequence these algebras are given
presentations in terms of generators and relations. These results
come as a consequence of a general theorem on faithfulness of
representations which are covariant with respect to certain circle
actions. For the case of topologically free covering maps we prove a
stronger result on faithfulness of representations which needs no
covariance. We also give a necessary and sufficient condition for
simplicity.
Categories:46L55, 37A55 

95. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1249)
96. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 983)
97. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1056)
 Ozawa, Narutaka; Rieffel, Marc A.

Hyperbolic Group $C^*$Algebras and FreeProduct $C^*$Algebras as Compact Quantum Metric Spaces
Let $\ell$ be a length function on a group $G$, and let $M_{\ell}$
denote the
operator of pointwise multiplication by $\ell$ on $\bell^2(G)$.
Following Connes,
$M_{\ell}$ can be used as a ``Dirac'' operator for $C_r^*(G)$. It defines a
Lipschitz seminorm on $C_r^*(G)$, which defines a metric on the state space of
$C_r^*(G)$. We show that if $G$ is a hyperbolic group and if $\ell$ is
a wordlength function on $G$, then the topology from this metric
coincides with the
weak$*$ topology (our definition of a ``compact quantum metric
space''). We show that a convenient framework is that of filtered
$C^*$algebras which satisfy a suitable ``Haageruptype'' condition. We
also use this
framework to prove an analogous fact for certain reduced
free products of $C^*$algebras.
Categories:46L87, 20F67, 46L09 

98. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 897)
 Berezhnoĭ, Evgenii I.; Maligranda, Lech

Representation of Banach Ideal Spaces and Factorization of Operators
Representation theorems are proved for Banach ideal spaces with the Fatou property
which are built by the Calder{\'o}nLozanovski\u\i\ construction.
Factorization theorems for operators in spaces more general than the Lebesgue
$L^{p}$ spaces are investigated. It is natural to extend the Gagliardo
theorem on the Schur test and the Rubio de~Francia theorem on factorization of the
Muckenhoupt $A_{p}$ weights to reflexive Orlicz spaces. However, it turns out that for
the scales far from $L^{p}$spaces this is impossible. For the concrete integral operators
it is shown that factorization theorems and the Schur test in some reflexive Orlicz spaces
are not valid. Representation theorems for the Calder{\'o}nLozanovski\u\i\ construction
are involved in the proofs.
Keywords:Banach ideal spaces, weighted spaces, weight functions,, CalderÃ³nLozanovski\u\i\ spaces, Orlicz spaces, representation of, spaces, uniqueness problem, positive linear operators, positive sublinear, operators, Schur test, factorization of operators, f Categories:46E30, 46B42, 46B70 

99. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 673)
 Androulakis, G.; Odell, E.; Schlumprecht, Th.; TomczakJaegermann, N.

On the Structure of the Spreading Models of a Banach Space
We study some questions concerning the structure of the
set of spreading models of a separable infinitedimensional Banach
space $X$. In particular we give an example of a reflexive $X$ so that
all spreading models of $X$ contain $\ell_1$ but none of them is
isomorphic to $\ell_1$. We also prove that for any countable set $C$
of spreading models generated by weakly null sequences there is a
spreading model generated by a weakly null sequence which dominates
each element of $C$. In certain cases this ensures that $X$ admits,
for each $\alpha < \omega_1$, a spreading model $(\tilde
x_i^{(\alpha)})_i$ such that if $\alpha < \beta$ then $(\tilde
x_i^{(\alpha)})_i$ is dominated by (and not equivalent to)
$(\tilde x_i^{(\beta)})_i$. Some applications of these ideas are used to
give sufficient conditions on a Banach space for the existence of a
subspace and an operator defined on the subspace, which is not a
compact perturbation of a multiple of the inclusion map.
Category:46B03 

100. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 351)
 Lin, Huaxin

Extensions by Simple $C^*$Algebras: Quasidiagonal Extensions
Let $A$ be an amenable separable $C^*$algebra and $B$ be a nonunital
but $\sigma$unital simple $C^*$algebra with continuous scale.
We show that two essential extensions
$\tau_1$ and $\tau_2$ of $A$ by $B$ are approximately
unitarily equivalent if and only if
$$
[\tau_1]=[\tau_2] \text{ in } KL(A, M(B)/B).
$$
If $A$ is assumed to satisfy the Universal Coefficient Theorem,
there is a bijection from approximate unitary equivalence
classes of the above mentioned extensions to
$KL(A, M(B)/B)$.
Using $KL(A, M(B)/B)$, we compute exactly when an essential extension
is quasidiagonal. We show that quasidiagonal extensions
may not be approximately trivial.
We also study the approximately trivial extensions.
Keywords:Extensions, Simple $C^*$algebras Categories:46L05, 46L35 
