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1. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 737)

Ditzian, Z.; Prymak, A.
Approximation by Dilated Averages and K-Functionals
For a positive finite measure $d\mu(\mathbf{u})$ on $\mathbb{R}^d$ normalized to satisfy $\int_{\mathbb{R}^d}d\mu(\mathbf{u})=1$, the dilated average of $f( \mathbf{x})$ is given by \[ A_tf(\mathbf{x})=\int_{\mathbb{R}^d}f(\mathbf{x}-t\mathbf{u})d\mu(\mathbf{u}). \] It will be shown that under some mild assumptions on $d\mu(\mathbf{u})$ one has the equivalence \[ \|A_tf-f\|_B\approx \inf \{ (\|f-g\|_B+t^2 \|P(D)g\|_B): P(D)g\in B\}\quad\text{for }t>0, \] where $\varphi(t)\approx \psi(t)$ means $c^{-1}\le\varphi(t)/\psi(t)\le c$, $B$ is a Banach space of functions for which translations are continuous isometries and $P(D)$ is an elliptic differential operator induced by $\mu$. Many applications are given, notable among which is the averaging operator with $d\mu(\mathbf{u})= \frac{1}{m(S)}\chi_S(\mathbf{u})d\mathbf{u}$, where $S$ is a bounded convex set in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with an interior point, $m(S)$ is the Lebesgue measure of $S$, and $\chi_S(\mathbf{u})$ is the characteristic function of $S$. The rate of approximation by averages on the boundary of a convex set under more restrictive conditions is also shown to be equivalent to an appropriate $K$-functional.

Keywords:rate of approximation, K-functionals, strong converse inequality
Categories:41A27, 41A35, 41A63

2. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1341)

Rivoal, Tanguy
Simultaneous Polynomial Approximations of the Lerch Function
We construct bivariate polynomial approximations of the Lerch function that for certain specialisations of the variables and parameters turn out to be Hermite--Pad\'e approximants either of the polylogarithms or of Hurwitz zeta functions. In the former case, we recover known results, while in the latter the results are new and generalise some recent works of Beukers and Pr\'evost. Finally, we make a detailed comparison of our work with Beukers'. Such constructions are useful in the arithmetical study of the values of the Riemann zeta function at integer points and of the Kubota--Leopold $p$-adic zeta function.

Categories:41A10, 41A21, 11J72

3. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 373)

McKee, Mark
An Infinite Order Whittaker Function
In this paper we construct a flat smooth section of an induced space $I(s,\eta)$ of $SL_2(\mathbb{R})$ so that the attached Whittaker function is not of finite order. An asymptotic method of classical analysis is used.

Categories:11F70, 22E45, 41A60, 11M99, 30D15, 33C15

4. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 299)

Dawson, Robert J. MacG.; Moszy\'{n}ska, Maria
\v{C}eby\v{s}ev Sets in Hyperspaces over $\mathrm{R}^n$
A set in a metric space is called a \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev set} if it has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' to each point of the space. In this paper we generalize this notion, defining a set to be \emph{\v{C}eby\v{s}ev relative to} another set if every point in the second set has a unique ``nearest neighbour'' in the first. We are interested in \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in some hyperspaces over $\R$, endowed with the Hausdorff metric, mainly the hyperspaces of compact sets, compact convex sets, and strictly convex compact sets. We present some new classes of \v{C}eby\v{s}ev and relatively \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets in various hyperspaces. In particular, we show that certain nested families of sets are \v{C}eby\v{s}ev. As these families are characterized purely in terms of containment, without reference to the semi-linear structure of the underlying metric space, their properties differ markedly from those of known \v{C}eby\v{s}ev sets.

Keywords:convex body, strictly convex set, \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, relative \v{C}eby\v{s}ev set, nested family, strongly nested family, family of translates
Categories:41A52, 52A20

5. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 730)

Erdélyi, T.; Lubinsky, D. S.
Large Sieve Inequalities via Subharmonic Methods and the Mahler Measure of the Fekete Polynomials
We investigate large sieve inequalities such as \[ \frac{1}{m}\sum_{j=1}^{m}\psi ( \log | P( e^{i\tau _{j}}) | ) \leq \frac{C}{2\pi }\int_{0}^{2\pi }\psi \left( \log [ e| P( e^{i\tau }) | ] \right) \,d\tau , \] where $\psi $ is convex and increasing, $P$ is a polynomial or an exponential of a potential, and the constant $C$ depends on the degree of $P$, and the distribution of the points $0\leq \tau _{1}<\tau _{2}<\dots<\tau _{m}\leq 2\pi $. The method allows greater generality and is in some ways simpler than earlier ones. We apply our results to estimate the Mahler measure of Fekete polynomials.

Category:41A17

6. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 3)

Biller, Harald
Holomorphic Generation of Continuous Inverse Algebras
We study complex commutative Banach algebras (and, more generally, continuous inverse algebras) in which the holomorphic functions of a fixed $n$-tuple of elements are dense. In particular, we characterize the compact subsets of~$\C^n$ which appear as joint spectra of such $n$-tuples. The characterization is compared with several established notions of holomorphic convexity by means of approximation conditions.

Keywords:holomorphic functional calculus, commutative continuous inverse algebra, holomorphic convexity, Stein compacta, meromorphic convexity, holomorphic approximation
Categories:46H30, 32A38, 32E30, 41A20, 46J15

7. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1026)

Handelman, David
Karamata Renewed and Local Limit Results
Connections between behaviour of real analytic functions (with no negative Maclaurin series coefficients and radius of convergence one) on the open unit interval, and to a lesser extent on arcs of the unit circle, are explored, beginning with Karamata's approach. We develop conditions under which the asymptotics of the coefficients are related to the values of the function near $1$; specifically, $a(n)\sim f(1-1/n)/ \alpha n$ (for some positive constant $\alpha$), where $f(t)=\sum a(n)t^n$. In particular, if $F=\sum c(n) t^n$ where $c(n) \geq 0$ and $\sum c(n)=1$, then $f$ defined as $(1-F)^{-1}$ (the renewal or Green's function for $F$) satisfies this condition if $F'$ does (and a minor additional condition is satisfied). In come cases, we can show that the absolute sum of the differences of consecutive Maclaurin coefficients converges. We also investigate situations in which less precise asymptotics are available.

Categories:30B10, 30E15, 41A60, 60J35, 05A16

8. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 249)

Bello Hernández, M.; Mínguez Ceniceros, J.
Convergence of Fourier--Padé Approximants for Stieltjes Functions
We prove convergence of diagonal multipoint Pad\'e approximants of Stieltjes-type functions when a certain moment problem is determinate. This is used for the study of the convergence of Fourier--Pad\'e and nonlinear Fourier--Pad\'e approximants for such type of functions.

Keywords:rational approximation, multipoint Padé approximants, Fourier--Padé approximants, moment problem
Categories:41A20, 41A21, 44A60

9. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1224)

Kopotun, K. A.; Leviatan, D.; Shevchuk, I. A.
Convex Polynomial Approximation in the Uniform Norm: Conclusion
Estimating the degree of approximation in the uniform norm, of a convex function on a finite interval, by convex algebraic polynomials, has received wide attention over the last twenty years. However, while much progress has been made especially in recent years by, among others, the authors of this article, separately and jointly, there have been left some interesting open questions. In this paper we give final answers to all those open problems. We are able to say, for each $r$th differentiable convex function, whether or not its degree of convex polynomial approximation in the uniform norm may be estimated by a Jackson-type estimate involving the weighted Ditzian-Totik $k$th modulus of smoothness, and how the constants in this estimate behave. It turns out that for some pairs $(k,r)$ we have such estimate with constants depending only on these parameters. For other pairs the estimate is valid, but only with constants that depend on the function being approximated, while there are pairs for which the Jackson-type estimate is, in general, invalid.

Categories:41A10, 41A25, 41A29

10. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 1019)

Handelman, David
More Eventual Positivity for Analytic Functions
Eventual positivity problems for real convergent Maclaurin series lead to density questions for sets of harmonic functions. These are solved for large classes of series, and in so doing, asymptotic estimates are obtained for the values of the series near the radius of convergence and for the coefficients of convolution powers.

Categories:30B10, 30D15, 30C50, 13A99, 41A58, 42A16

11. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 576)

Lukashov, A. L.; Peherstorfer, F.
Automorphic Orthogonal and Extremal Polynomials
It is well known that many polynomials which solve extremal problems on a single interval as the Chebyshev or the Bernstein-Szeg\"o polynomials can be represented by trigonometric functions and their inverses. On two intervals one has elliptic instead of trigonometric functions. In this paper we show that the counterparts of the Chebyshev and Bernstein-Szeg\"o polynomials for several intervals can be represented with the help of automorphic functions, so-called Schottky-Burnside functions. Based on this representation and using the Schottky-Burnside automorphic functions as a tool several extremal properties of such polynomials as orthogonality properties, extremal properties with respect to the maximum norm, behaviour of zeros and recurrence coefficients {\it etc.} are derived.

Categories:42C05, 30F35, 31A15, 41A21, 41A50

12. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 945)

Boivin, André; Gauthier, Paul M.; Paramonov, Petr V.
Approximation on Closed Sets by Analytic or Meromorphic Solutions of Elliptic Equations and Applications
Given a homogeneous elliptic partial differential operator $L$ with constant complex coefficients and a class of functions (jet-distributions) which are defined on a (relatively) closed subset of a domain $\Omega$ in $\mathbf{R}^n$ and which belong locally to a Banach space $V$, we consider the problem of approximating in the norm of $V$ the functions in this class by ``analytic'' and ``meromorphic'' solutions of the equation $Lu=0$. We establish new Roth, Arakelyan (including tangential) and Carleman type theorems for a large class of Banach spaces $V$ and operators $L$. Important applications to boundary value problems of solutions of homogeneous elliptic partial differential equations are obtained, including the solution of a generalized Dirichlet problem.

Keywords:approximation on closed sets, elliptic operator, strongly elliptic operator, $L$-meromorphic and $L$-analytic functions, localization operator, Banach space of distributions, Dirichlet problem
Categories:30D40, 30E10, 31B35, 35Jxx, 35J67, 41A30

13. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 489)

Bojanov, Borislav D.; Haußmann, Werner; Nikolov, Geno P.
Bivariate Polynomials of Least Deviation from Zero
Bivariate polynomials with a fixed leading term $x^m y^n$, which deviate least from zero in the uniform or $L^2$-norm on the unit disk $D$ (resp. a triangle) are given explicitly. A similar problem in $L^p$, $1 \le p \le \infty$, is studied on $D$ in the set of products of linear polynomials.

Categories:41A10, 41A50, 41A63

14. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 815)

Lubinsky, D. S.
On the Maximum and Minimum Modulus of Rational Functions
We show that if $m$, $n\geq 0$, $\lambda >1$, and $R$ is a rational function with numerator, denominator of degree $\leq m$, $n$, respectively, then there exists a set $\mathcal{S}\subset [0,1] $ of linear measure $\geq \frac{1}{4}\exp (-\frac{13}{\log \lambda })$ such that for $r\in \mathcal{S}$, \[ \max_{|z| =r}| R(z)| / \min_{|z| =r} | R(z) |\leq \lambda ^{m+n}. \] Here, one may not replace $\frac{1}{4}\exp ( -\frac{13}{\log \lambda })$ by $\exp (-\frac{2-\varepsilon }{\log \lambda })$, for any $\varepsilon >0$. As our motivating application, we prove a convergence result for diagonal Pad\'{e} approximants for functions meromorphic in the unit ball.

Categories:30E10, 30C15, 31A15, 41A21

15. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 546)

Felten, M.
Strong Converse Inequalities for Averages in Weighted $L^p$ Spaces on $[-1,1]$
Averages in weighted spaces $L^p_\phi[-1,1]$ defined by additions on $[-1,1]$ will be shown to satisfy strong converse inequalities of type A and B with appropriate $K$-functionals. Results for higher levels of smoothness are achieved by combinations of averages. This yields, in particular, strong converse inequalities of type D between $K$-functionals and suitable difference operators.

Keywords:averages, $K$-functionals, weighted spaces, strong converse inequalities
Categories:41A25, 41A63

16. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 1273)

Lubinsky, D. S.
Mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation for exponential weights on $[-1,1]$
We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for mean convergence of Lagrange interpolation at zeros of orthogonal polynomials for weights on $[-1,1]$, such as \[ w(x)=\exp \bigl(-(1-x^{2})^{-\alpha }\bigr),\quad \alpha >0 \] or \[ w(x)=\exp \bigl(-\exp _{k}(1-x^{2})^{-\alpha }\bigr),\quad k\geq 1, \ \alpha >0, \] where $\exp_{k}=\exp \Bigl(\exp \bigl(\cdots\exp (\ )\cdots\bigr)\Bigr)$ denotes the $k$-th iterated exponential.

Categories:41A05, 42C99

17. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 412)

McIntosh, Richard J.
Asymptotic transformations of $q$-series
For the $q$-series $\sum_{n=0}^\infty a^nq^{bn^2+cn}/(q)_n$ we construct a companion $q$-series such that the asymptotic expansions of their logarithms as $q\to 1^{\scriptscriptstyle -}$ differ only in the dominant few terms. The asymptotic expansion of their quotient then has a simple closed form; this gives rise to a new $q$-hypergeometric identity. We give an asymptotic expansion of a general class of $q$-series containing some of Ramanujan's mock theta functions and Selberg's identities.

Categories:11B65, 33D10, 34E05, 41A60

18. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 152)

Min, G.
Inequalities for rational functions with prescribed poles
This paper considers the rational system ${\cal P}_n (a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n):= \bigl\{ {P(x) \over \prod_{k=1}^n (x-a_k)}, P\in {\cal P}_n\bigr\}$ with nonreal elements in $\{a_k\}_{k=1}^{n}\subset\Bbb{C}\setminus [-1,1]$ paired by complex conjugation. It gives a sharp (to constant) Markov-type inequality for real rational functions in ${\cal P}_n (a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n)$. The corresponding Markov-type inequality for high derivatives is established, as well as Nikolskii-type inequalities. Some sharp Markov- and Bernstein-type inequalities with curved majorants for rational functions in ${\cal P}_n(a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n)$ are obtained, which generalize some results for the classical polynomials. A sharp Schur-type inequality is also proved and plays a key role in the proofs of our main results.

Keywords:Markov-type inequality, Bernstein-type inequality, Nikolskii-type inequality, Schur-type inequality, rational functions with prescribed poles, curved majorants, Chebyshev polynomials
Categories:41A17, 26D07, 26C15

19. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1242)

Randrianantoanina, Beata
$1$-complemented subspaces of spaces with $1$-unconditional bases
We prove that if $X$ is a complex strictly monotone sequence space with $1$-un\-con\-di\-tion\-al basis, $Y \subseteq X$ has no bands isometric to $\ell_2^2$ and $Y$ is the range of norm-one projection from $X$, then $Y$ is a closed linear span a family of mutually disjoint vectors in $X$. We completely characterize $1$-complemented subspaces and norm-one projections in complex spaces $\ell_p(\ell_q)$ for $1 \leq p, q < \infty$. Finally we give a full description of the subspaces that are spanned by a family of disjointly supported vectors and which are $1$-complemented in (real or complex) Orlicz or Lorentz sequence spaces. In particular if an Orlicz or Lorentz space $X$ is not isomorphic to $\ell_p$ for some $1 \leq p < \infty$ then the only subspaces of $X$ which are $1$-complemented and disjointly supported are the closed linear spans of block bases with constant coefficients.

Categories:46B20, 46B45, 41A65

20. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1034)

Saff, E. B.; Stahl, H.
Ray sequences of best rational approximants for $|x|^\alpha$
The convergence behavior of best uniform rational approximations $r^\ast_{mn}$ with numerator degree~$m$ and denominator degree~$n$ to the function $|x|^\alpha$, $\alpha>0$, on $[-1,1]$ is investigated. It is assumed that the indices $(m,n)$ progress along a ray sequence in the lower triangle of the Walsh table, {\it i.e.} the sequence of indices $\{ (m,n)\}$ satisfies $$ {m\over n}\rightarrow c\in [1, \infty)\quad\hbox{as } m+ n\rightarrow\infty. $$ In addition to the convergence behavior, the asymptotic distribution of poles and zeros of the approximants and the distribution of the extreme points of the error function $|x|^\alpha - r^\ast_{mn} (x)$ on $[-1,1]$ will be studied. The results will be compared with those for paradiagonal sequences $(m=n+2[\alpha/2])$ and for sequences of best polynomial approximants.

Keywords:Walsh table, rational approximation, best approximation,, distribution of poles and zeros.
Categories:41A25, 41A44

21. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 944)

Jia, R. Q.; Riemenschneider, S. D.; Zhou, D. X.
Approximation by multiple refinable functions
We consider the shift-invariant space, $\bbbs(\Phi)$, generated by a set $\Phi=\{\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_r\}$ of compactly supported distributions on $\RR$ when the vector of distributions $\phi:=(\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_r)^T$ satisfies a system of refinement equations expressed in matrix form as $$ \phi=\sum_{\alpha\in\ZZ}a(\alpha)\phi(2\,\cdot - \,\alpha) $$ where $a$ is a finitely supported sequence of $r\times r$ matrices of complex numbers. Such {\it multiple refinable functions} occur naturally in the study of multiple wavelets. The purpose of the present paper is to characterize the {\it accuracy} of $\Phi$, the order of the polynomial space contained in $\bbbs(\Phi)$, strictly in terms of the refinement mask $a$. The accuracy determines the $L_p$-approximation order of $\bbbs(\Phi)$ when the functions in $\Phi$ belong to $L_p(\RR)$ (see Jia~[10]). The characterization is achieved in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the subdivision operator associated with the mask $a$. In particular, they extend and improve the results of Heil, Strang and Strela~[7], and of Plonka~[16]. In addition, a counterexample is given to the statement of Strang and Strela~[20] that the eigenvalues of the subdivision operator determine the accuracy. The results do not require the linear independence of the shifts of $\phi$.

Keywords:Refinement equations, refinable functions, approximation, order, accuracy, shift-invariant spaces, subdivision
Categories:39B12, 41A25, 65F15

22. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 568)

Mateu, Joan
A counterexample in $L^p$ approximation by harmonic functions
For ${n \over {n-2}}\leq p<\infty$ we show that the conditions $C_{2,q}(G\setminus \dox)=C_{2,q}(G \setminus X)$ for all open sets $G$, $C_{2,q}$ denoting Bessel capacity, are not sufficient to characterize the compact sets $X$ with the property that each function harmonic on $\dox$ and in $L^p(X)$ is the limit in the $L^p$ norm of a sequence of functions which are harmonic on neighbourhoods of $X$.

Categories:41A30, 31C15

23. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 74)

Hu, Y. K.; Kopotun, K. A.; Yu, X. M.
Constrained approximation in Sobolev spaces
Positive, copositive, onesided and intertwining (co-onesided) polynomial and spline approximations of functions $f\in\Wp^k\mll$ are considered. Both uniform and pointwise estimates, which are exact in some sense, are obtained.

Keywords:Constrained approximation, polynomials, splines, degree of, approximation, $L_p$ space, Sobolev space
Categories:41A10, 41A15, 41A25, 41A29

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