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1. CJM Online first

Köck, Bernhard; Tait, Joseph
Faithfulness of Actions on Riemann-Roch Spaces
Given a faithful action of a finite group $G$ on an algebraic curve~$X$ of genus $g_X\geq 2$, we give explicit criteria for the induced action of~$G$ on the Riemann-Roch space~$H^0(X,\mathcal{O}_X(D))$ to be faithful, where $D$ is a $G$-invariant divisor on $X$ of degree at least~$2g_X-2$. This leads to a concise answer to the question when the action of~$G$ on the space~$H^0(X, \Omega_X^{\otimes m})$ of global holomorphic polydifferentials of order $m$ is faithful. If $X$ is hyperelliptic, we furthermore provide an explicit basis of~$H^0(X, \Omega_X^{\otimes m})$. Finally, we give applications in deformation theory and in coding theory and we discuss the analogous problem for the action of~$G$ on the first homology $H_1(X, \mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z})$ if $X$ is a Riemann surface.

Keywords:faithful action, Riemann-Roch space, polydifferential, hyperelliptic curve, equivariant deformation theory, Goppa code, homology
Categories:14H30, 30F30, 14L30, 14D15, 11R32

2. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 1225)

Cortadellas Benítez, Teresa; D'Andrea, Carlos
Minimal Generators of the Defining Ideal of the Rees Algebra Associated with a Rational Plane Parametrization with $\mu=2$
We exhibit a set of minimal generators of the defining ideal of the Rees Algebra associated with the ideal of three bivariate homogeneous polynomials parametrizing a proper rational curve in projective plane, having a minimal syzygy of degree 2.

Keywords:Rees Algebras, rational plane curves, minimal generators
Categories:13A30, 14H50

3. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 81)

David, C.; Wu, J.
Pseudoprime Reductions of Elliptic Curves
Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb Q$ without complex multiplication, and for each prime $p$ of good reduction, let $n_E(p) = | E(\mathbb F_p) |$. For any integer $b$, we consider elliptic pseudoprimes to the base $b$. More precisely, let $Q_{E,b}(x)$ be the number of primes $p \leq x$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$, and let $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$ be the number of compositive $n_E(p)$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$ (also called elliptic curve pseudoprimes). Motivated by cryptography applications, we address the problem of finding upper bounds for $Q_{E,b}(x)$ and $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$, generalising some of the literature for the classical pseudoprimes to this new setting.

Keywords:Rosser-Iwaniec sieve, group order of elliptic curves over finite fields, pseudoprimes
Categories:11N36, 14H52

4. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 992)

Bruin, Nils; Doerksen, Kevin
The Arithmetic of Genus Two Curves with (4,4)-Split Jacobians
In this paper we study genus $2$ curves whose Jacobians admit a polarized $(4,4)$-isogeny to a product of elliptic curves. We consider base fields of characteristic different from $2$ and $3$, which we do not assume to be algebraically closed. We obtain a full classification of all principally polarized abelian surfaces that can arise from gluing two elliptic curves along their $4$-torsion, and we derive the relation their absolute invariants satisfy. As an intermediate step, we give a general description of Richelot isogenies between Jacobians of genus $2$ curves, where previously only Richelot isogenies with kernels that are pointwise defined over the base field were considered. Our main tool is a Galois theoretic characterization of genus $2$ curves admitting multiple Richelot isogenies.

Keywords:Genus 2 curves, isogenies, split Jacobians, elliptic curves
Categories:11G30, 14H40

5. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 86)

Chen, Xi
On Vojta's $1+\varepsilon$ Conjecture
We give another proof of Vojta's $1+\varepsilon$ conjecture.

Keywords:Vojta, 1+epsilon
Categories:14G40, 14H15

6. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1131)

Kleppe, Jan O.
Moduli Spaces of Reflexive Sheaves of Rank 2
Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent rank $2$ sheaf on a scheme $Y \subset \mathbb{P}^{n}$ of dimension at least two and let $X \subset Y$ be the zero set of a section $\sigma \in H^0(\mathcal{F})$. In this paper, we study the relationship between the functor that deforms the pair $(\mathcal{F},\sigma)$ and the two functors that deform $\mathcal{F}$ on $Y$, and $X$ in $Y$, respectively. By imposing some conditions on two forgetful maps between the functors, we prove that the scheme structure of \emph{e.g.,} the moduli scheme ${\rm M_Y}(P)$ of stable sheaves on a threefold $Y$ at $(\mathcal{F})$, and the scheme structure at $(X)$ of the Hilbert scheme of curves on $Y$ become closely related. Using this relationship, we get criteria for the dimension and smoothness of $ {\rm M_{Y}}(P)$ at $(\mathcal{F})$, without assuming $ {\textrm{Ext}^2}(\mathcal{F} ,\mathcal{F} ) = 0$. For reflexive sheaves on $Y=\mathbb{P}^{3}$ whose deficiency module $M = H_{*}^1(\mathcal{F})$ satisfies $ {_{0}\! \textrm{Ext}^2}(M ,M ) = 0 $ (\emph{e.g.,} of diameter at most 2), we get necessary and sufficient conditions of unobstructedness that coincide in the diameter one case. The conditions are further equivalent to the vanishing of certain graded Betti numbers of the free graded minimal resolution of $H_{*}^0(\mathcal{F})$. Moreover, we show that every irreducible component of ${\rm M}_{\mathbb{P}^{3}}(P)$ containing a reflexive sheaf of diameter one is reduced (generically smooth) and we compute its dimension. We also determine a good lower bound for the dimension of any component of ${\rm M}_{\mathbb{P}^{3}}(P)$ that contains a reflexive stable sheaf with ``small'' deficiency module $M$.

Keywords:moduli space, reflexive sheaf, Hilbert scheme, space curve, Buchsbaum sheaf, unobstructedness, cup product, graded Betti numbers.xdvi
Categories:14C05, qqqqq14D22, 14F05, 14J10, 14H50, 14B10, 13D02, 13D07

7. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 787)

Landquist, E.; Rozenhart, P.; Scheidler, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, Q.
An Explicit Treatment of Cubic Function Fields with Applications
We give an explicit treatment of cubic function fields of characteristic at least five. This includes an efficient technique for converting such a field into standard form, formulae for the field discriminant and the genus, simple necessary and sufficient criteria for non-singularity of the defining curve, and a characterization of all triangular integral bases. Our main result is a description of the signature of any rational place in a cubic extension that involves only the defining curve and the order of the base field. All these quantities only require simple polynomial arithmetic as well as a few square-free polynomial factorizations and, in some cases, square and cube root extraction modulo an irreducible polynomial. We also illustrate why and how signature computation plays an important role in computing the class number of the function field. This in turn has applications to the study of zeros of zeta functions of function fields.

Keywords:cubic function field, discriminant, non-singularity, integral basis, genus, signature of a place, class number
Categories:14H05, 11R58, 14H45, 11G20, 11G30, 11R16, 11R29

8. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 3)

Behrend, Kai; Dhillon, Ajneet
Connected Components of Moduli Stacks of Torsors via Tamagawa Numbers
Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over a finite field with function field $K$. Let $\G$ be a connected semisimple group scheme over $X$. Under certain hypotheses we prove the equality of two numbers associated with $\G$. The first is an arithmetic invariant, its Tamagawa number. The second is a geometric invariant, the number of connected components of the moduli stack of $\G$-torsors on $X$. Our results are most useful for studying connected components as much is known about Tamagawa numbers.

Categories:11E, 11R, 14D, 14H

9. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 109)

Coskun, Izzet; Harris, Joe; Starr, Jason
The Ample Cone of the Kontsevich Moduli Space
We produce ample (resp.\ NEF, eventually free) divisors in the Kontsevich space $\Kgnb{0,n} (\mathbb P^r, d)$ of $n$-pointed, genus $0$, stable maps to $\mathbb P^r$, given such divisors in $\Kgnb{0,n+d}$. We prove that this produces all ample (resp.\ NEF, eventually free) divisors in $\Kgnb{0,n}(\mathbb P^r,d)$. As a consequence, we construct a contraction of the boundary $\bigcup_{k=1}^{\lfloor d/2 \rfloor} \Delta_{k,d-k}$ in $\Kgnb{0,0}(\mathbb P^r,d)$, analogous to a contraction of the boundary $\bigcup_{k=3}^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} \tilde{\Delta}_{k,n-k}$ in $\kgnb{0,n}$ first constructed by Keel and McKernan.

Categories:14D20, 14E99, 14H10

10. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 297)

Bini, G.; Goulden, I. P.; Jackson, D. M.
Transitive Factorizations in the Hyperoctahedral Group
The classical Hurwitz enumeration problem has a presentation in terms of transitive factorizations in the symmetric group. This presentation suggests a generalization from type~$A$ to other finite reflection groups and, in particular, to type~$B$. We study this generalization both from a combinatorial and a geometric point of view, with the prospect of providing a means of understanding more of the structure of the moduli spaces of maps with an $\gS_2$-symmetry. The type~$A$ case has been well studied and connects Hurwitz numbers to the moduli space of curves. We conjecture an analogous setting for the type~$B$ case that is studied here.

Categories:05A15, 14H10, 58D29

11. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1000)

Dhillon, Ajneet
On the Cohomology of Moduli of Vector Bundles and the Tamagawa Number of $\operatorname{SL}_n$
We compute some Hodge and Betti numbers of the moduli space of stable rank $r$, degree $d$ vector bundles on a smooth projective curve. We do not assume $r$ and $d$ are coprime. In the process we equip the cohomology of an arbitrary algebraic stack with a functorial mixed Hodge structure. This Hodge structure is computed in the case of the moduli stack of rank $r$, degree $d$ vector bundles on a curve. Our methods also yield a formula for the Poincar\'e polynomial of the moduli stack that is valid over any ground field. In the last section we use the previous sections to give a proof that the Tamagawa number of $\sln$ is one.

Categories:14H, 14L

12. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 338)

Lange, Tanja; Shparlinski, Igor E.
Certain Exponential Sums and Random Walks on Elliptic Curves
For a given elliptic curve $\E$, we obtain an upper bound on the discrepancy of sets of multiples $z_sG$ where $z_s$ runs through a sequence $\cZ=\(z_1, \dots, z_T\)$ such that $k z_1,\dots, kz_T $ is a permutation of $z_1, \dots, z_T$, both sequences taken modulo $t$, for sufficiently many distinct values of $k$ modulo $t$. We apply this result to studying an analogue of the power generator over an elliptic curve. These results are elliptic curve analogues of those obtained for multiplicative groups of finite fields and residue rings.

Categories:11L07, 11T23, 11T71, 14H52, 94A60

13. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 612)

Pál, Ambrus
Solvable Points on Projective Algebraic Curves
We examine the problem of finding rational points defined over solvable extensions on algebraic curves defined over general fields. We construct non-singular, geometrically irreducible projective curves without solvable points of genus $g$, when $g$ is at least $40$, over fields of arbitrary characteristic. We prove that every smooth, geometrically irreducible projective curve of genus $0$, $2$, $3$ or $4$ defined over any field has a solvable point. Finally we prove that every genus $1$ curve defined over a local field of characteristic zero with residue field of characteristic $p$ has a divisor of degree prime to $6p$ defined over a solvable extension.

Categories:14H25, 11D88

14. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 609)

Moraru, Ruxandra
Integrable Systems Associated to a Hopf Surface
A Hopf surface is the quotient of the complex surface $\mathbb{C}^2 \setminus \{0\}$ by an infinite cyclic group of dilations of $\mathbb{C}^2$. In this paper, we study the moduli spaces $\mathcal{M}^n$ of stable $\SL (2,\mathbb{C})$-bundles on a Hopf surface $\mathcal{H}$, from the point of view of symplectic geometry. An important point is that the surface $\mathcal{H}$ is an elliptic fibration, which implies that a vector bundle on $\mathcal{H}$ can be considered as a family of vector bundles over an elliptic curve. We define a map $G \colon \mathcal{M}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{P}^{2n+1}$ that associates to every bundle on $\mathcal{H}$ a divisor, called the graph of the bundle, which encodes the isomorphism class of the bundle over each elliptic curve. We then prove that the map $G$ is an algebraically completely integrable Hamiltonian system, with respect to a given Poisson structure on $\mathcal{M}^n$. We also give an explicit description of the fibres of the integrable system. This example is interesting for several reasons; in particular, since the Hopf surface is not K\"ahler, it is an elliptic fibration that does not admit a section.

Categories:14J60, 14D21, 14H70, 14J27

15. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 331)

Savitt, David
The Maximum Number of Points on a Curve of Genus $4$ over $\mathbb{F}_8$ is $25$
We prove that the maximum number of rational points on a smooth, geometrically irreducible genus 4 curve over the field of 8 elements is 25. The body of the paper shows that 27 points is not possible by combining techniques from algebraic geometry with a computer verification. The appendix shows that 26 points is not possible by examining the zeta functions.

Categories:11G20, 14H25

16. CJM 2003 (vol 55 pp. 248)

Dhillon, Ajneet
A Generalized Torelli Theorem
Given a smooth projective curve $C$ of positive genus $g$, Torelli's theorem asserts that the pair $\bigl( J(C),W^{g-1} \bigr)$ determines $C$. We show that the theorem is true with $W^{g-1}$ replaced by $W^d$ for each $d$ in the range $1\le d\le g-1$.

Category:14H99

17. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 936)

David, Chantal; Kisilevsky, Hershy; Pappalardi, Francesco
Galois Representations with Non-Surjective Traces
Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\q$, and let $r$ be an integer. According to the Lang-Trotter conjecture, the number of primes $p$ such that $a_p(E) = r$ is either finite, or is asymptotic to $C_{E,r} {\sqrt{x}} / {\log{x}}$ where $C_{E,r}$ is a non-zero constant. A typical example of the former is the case of rational $\ell$-torsion, where $a_p(E) = r$ is impossible if $r \equiv 1 \pmod{\ell}$. We prove in this paper that, when $E$ has a rational $\ell$-isogeny and $\ell \neq 11$, the number of primes $p$ such that $a_p(E) \equiv r \pmod{\ell}$ is finite (for some $r$ modulo $\ell$) if and only if $E$ has rational $\ell$-torsion over the cyclotomic field $\q(\zeta_\ell)$. The case $\ell=11$ is special, and is also treated in the paper. We also classify all those occurences.

Category:14H52

18. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 1253)

López-Bautista, Pedro Ricardo; Villa-Salvador, Gabriel Daniel
Integral representation of $p$-class groups in ${\Bbb Z}_p$-extensions and the Jacobian variety
For an arbitrary finite Galois $p$-extension $L/K$ of $\zp$-cyclotomic number fields of $\CM$-type with Galois group $G = \Gal(L/K)$ such that the Iwasawa invariants $\mu_K^-$, $ \mu_L^-$ are zero, we obtain unconditionally and explicitly the Galois module structure of $\clases$, the minus part of the $p$-subgroup of the class group of $L$. For an arbitrary finite Galois $p$-extension $L/K$ of algebraic function fields of one variable over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic $p$ as its exact field of constants with Galois group $G = \Gal(L/K)$ we obtain unconditionally and explicitly the Galois module structure of the $p$-torsion part of the Jacobian variety $J_L(p)$ associated to $L/k$.

Keywords:${\Bbb Z}_p$-extensions, Iwasawa's theory, class group, integral representation, fields of algebraic functions, Jacobian variety, Galois module structure
Categories:11R33, 11R23, 11R58, 14H40

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