76. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 205)
 Marshall, M.

Representations of NonNegative Polynomials, Degree Bounds and Applications to Optimization
Natural sufficient conditions for a polynomial to have a local minimum
at a point are considered. These conditions tend to hold with
probability $1$. It is shown that polynomials satisfying these
conditions at each minimum point have nice presentations in terms of
sums of squares. Applications are given to optimization on a compact
set and also to global optimization. In many cases, there are degree
bounds for such presentations. These bounds are of theoretical
interest, but they appear to be too large to be of much practical use
at present. In the final section, other more concrete degree bounds
are obtained which ensure at least that the feasible set of solutions
is not empty.
Categories:13J30, 12Y05, 13P99, 14P10, 90C22 

77. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 109)
 Coskun, Izzet; Harris, Joe; Starr, Jason

The Ample Cone of the Kontsevich Moduli Space
We produce ample (resp.\ NEF, eventually free) divisors in the
Kontsevich space $\Kgnb{0,n} (\mathbb P^r, d)$ of $n$pointed,
genus $0$, stable maps to $\mathbb P^r$, given such divisors in
$\Kgnb{0,n+d}$. We prove that this produces all ample (resp.\ NEF,
eventually free) divisors in $\Kgnb{0,n}(\mathbb P^r,d)$.
As a consequence, we construct a contraction of the boundary
$\bigcup_{k=1}^{\lfloor d/2 \rfloor} \Delta_{k,dk}$ in
$\Kgnb{0,0}(\mathbb P^r,d)$, analogous to a contraction of
the boundary $\bigcup_{k=3}^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor}
\tilde{\Delta}_{k,nk}$ in $\kgnb{0,n}$ first constructed by Keel
and McKernan.
Categories:14D20, 14E99, 14H10 

78. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 3)
 Behrend, Kai; Dhillon, Ajneet

Connected Components of Moduli Stacks of Torsors via Tamagawa Numbers
Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over
a finite field with function field $K$. Let $\G$ be a connected semisimple group
scheme over $X$. Under certain hypotheses we prove the equality of
two numbers associated with $\G$.
The first is an arithmetic invariant, its Tamagawa number. The second
is a geometric invariant, the number of connected components of the moduli
stack of $\G$torsors on $X$. Our results are most useful for studying
connected components as much is known about Tamagawa numbers.
Categories:11E, 11R, 14D, 14H 

79. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 1267)
 Blake, Ian F.; Murty, V. Kumar; Xu, Guangwu

Nonadjacent Radix$\tau$ Expansions of Integers in Euclidean Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields
In his seminal papers, Koblitz proposed curves
for cryptographic use. For fast operations on these curves,
these papers also
initiated a study of the radix$\tau$ expansion of integers in the number
fields $\Q(\sqrt{3})$ and $\Q(\sqrt{7})$. The (window)
nonadjacent form of $\tau$expansion of integers in
$\Q(\sqrt{7})$ was first investigated by Solinas.
For integers in $\Q(\sqrt{3})$, the nonadjacent form
and the window nonadjacent form of the $\tau$expansion were
studied. These are used for efficient
point multiplications on Koblitz curves.
In this paper, we complete
the picture by producing the (window)
nonadjacent radix$\tau$ expansions
for integers in all Euclidean imaginary quadratic number fields.
Keywords:algebraic integer, radix expression, window nonadjacent expansion, algorithm, point multiplication of elliptic curves, cryptography Categories:11A63, 11R04, 11Y16, 11Y40, 14G50 

80. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 961)
 Abrescia, Silvia

About the Defectivity of Certain SegreVeronese Varieties
We study the regularity of the higher secant varieties of $\PP^1\times
\PP^n$, embedded with divisors of type $(d,2)$ and $(d,3)$. We
produce, for the highest defective cases, a ``determinantal'' equation
of the secant variety. As a corollary, we prove that the Veronese
triple embedding of $\PP^n$ is not Grassmann defective.
Keywords:Waring problem, SegreVeronese embedding, secant variety, Grassmann defectivity Categories:14N15, 14N05, 14M12 

81. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 734)
 Baba, Srinath; Granath, H\aa kan

Genus 2 Curves with Quaternionic Multiplication
We explicitly construct the canonical rational models of Shimura
curves, both analytically in terms of modular forms and
algebraically in terms of coefficients of genus 2 curves, in the
cases of quaternion algebras of discriminant 6 and 10. This emulates
the classical construction in the elliptic curve case. We also give
families of genus 2 QM curves, whose Jacobians are the corresponding
abelian surfaces on the Shimura curve, and with coefficients that
are modular forms of weight 12. We apply these results to show
that our $j$functions are supported exactly at those primes where
the genus 2 curve does not admit potentially good reduction, and
construct fields where this potentially good reduction is attained.
Finally, using $j$, we construct the fields of moduli and definition
for some moduli problems associated to the AtkinLehner group
actions.
Keywords:Shimura curve, canonical model, quaternionic multiplication, modular form, field of moduli Categories:11G18, 14G35 

82. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 875)
 Mare, AugustinLiviu

A Characterization of the Quantum Cohomology Ring of $G/B$ and Applications
We observe that the small quantum product of the
generalized flag manifold $G/B$ is a product operation $\star$ on
$H^*(G/B)\otimes \bR[q_1,\dots, q_l]$ uniquely determined by the
facts
that: it is a deformation of the cup product on $H^*(G/B)$; it is
commutative, associative, and graded with respect to $\deg(q_i)=4$; it
satisfies a certain relation (of degree two); and the corresponding
Dubrovin connection is flat. Previously, we proved that these
properties alone imply the presentation of the ring $(H^*(G/B)\otimes
\bR[q_1,\dots, q_l],\star)$ in terms of generators and relations. In
this paper we use the above observations to give conceptually new
proofs of other fundamental results of the quantum Schubert calculus
for $G/B$: the quantum Chevalley formula of D. Peterson (see also
Fulton and Woodward ) and the ``quantization by standard
monomials" formula of Fomin, Gelfand, and Postnikov for
$G=\SL(n,\bC)$. The main idea of the proofs is the same as in
AmarzayaGuest: from the quantum $\D$module of $G/B$ one can
decode all information about the quantum cohomology of this space.
Categories:14M15, 14N35 

83. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 556)
 Draisma, Jan; Kemper, Gregor; Wehlau, David

Polarization of Separating Invariants
We prove a characteristic free version of Weyl's theorem on
polarization. Our result is an exact analogue of Weyl's theorem, the
difference being that our statement is about separating invariants
rather than generating invariants. For the special case of finite
group actions we introduce the concept of \emph{cheap polarization},
and show that it is enough to take cheap polarizations of invariants
of just one copy of a representation to obtain separating vector
invariants for any number of copies. This leads to upper bounds on
the number and degrees of separating vector invariants of finite
groups.
Keywords:Jan Draisma, Gregor Kemper, David Wehlau Categories:13A50, 14L24 

84. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 532)
 Clark, Pete L.; Xarles, Xavier

Local Bounds for Torsion Points on Abelian Varieties
We say that an abelian variety over a $p$adic field $K$ has
anisotropic reduction (AR) if the special fiber of its N\'eron minimal
model does not contain a nontrivial split torus. This includes all
abelian varieties with potentially good reduction and, in particular,
those with complex or quaternionic multiplication. We give a bound for
the size of the $K$rational torsion subgroup of a $g$dimensional AR
variety depending only on $g$ and the numerical invariants of $K$ (the
absolute ramification index and the cardinality of the residue
field). Applying these bounds to abelian varieties over a number field
with everywhere locally anisotropic reduction, we get bounds which, as
a function of $g$, are close to optimal. In particular, we determine
the possible cardinalities of the torsion subgroup of an AR abelian
surface over the rational numbers, up to a set of 11 values which are
not known to occur. The largest such value is 72.
Categories:11G10, 14K15 

85. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 297)
 Bini, G.; Goulden, I. P.; Jackson, D. M.

Transitive Factorizations in the Hyperoctahedral Group
The classical Hurwitz enumeration problem has a presentation in terms of
transitive factorizations in the symmetric group. This presentation suggests
a generalization from type~$A$ to other
finite reflection groups and, in particular, to type~$B$.
We study this generalization both from a combinatorial and a geometric
point of view, with the prospect of providing a means of understanding more
of the structure of the moduli spaces of maps with an $\gS_2$symmetry.
The type~$A$ case has been well studied and connects Hurwitz numbers
to the moduli space of curves. We conjecture an analogous setting for the
type~$B$ case that is studied here.
Categories:05A15, 14H10, 58D29 

86. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 391)
 Migliore, Juan C.

The Geometry of the Weak Lefschetz Property and Level Sets of Points
In a recent paper, F. Zanello showed that level Artinian algebras in 3
variables can fail to have the Weak Lefschetz Property (WLP), and can
even fail to have unimodal Hilbert function. We show that the same is
true for the Artinian reduction of reduced, level sets of points in
projective 3space. Our main goal is to begin an understanding of how
the geometry of a set of points can prevent its Artinian reduction
from having WLP, which in itself is a very algebraic notion. More
precisely, we produce level sets of points whose Artinian reductions
have socle types 3 and 4 and arbitrary socle degree $\geq 12$ (in the
worst case), but fail to have WLP. We also produce a level set of
points whose Artinian reduction fails to have unimodal Hilbert
function; our example is based on Zanello's example. Finally, we show
that a level set of points can have Artinian reduction that has WLP
but fails to have the Strong Lefschetz Property. While our
constructions are all based on basic double Glinkage, the
implementations use very different methods.
Keywords:Weak Lefschetz Property, Strong Lefschetz Property, basic double Glinkage, level, arithmetically Gorenstein, arithmetically CohenMacaulay, socle type, socle degree, Artinian reduction Categories:13D40, 13D02, 14C20, 13C40, 13C13, 14M05 

87. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 379)
 rgensen, Peter J\o

Finite CohenMacaulay Type and Smooth NonCommutative Schemes
A commutative local CohenMacaulay ring $R$ of finite CohenMacaulay type is known to be an isolated
singularity; that is, $\Spec(R) \setminus \{ \mathfrak {m} \}$ is smooth.
This paper proves a noncommutative analogue. Namely, if $A$ is a
(noncommutative) graded ArtinSchelter \CM\ algebra which is fully
bounded Noetherian and
has finite CohenMacaulay type, then the noncommutative projective scheme determined by
$A$ is smooth.
Keywords:ArtinSchelter CohenMacaulay algebra, ArtinSchelter Gorenstein algebra, Auslander's theorem on finite CohenMacaulay type, CohenMacaulay ring, fully bounded Noetherian algebra, isolated singularity, maximal CohenMacaulay module, noncommutative Categories:14A22, 16E65, 16W50 

88. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 109)
 Gurjar, R. V.; Masuda, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Russell, P.

Affine Lines on Affine Surfaces and the MakarLimanov Invariant
A smooth affine surface $X$ defined over the complex field $\C$ is an $\ML_0$ surface if the
MakarLimanov invariant $\ML(X)$ is trivial. In this paper we study the topology and geometry of
$\ML_0$ surfaces. Of particular interest is the question: Is every curve $C$ in $X$ which is isomorphic
to
the affine line a fiber component of an $\A^1$fibration
on $X$? We shall show that the answer is affirmative if the Picard number
$\rho(X)=0$, but negative in case $\rho(X) \ge 1$. We shall also study the ascent and descent of
the $\ML_0$ property under proper maps.
Categories:14R20, 14L30 

89. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 140)
 Kedlaya, Kiran S.

On the Geometry of $p$Typical Covers in Characteristic $p$
For $p$ a prime, a $p$typical cover of a connected scheme on which $p=0$ is a finite
\'etale cover whose monodromy group (\emph{i.e.,} the Galois group of its
normal closure) is a $p$group.
The geometry of such covers exhibits some unexpectedly pleasant
behaviors; building on work of Katz, we demonstrate some of these.
These include a criterion for when a morphism induces an isomorphism of
the $p$\nobreakdashtypi\cal quotients of the \'etale fundamental groups,
and a decomposition theorem for $p$typical covers of polynomial rings
over an algebraically closed field.
Category:14F35 

90. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 64)
91. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1069)
 Reydy, Carine

Quotients jacobiens : une approche algÃ©brique
Le diagramme d'Eisenbud et Neumann d'un germe est un arbre qui
repr\'esente ce germe et permet d'en calculer les invariants. On donne
une d\'emonstration alg\'ebrique d'un r\'esultat caract\'erisant
l'ensemble des quotients jacobiens d'un germe d'application $(f,g)$
\`a partir du diagramme d'Eisenbud et Neumann de $fg$.
Keywords:SingularitÃ©, jacobien, quotient jacobien, polygone de Newton Categories:14B05, 32S05, 32S50 

92. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1098)
 Rodrigues, B.

Ruled Exceptional Surfaces and the Poles of Motivic Zeta Functions
In this paper we study ruled surfaces which appear as an exceptional
surface in a succession of blowingups. In particular we prove
that the $e$invariant of such a ruled exceptional surface $E$ is
strictly positive whenever its intersection with the other
exceptional surfaces does not contain a fiber (of $E$). This fact
immediately enables us to resolve an open problem concerning an
intersection configuration on such a ruled exceptional surface
consisting of three nonintersecting sections. In the second part
of the paper we apply the nonvanishing of $e$ to the study of the
poles of the wellknown topological, Hodge and motivic zeta
functions.
Categories:14E15, 14J26, 14B05, 14J17, 32S45 

93. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 981)
 Jiang, Yunfeng

The ChenRuan Cohomology of Weighted Projective Spaces
In this paper we study the ChenRuan cohomology ring of weighted
projective spaces. Given a weighted projective space ${\bf
P}^{n}_{q_{0}, \dots, q_{n}}$, we determine all of its twisted
sectors and the corresponding degree shifting numbers. The main
result of this paper is that the obstruction bundle over any
3\nobreakdashmulti\sector is a direct sum of line bundles which we use to
compute the orbifold cup product. Finally we compute the
ChenRuan cohomology ring of weighted projective space ${\bf
P}^{5}_{1,2,2,3,3,3}$.
Keywords:ChenRuan cohomology, twisted sectors, toric varieties, weighted projective space, localization Categories:14N35, 53D45 

94. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 742)
 Gil, Juan B.; Krainer, Thomas; Mendoza, Gerardo A.

Geometry and Spectra of Closed Extensions of Elliptic Cone Operators
We study the geometry of the set of closed extensions of index $0$ of
an elliptic differential cone operator and its model operator in
connection with the spectra of the extensions, and we give a necessary
and sufficient condition for the existence of rays of minimal growth
for such operators.
Keywords:resolvents, manifolds with conical singularities, spectral theor, boundary value problems, Grassmannians Categories:58J50, 35J70, 14M15 

95. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 488)
 Bernardi, A.; Catalisano, M. V.; Gimigliano, A.; Idà, M.

Osculating Varieties of Veronese Varieties and Their Higher Secant Varieties
We consider the $k$osculating varieties
$O_{k,n.d}$ to the (Veronese) $d$uple embeddings of $\PP^n$. We
study the dimension of their higher secant varieties via inverse
systems (apolarity). By associating certain 0dimensional schemes
$Y\subset \PP^n$ to $O^s_{k,n,d}$ and by studying their Hilbert
functions, we are able, in several cases, to determine whether those
secant varieties are defective or not.
Categories:14N15, 15A69 

96. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 372)
 Maisner, Daniel; Nart, Enric

Zeta Functions of Supersingular Curves of Genus 2
We determine which isogeny classes of supersingular abelian
surfaces over a finite field $k$ of characteristic $2$ contain
jacobians. We deal with this problem in a direct way by computing
explicitly the zeta function of all supersingular curves of genus
$2$. Our procedure is constructive, so that we are able to exhibit
curves with prescribed zeta function and find formulas for the
number of curves, up to $k$isomorphism, leading to the same zeta
function.
Categories:11G20, 14G15, 11G10 

97. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 36)
 Develin, Mike; Martin, Jeremy L.; Reiner, Victor

Classification of Ding's Schubert Varieties: Finer Rook Equivalence
K.~Ding studied a class of Schubert varieties $X_\lambda$
in type A partial
flag manifolds, indexed by
integer partitions $\lambda$ and in bijection
with dominant permutations. He observed that the
Schubert cell structure of $X_\lambda$ is indexed by maximal rook
placements on the Ferrers board $B_\lambda$, and that the
integral cohomology groups $H^*(X_\lambda;\:\Zz)$, $H^*(X_\mu;\:\Zz)$ are
additively isomorphic exactly when the Ferrers boards $B_\lambda, B_\mu$
satisfy the combinatorial condition of \emph{rookequivalence}.
We classify the varieties $X_\lambda$ up to isomorphism, distinguishing them
by their graded cohomology rings with integer coefficients. The crux of our approach
is studying the nilpotence orders of linear forms in
the cohomology ring.
Keywords:Schubert variety, rook placement, Ferrers board, flag manifold, cohomology ring, nilpotence Categories:14M15, 05E05 

98. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1000)
 Dhillon, Ajneet

On the Cohomology of Moduli of Vector Bundles and the Tamagawa Number of $\operatorname{SL}_n$
We compute some Hodge and Betti numbers of the moduli space of stable rank $r$,
degree $d$ vector bundles on a smooth projective curve. We
do not assume $r$ and $d$ are coprime.
In the process we equip the cohomology of an arbitrary algebraic stack with a
functorial mixed Hodge structure. This Hodge structure is
computed in the case of the moduli stack of rank $r$, degree
$d$ vector bundles on a curve. Our methods also yield a formula
for the Poincar\'e
polynomial of the moduli stack that is valid over any
ground field. In the last section we use the previous sections
to give a proof that the Tamagawa number of $\sln$ is one.
Categories:14H, 14L 

99. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 476)
 Chipalkatti, Jaydeep

Apolar Schemes of Algebraic Forms
This is a note on the classical Waring's problem for algebraic forms.
Fix integers $(n,d,r,s)$, and let $\Lambda$ be a general $r$dimensional
subspace of degree $d$ homogeneous polynomials in $n+1$ variables. Let
$\mathcal{A}$ denote the variety of $s$sided polar polyhedra of $\Lambda$.
We carry out a casebycase study of the structure of $\mathcal{A}$ for several
specific values of $(n,d,r,s)$. In the first batch of examples, $\mathcal{A}$ is
shown to be a rational variety. In the second batch, $\mathcal{A}$ is a
finite set of which we calculate the cardinality.}
Keywords:Waring's problem, apolarity, polar polyhedron Categories:14N05, 14N15 

100. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 262)