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76. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 787)

Landquist, E.; Rozenhart, P.; Scheidler, R.; Webster, J.; Wu, Q.
 An Explicit Treatment of Cubic Function Fields with Applications We give an explicit treatment of cubic function fields of characteristic at least five. This includes an efficient technique for converting such a field into standard form, formulae for the field discriminant and the genus, simple necessary and sufficient criteria for non-singularity of the defining curve, and a characterization of all triangular integral bases. Our main result is a description of the signature of any rational place in a cubic extension that involves only the defining curve and the order of the base field. All these quantities only require simple polynomial arithmetic as well as a few square-free polynomial factorizations and, in some cases, square and cube root extraction modulo an irreducible polynomial. We also illustrate why and how signature computation plays an important role in computing the class number of the function field. This in turn has applications to the study of zeros of zeta functions of function fields. Keywords:cubic function field, discriminant, non-singularity, integral basis, genus, signature of a place, class numberCategories:14H05, 11R58, 14H45, 11G20, 11G30, 11R16, 11R29

77. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 262)

Goresky, Mark; MacPherson, Robert
 On the Spectrum of the Equivariant Cohomology Ring If an algebraic torus $T$ acts on a complex projective algebraic variety $X$, then the affine scheme $\operatorname{Spec} H^*_T(X;\mathbb C)$ associated with the equivariant cohomology is often an arrangement of linear subspaces of the vector space $H_2^T(X;\mathbb C).$ In many situations the ordinary cohomology ring of $X$ can be described in terms of this arrangement. Categories:14L30, 54H15

78. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 473)

Yun, Zhiwei
 GoreskyâMacPherson Calculus for the Affine Flag Varieties We use the fixed point arrangement technique developed by Goresky and MacPherson to calculate the part of the equivariant cohomology of the affine flag variety $\mathcal{F}\ell_G$ generated by degree 2. We use this result to show that the vertices of the moment map image of $\mathcal{F}\ell_G$ lie on a paraboloid. Categories:14L30, 55N91

79. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 456)

Yang, Tonghai
 The ChowlaâSelberg Formula and The Colmez Conjecture In this paper, we reinterpret the Colmez conjecture on the Faltings height of CM abelian varieties in terms of Hilbert (and Siegel) modular forms. We construct an elliptic modular form involving the Faltings height of a CM abelian surface and arithmetic intersection numbers, and prove that the Colmez conjecture for CM abelian surfaces is equivalent to the cuspidality of this modular form. Categories:11G15, 11F41, 14K22

80. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1407)

Will, Pierre
 Traces, Cross-Ratios and 2-Generator Subgroups of $\SU(2,1)$ In this work, we investigate how to decompose a pair $(A,B)$ of loxodromic isometries of the complex hyperbolic plane $\mathbf H^{2}_{\mathbb C}$ under the form $A=I_1I_2$ and $B=I_3I_2$, where the $I_k$'s are involutions. The main result is a decomposability criterion, which is expressed in terms of traces of elements of the group $\langle A,B\rangle$. Categories:14L24, 22E40, 32M15, 51M10

81. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1118)

Pontreau, Corentin
 Petits points d'une surface Pour toute sous-vari\'et\'e g\'eom\'etriquement irr\'eductible $V$ du grou\-pe multiplicatif $\mathbb{G}_m^n$, on sait qu'en dehors d'un nombre fini de translat\'es de tores exceptionnels inclus dans $V$, tous les points sont de hauteur minor\'ee par une certaine quantit\'e $q(V)^{-1}>0$. On conna\^it de plus une borne sup\'erieure pour la somme des degr\'es de ces translat\'es de tores pour des valeurs de $q(V)$ polynomiales en le degr\'e de $V$. Ceci n'est pas le cas si l'on exige une minoration quasi-optimale pour la hauteur des points de $V$, essentiellement lin\'eaire en l'inverse du degr\'e. Nous apportons ici une r\'eponse partielle \a ce probl\eme\,: nous donnons une majoration de la somme des degr\'es de ces translat\'es de sous-tores de codimension $1$ d'une hypersurface $V$. Les r\'esultats, obtenus dans le cas de $\mathbb{G}_m^3$, mais compl\etement explicites, peuvent toutefois s'\'etendre \a $\mathbb{G}_m^n$, moyennant quelques petites complications inh\'erentes \a la dimension $n$. Keywords:Hauteur normalisÃ©e, groupe multiplicatif, problÃ¨me de Lehmer, petits pointsCategories:11G50, 11J81, 14G40

82. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1050)

Bertin, Marie-Amélie
 Examples of Calabi--Yau 3-Folds of $\mathbb{P}^{7}$ with $\rho=1$ We give some examples of Calabi--Yau $3$-folds with $\rho=1$ and $\rho=2$, defined over $\mathbb{Q}$ and constructed as $4$-codimensional subvarieties of $\mathbb{P}^7$ via commutative algebra methods. We explain how to deduce their Hodge diamond and top Chern classes from computer based computations over some finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p}$. Three of our examples (of degree $17$ and $20$) are new. The two others (degree $15$ and $18$) are known, and we recover their well-known invariants with our method. These examples are built out of Gulliksen--Neg{\aa}rd and Kustin--Miller complexes of locally free sheaves. Finally, we give two new examples of Calabi--Yau $3$-folds of $\mathbb{P}^6$ of degree $14$ and $15$ (defined over $\mathbb{Q}$). We show that they are not deformation equivalent to Tonoli's examples of the same degree, despite the fact that they have the same invariants $(H^3,c_2\cdot H, c_3)$ and $\rho=1$. Categories:14J32, 14Q15

83. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 828)

Howard, Benjamin
 Twisted Gross--Zagier Theorems The theorems of Gross--Zagier and Zhang relate the N\'eron--Tate heights of complex multiplication points on the modular curve $X_0(N)$ (and on Shimura curve analogues) with the central derivatives of automorphic $L$-function. We extend these results to include certain CM points on modular curves of the form $X(\Gamma_0(M)\cap\Gamma_1(S))$ (and on Shimura curve analogues). These results are motivated by applications to Hida theory that can be found in the companion article "Central derivatives of $L$-functions in Hida families", Math.\ Ann.\ \textbf{399}(2007), 803--818. Categories:11G18, 14G35

84. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 930)

Sidman, Jessica; Sullivant, Seth
 Prolongations and Computational Algebra We explore the geometric notion of prolongations in the setting of computational algebra, extending results of Landsberg and Manivel which relate prolongations to equations for secant varieties. We also develop methods for computing prolongations that are combinatorial in nature. As an application, we use prolongations to derive a new family of secant equations for the binary symmetric model in phylogenetics. Categories:13P10, 14M99

85. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 351)

Graham, William; Hunziker, Markus
 Multiplication of Polynomials on Hermitian Symmetric spaces and Littlewood--Richardson Coefficients Let $K$ be a complex reductive algebraic group and $V$ a representation of $K$. Let $S$ denote the ring of polynomials on $V$. Assume that the action of $K$ on $S$ is multiplicity-free. If $\lambda$ denotes the isomorphism class of an irreducible representation of $K$, let $\rho_\lambda\from K \rightarrow GL(V_{\lambda})$ denote the corresponding irreducible representation and $S_\lambda$ the $\lambda$-isotypic component of $S$. Write $S_\lambda \cdot S_\mu$ for the subspace of $S$ spanned by products of $S_\lambda$ and $S_\mu$. If $V_\nu$ occurs as an irreducible constituent of $V_\lambda\otimes V_\mu$, is it true that $S_\nu\subseteq S_\lambda\cdot S_\mu$? In this paper, the authors investigate this question for representations arising in the context of Hermitian symmetric pairs. It is shown that the answer is yes in some cases and, using an earlier result of Ruitenburg, that in the remaining classical cases, the answer is yes provided that a conjecture of Stanley on the multiplication of Jack polynomials is true. It is also shown how the conjecture connects multiplication in the ring $S$ to the usual Littlewood--Richardson rule. Keywords:Hermitian symmetric spaces, multiplicity free actions, Littlewood--Richardson coefficients, Jack polynomialsCategories:14L30, 22E46

86. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 109)

Coskun, Izzet; Harris, Joe; Starr, Jason
 The Ample Cone of the Kontsevich Moduli Space We produce ample (resp.\ NEF, eventually free) divisors in the Kontsevich space $\Kgnb{0,n} (\mathbb P^r, d)$ of $n$-pointed, genus $0$, stable maps to $\mathbb P^r$, given such divisors in $\Kgnb{0,n+d}$. We prove that this produces all ample (resp.\ NEF, eventually free) divisors in $\Kgnb{0,n}(\mathbb P^r,d)$. As a consequence, we construct a contraction of the boundary $\bigcup_{k=1}^{\lfloor d/2 \rfloor} \Delta_{k,d-k}$ in $\Kgnb{0,0}(\mathbb P^r,d)$, analogous to a contraction of the boundary $\bigcup_{k=3}^{\lfloor n/2 \rfloor} \tilde{\Delta}_{k,n-k}$ in $\kgnb{0,n}$ first constructed by Keel and McKernan. Categories:14D20, 14E99, 14H10

87. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 3)

Behrend, Kai; Dhillon, Ajneet
 Connected Components of Moduli Stacks of Torsors via Tamagawa Numbers Let $X$ be a smooth projective geometrically connected curve over a finite field with function field $K$. Let $\G$ be a connected semisimple group scheme over $X$. Under certain hypotheses we prove the equality of two numbers associated with $\G$. The first is an arithmetic invariant, its Tamagawa number. The second is a geometric invariant, the number of connected components of the moduli stack of $\G$-torsors on $X$. Our results are most useful for studying connected components as much is known about Tamagawa numbers. Categories:11E, 11R, 14D, 14H

88. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 29)

Casanellas, M.
 The Minimal Resolution Conjecture for Points on the Cubic Surface In this paper we prove that a generalized version of the Minimal Resolution Conjecture given by Musta\c{t}\v{a} holds for certain general sets of points on a smooth cubic surface $X \subset \PP^3$. The main tool used is Gorenstein liaison theory and, more precisely, the relationship between the free resolutions of two linked schemes. Categories:13D02, 13C40, 14M05, 14M07

89. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 205)

Marshall, M.
 Representations of Non-Negative Polynomials, Degree Bounds and Applications to Optimization Natural sufficient conditions for a polynomial to have a local minimum at a point are considered. These conditions tend to hold with probability $1$. It is shown that polynomials satisfying these conditions at each minimum point have nice presentations in terms of sums of squares. Applications are given to optimization on a compact set and also to global optimization. In many cases, there are degree bounds for such presentations. These bounds are of theoretical interest, but they appear to be too large to be of much practical use at present. In the final section, other more concrete degree bounds are obtained which ensure at least that the feasible set of solutions is not empty. Categories:13J30, 12Y05, 13P99, 14P10, 90C22

90. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 1267)

Blake, Ian F.; Murty, V. Kumar; Xu, Guangwu
 Nonadjacent Radix-$\tau$ Expansions of Integers in Euclidean Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields In his seminal papers, Koblitz proposed curves for cryptographic use. For fast operations on these curves, these papers also initiated a study of the radix-$\tau$ expansion of integers in the number fields $\Q(\sqrt{-3})$ and $\Q(\sqrt{-7})$. The (window) nonadjacent form of $\tau$-expansion of integers in $\Q(\sqrt{-7})$ was first investigated by Solinas. For integers in $\Q(\sqrt{-3})$, the nonadjacent form and the window nonadjacent form of the $\tau$-expansion were studied. These are used for efficient point multiplications on Koblitz curves. In this paper, we complete the picture by producing the (window) nonadjacent radix-$\tau$ expansions for integers in all Euclidean imaginary quadratic number fields. Keywords:algebraic integer, radix expression, window nonadjacent expansion, algorithm, point multiplication of elliptic curves, cryptographyCategories:11A63, 11R04, 11Y16, 11Y40, 14G50

91. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 961)

Abrescia, Silvia
 About the Defectivity of Certain Segre--Veronese Varieties We study the regularity of the higher secant varieties of $\PP^1\times \PP^n$, embedded with divisors of type $(d,2)$ and $(d,3)$. We produce, for the highest defective cases, a determinantal'' equation of the secant variety. As a corollary, we prove that the Veronese triple embedding of $\PP^n$ is not Grassmann defective. Keywords:Waring problem, Segre--Veronese embedding, secant variety, Grassmann defectivityCategories:14N15, 14N05, 14M12

92. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 875)

Mare, Augustin-Liviu
 A Characterization of the Quantum Cohomology Ring of $G/B$ and Applications We observe that the small quantum product of the generalized flag manifold $G/B$ is a product operation $\star$ on $H^*(G/B)\otimes \bR[q_1,\dots, q_l]$ uniquely determined by the facts that: it is a deformation of the cup product on $H^*(G/B)$; it is commutative, associative, and graded with respect to $\deg(q_i)=4$; it satisfies a certain relation (of degree two); and the corresponding Dubrovin connection is flat. Previously, we proved that these properties alone imply the presentation of the ring $(H^*(G/B)\otimes \bR[q_1,\dots, q_l],\star)$ in terms of generators and relations. In this paper we use the above observations to give conceptually new proofs of other fundamental results of the quantum Schubert calculus for $G/B$: the quantum Chevalley formula of D. Peterson (see also Fulton and Woodward ) and the `quantization by standard monomials" formula of Fomin, Gelfand, and Postnikov for $G=\SL(n,\bC)$. The main idea of the proofs is the same as in Amarzaya--Guest: from the quantum $\D$-module of $G/B$ one can decode all information about the quantum cohomology of this space. Categories:14M15, 14N35

93. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 734)

Baba, Srinath; Granath, H\aa kan
 Genus 2 Curves with Quaternionic Multiplication We explicitly construct the canonical rational models of Shimura curves, both analytically in terms of modular forms and algebraically in terms of coefficients of genus 2 curves, in the cases of quaternion algebras of discriminant 6 and 10. This emulates the classical construction in the elliptic curve case. We also give families of genus 2 QM curves, whose Jacobians are the corresponding abelian surfaces on the Shimura curve, and with coefficients that are modular forms of weight 12. We apply these results to show that our $j$-functions are supported exactly at those primes where the genus 2 curve does not admit potentially good reduction, and construct fields where this potentially good reduction is attained. Finally, using $j$, we construct the fields of moduli and definition for some moduli problems associated to the Atkin--Lehner group actions. Keywords:Shimura curve, canonical model, quaternionic multiplication, modular form, field of moduliCategories:11G18, 14G35

94. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 532)

Clark, Pete L.; Xarles, Xavier
 Local Bounds for Torsion Points on Abelian Varieties We say that an abelian variety over a $p$-adic field $K$ has anisotropic reduction (AR) if the special fiber of its N\'eron minimal model does not contain a nontrivial split torus. This includes all abelian varieties with potentially good reduction and, in particular, those with complex or quaternionic multiplication. We give a bound for the size of the $K$-rational torsion subgroup of a $g$-dimensional AR variety depending only on $g$ and the numerical invariants of $K$ (the absolute ramification index and the cardinality of the residue field). Applying these bounds to abelian varieties over a number field with everywhere locally anisotropic reduction, we get bounds which, as a function of $g$, are close to optimal. In particular, we determine the possible cardinalities of the torsion subgroup of an AR abelian surface over the rational numbers, up to a set of 11 values which are not known to occur. The largest such value is 72. Categories:11G10, 14K15

95. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 556)

Draisma, Jan; Kemper, Gregor; Wehlau, David
 Polarization of Separating Invariants We prove a characteristic free version of Weyl's theorem on polarization. Our result is an exact analogue of Weyl's theorem, the difference being that our statement is about separating invariants rather than generating invariants. For the special case of finite group actions we introduce the concept of \emph{cheap polarization}, and show that it is enough to take cheap polarizations of invariants of just one copy of a representation to obtain separating vector invariants for any number of copies. This leads to upper bounds on the number and degrees of separating vector invariants of finite groups. Keywords:Jan Draisma, Gregor Kemper, David WehlauCategories:13A50, 14L24

96. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 379)

rgensen, Peter J\o
 Finite Cohen--Macaulay Type and Smooth Non-Commutative Schemes A commutative local Cohen--Macaulay ring $R$ of finite Cohen--Macaulay type is known to be an isolated singularity; that is, $\Spec(R) \setminus \{ \mathfrak {m} \}$ is smooth. This paper proves a non-commutative analogue. Namely, if $A$ is a (non-commutative) graded Artin--Schelter \CM\ algebra which is fully bounded Noetherian and has finite Cohen--Macaulay type, then the non-commutative projective scheme determined by $A$ is smooth. Keywords:Artin--Schelter Cohen--Macaulay algebra, Artin--Schelter Gorenstein algebra, Auslander's theorem on finite Cohen--Macaulay type, Cohen--Macaulay ring, fully bounded Noetherian algebra, isolated singularity, maximal Cohen--Macaulay module, non-commutative Categories:14A22, 16E65, 16W50

97. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 391)

Migliore, Juan C.
 The Geometry of the Weak Lefschetz Property and Level Sets of Points In a recent paper, F. Zanello showed that level Artinian algebras in 3 variables can fail to have the Weak Lefschetz Property (WLP), and can even fail to have unimodal Hilbert function. We show that the same is true for the Artinian reduction of reduced, level sets of points in projective 3-space. Our main goal is to begin an understanding of how the geometry of a set of points can prevent its Artinian reduction from having WLP, which in itself is a very algebraic notion. More precisely, we produce level sets of points whose Artinian reductions have socle types 3 and 4 and arbitrary socle degree $\geq 12$ (in the worst case), but fail to have WLP. We also produce a level set of points whose Artinian reduction fails to have unimodal Hilbert function; our example is based on Zanello's example. Finally, we show that a level set of points can have Artinian reduction that has WLP but fails to have the Strong Lefschetz Property. While our constructions are all based on basic double G-linkage, the implementations use very different methods. Keywords:Weak Lefschetz Property, Strong Lefschetz Property, basic double G-linkage, level, arithmetically Gorenstein, arithmetically Cohen--Macaulay, socle type, socle degree, Artinian reductionCategories:13D40, 13D02, 14C20, 13C40, 13C13, 14M05

98. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 297)

Bini, G.; Goulden, I. P.; Jackson, D. M.
 Transitive Factorizations in the Hyperoctahedral Group The classical Hurwitz enumeration problem has a presentation in terms of transitive factorizations in the symmetric group. This presentation suggests a generalization from type~$A$ to other finite reflection groups and, in particular, to type~$B$. We study this generalization both from a combinatorial and a geometric point of view, with the prospect of providing a means of understanding more of the structure of the moduli spaces of maps with an $\gS_2$-symmetry. The type~$A$ case has been well studied and connects Hurwitz numbers to the moduli space of curves. We conjecture an analogous setting for the type~$B$ case that is studied here. Categories:05A15, 14H10, 58D29

99. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 109)

Gurjar, R. V.; Masuda, K.; Miyanishi, M.; Russell, P.
 Affine Lines on Affine Surfaces and the Makar--Limanov Invariant A smooth affine surface $X$ defined over the complex field $\C$ is an $\ML_0$ surface if the Makar--Limanov invariant $\ML(X)$ is trivial. In this paper we study the topology and geometry of $\ML_0$ surfaces. Of particular interest is the question: Is every curve $C$ in $X$ which is isomorphic to the affine line a fiber component of an $\A^1$-fibration on $X$? We shall show that the answer is affirmative if the Picard number $\rho(X)=0$, but negative in case $\rho(X) \ge 1$. We shall also study the ascent and descent of the $\ML_0$ property under proper maps. Categories:14R20, 14L30

100. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 140)

Kedlaya, Kiran S.
 On the Geometry of $p$-Typical Covers in Characteristic $p$ For $p$ a prime, a $p$-typical cover of a connected scheme on which $p=0$ is a finite \'etale cover whose monodromy group (\emph{i.e.,} the Galois group of its normal closure) is a $p$-group. The geometry of such covers exhibits some unexpectedly pleasant behaviors; building on work of Katz, we demonstrate some of these. These include a criterion for when a morphism induces an isomorphism of the $p$\nobreakdash-typi\-cal quotients of the \'etale fundamental groups, and a decomposition theorem for $p$-typical covers of polynomial rings over an algebraically closed field. Category:14F35
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