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1. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1220)

Baake, Michael; Scharlau, Rudolf; Zeiner, Peter
Similar Sublattices of Planar Lattices
The similar sublattices of a planar lattice can be classified via its multiplier ring. The latter is the ring of rational integers in the generic case, and an order in an imaginary quadratic field otherwise. Several classes of examples are discussed, with special emphasis on concrete results. In particular, we derive Dirichlet series generating functions for the number of distinct similar sublattices of a given index, and relate them to zeta functions of orders in imaginary quadratic fields.

Categories:11H06, 11R11, 52C05, 82D25

2. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 553)

Dasgupta, Samit
Computations of Elliptic Units for Real Quadratic Fields
Let $K$ be a real quadratic field, and $p$ a rational prime which is inert in $K$. Let $\alpha$ be a modular unit on $\Gamma_0(N)$. In an earlier joint article with Henri Darmon, we presented the definition of an element $u(\alpha, \tau) \in K_p^\times$ attached to $\alpha$ and each $\tau \in K$. We conjectured that the $p$-adic number $u(\alpha, \tau)$ lies in a specific ring class extension of $K$ depending on $\tau$, and proposed a ``Shimura reciprocity law" describing the permutation action of Galois on the set of $u(\alpha, \tau)$. This article provides computational evidence for these conjectures. We present an efficient algorithm for computing $u(\alpha, \tau)$, and implement this algorithm with the modular unit $\alpha(z) = \Delta(z)^2\Delta(4z)/\Delta(2z)^3.$ Using $p = 3, 5, 7,$ and $11$, and all real quadratic fields $K$ with discriminant $D < 500$ such that $2$ splits in $K$ and $K$ contains no unit of negative norm, we obtain results supporting our conjectures. One of the theoretical results in this paper is that a certain measure used to define $u(\alpha, \tau)$ is shown to be $\mathbf{Z}$-valued rather than only $\mathbf{Z}_p \cap \mathbf{Q}$-valued; this is an improvement over our previous result and allows for a precise definition of $u(\alpha, \tau)$, instead of only up to a root of unity.

Categories:11R37, 11R11, 11Y40

3. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 55)

Harper, Malcolm
$\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt{14}]$ is Euclidean
We provide the first unconditional proof that the ring $\mathbb{Z} [\sqrt{14}]$ is a Euclidean domain. The proof is generalized to other real quadratic fields and to cyclotomic extensions of $\mathbb{Q}$. It is proved that if $K$ is a real quadratic field (modulo the existence of two special primes of $K$) or if $K$ is a cyclotomic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ then: $$ the~ring~of~integers~of~K~is~a~Euclidean~domain~if~and~only~if~it~is~a~principal~ideal~domain. $$ The proof is a modification of the proof of a theorem of Clark and Murty giving a similar result when $K$ is a totally real extension of degree at least three. The main changes are a new Motzkin-type lemma and the addition of the large sieve to the argument. These changes allow application of a powerful theorem due to Bombieri, Friedlander and Iwaniec in order to obtain the result in the real quadratic case. The modification also allows the completion of the classification of cyclotomic extensions in terms of the Euclidean property.

Categories:11R04, 11R11

4. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 369)

Granville, Andrew; Mollin, R. A.; Williams, H. C.
An Upper Bound on the Least Inert Prime in a Real Quadratic Field
It is shown by a combination of analytic and computational techniques that for any positive fundamental discriminant $D > 3705$, there is always at least one prime $p < \sqrt{D}/2$ such that the Kronecker symbol $\left(D/p\right) = -1$.

Categories:11R11, 11Y40

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