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51. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 171)

Lyall, Neil; Magyar, Ákos
 Optimal Polynomial Recurrence Let $P\in\mathbb Z[n]$ with $P(0)=0$ and $\varepsilon\gt 0$. We show, using Fourier analytic techniques, that if $N\geq \exp\exp(C\varepsilon^{-1}\log\varepsilon^{-1})$ and $A\subseteq\{1,\dots,N\}$, then there must exist $n\in\mathbb N$ such that $\frac{|A\cap (A+P(n))|}{N}\gt \left(\frac{|A|}{N}\right)^2-\varepsilon.$ In addition to this we also show, using the same Fourier analytic methods, that if $A\subseteq\mathbb N$, then the set of $\varepsilon$-optimal return times $R(A,P,\varepsilon)=\left\{n\in \mathbb N \,:\,\delta(A\cap(A+P(n)))\gt \delta(A)^2-\varepsilon\right\}$ is syndetic for every $\varepsilon\gt 0$. Moreover, we show that $R(A,P,\varepsilon)$ is dense in every sufficiently long interval, in particular we show that there exists an $L=L(\varepsilon,P,A)$ such that $\left|R(A,P,\varepsilon)\cap I\right| \geq c(\varepsilon,P)|I|$ for all intervals $I$ of natural numbers with $|I|\geq L$ and $c(\varepsilon,P)=\exp\exp(-C\,\varepsilon^{-1}\log\varepsilon^{-1})$. Keywords:Sarkozy, syndetic, polynomial return timesCategory:11B30

52. CJM 2012 (vol 64 pp. 1019)

Fiorilli, Daniel
 On a Theorem of Bombieri, Friedlander, and Iwaniec In this article, we show to which extent one can improve a theorem of Bombieri, Friedlander and Iwaniec by using Hooley's variant of the divisor switching technique. We also give an application of the theorem in question, which is a Bombieri-Vinogradov type theorem for the Tichmarsh divisor problem in arithmetic progressions. Keywords:primes in arithmetic progressions, Titchmarsh divisor problemCategory:11N13

53. CJM 2012 (vol 64 pp. 497)

Li, Wen-Wei

54. CJM 2012 (vol 64 pp. 254)

Bell, Jason P.; Hare, Kevin G.
 Corrigendum to On $\mathbb{Z}$-modules of Algebraic Integers'' We fix a mistake in the proof of Theorem 1.6 in the paper in the title. Keywords:Pisot numbers, algebraic integers, number rings, Schmidt subspace theoremCategories:11R04, 11R06

55. CJM 2011 (vol 65 pp. 22)

Blomer, Valentin; Brumley, Farrell
 Non-vanishing of $L$-functions, the Ramanujan Conjecture, and Families of Hecke Characters We prove a non-vanishing result for families of $\operatorname{GL}_n\times\operatorname{GL}_n$ Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions in the critical strip, as one factor runs over twists by Hecke characters. As an application, we simplify the proof, due to Luo, Rudnick, and Sarnak, of the best known bounds towards the Generalized Ramanujan Conjecture at the infinite places for cusp forms on $\operatorname{GL}_n$. A key ingredient is the regularization of the units in residue classes by the use of an Arakelov ray class group. Keywords:non-vanishing, automorphic forms, Hecke characters, Ramanujan conjectureCategories:11F70, 11M41

56. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1036)

Koh, Doowon; Shen, Chun-Yen
 Harmonic Analysis Related to Homogeneous Varieties in Three Dimensional Vector Spaces over Finite Fields In this paper we study the extension problem, the averaging problem, and the generalized ErdÅs-Falconer distance problem associated with arbitrary homogeneous varieties in three dimensional vector spaces over finite fields. In the case when the varieties do not contain any plane passing through the origin, we obtain the best possible results on the aforementioned three problems. In particular, our result on the extension problem modestly generalizes the result by Mockenhaupt and Tao who studied the particular conical extension problem. In addition, investigating the Fourier decay on homogeneous varieties enables us to give complete mapping properties of averaging operators. Moreover, we improve the size condition on a set such that the cardinality of its distance set is nontrivial. Keywords:extension problems, averaging operator, finite fields, ErdÅs-Falconer distance problems, homogeneous polynomialCategories:42B05, 11T24, 52C17

57. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1201)

Aistleitner, Christoph; Elsholtz, Christian
 The Central Limit Theorem for Subsequences in Probabilistic Number Theory Let $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ be an increasing sequence of positive integers, and let $f(x)$ be a real function satisfying $$\tag{1} f(x+1)=f(x), \qquad \int_0^1 f(x) ~dx=0,\qquad \operatorname{Var_{[0,1]}} f \lt \infty.$$ If $\lim_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = \infty$ the distribution of $$\tag{2} \frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(n_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}$$ converges to a Gaussian distribution. In the case $$1 \lt \liminf_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k}, \qquad \limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \lt \infty$$ there is a complex interplay between the analytic properties of the function $f$, the number-theoretic properties of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$, and the limit distribution of (2). In this paper we prove that any sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} = 1$ contains a nontrivial subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ such that for any function satisfying (1) the distribution of $$\frac{\sum_{k=1}^N f(m_k x)}{\sqrt{N}}$$ converges to a Gaussian distribution. This result is best possible: for any $\varepsilon\gt 0$ there exists a sequence $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ satisfying $\limsup_{k \to \infty} \frac{n_{k+1}}{n_k} \leq 1 + \varepsilon$ such that for every nontrivial subsequence $(m_k)_{k \geq 1}$ of $(n_k)_{k \geq 1}$ the distribution of (2) does not converge to a Gaussian distribution for some $f$. Our result can be viewed as a Ramsey type result: a sufficiently dense increasing integer sequence contains a subsequence having a certain requested number-theoretic property. Keywords:central limit theorem, lacunary sequences, linear Diophantine equations, Ramsey type theoremCategories:60F05, 42A55, 11D04, 05C55, 11K06

58. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1248)

Gärtner, Jérôme
 Darmon's Points and Quaternionic Shimura Varieties In this paper, we generalize a conjecture due to Darmon and Logan in an adelic setting. We study the relation between our construction and Kudla's works on cycles on orthogonal Shimura varieties. This relation allows us to conjecture a Gross-Kohnen-Zagier theorem for Darmon's points. Keywords:elliptic curves, Stark-Heegner points, quaternionic Shimura varietiesCategories:11G05, 14G35, 11F67, 11G40

59. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 588)

Nekovář, Jan
 Level Raising and Anticyclotomic Selmer Groups for Hilbert Modular Forms of Weight Two In this article we refine the method of Bertolini and Darmon and prove several finiteness results for anticyclotomic Selmer groups of Hilbert modular forms of parallel weight two. Keywords:Hilbert modular forms, Selmer groups, Shimura curvesCategories:11G40, 11F41, 11G18

60. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 1122)

 $p$-adic $L$-functions and the Rationality of Darmon Cycles Darmon cycles are a higher weight analogue of Stark--Heegner points. They yield local cohomology classes in the Deligne representation associated with a cuspidal form on $\Gamma _{0}( N)$ of even weight $k_{0}\geq 2$. They are conjectured to be the restriction of global cohomology classes in the Bloch--Kato Selmer group defined over narrow ring class fields attached to a real quadratic field. We show that suitable linear combinations of them obtained by genus characters satisfy these conjectures. We also prove $p$-adic Gross--Zagier type formulas, relating the derivatives of $p$-adic $L$-functions of the weight variable attached to imaginary (resp. real) quadratic fields to Heegner cycles (resp. Darmon cycles). Finally we express the second derivative of the Mazur--Kitagawa $p$-adic $L$-function of the weight variable in terms of a global cycle defined over a quadratic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. Categories:11F67, 14G05

61. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 935)

McIntosh, Richard J.
 The H and K Families of Mock Theta Functions In his last letter to Hardy, Ramanujan defined 17 functions $F(q)$, $|q|\lt 1$, which he called mock $\theta$-functions. He observed that as $q$ radially approaches any root of unity $\zeta$ at which $F(q)$ has an exponential singularity, there is a $\theta$-function $T_\zeta(q)$ with $F(q)-T_\zeta(q)=O(1)$. Since then, other functions have been found that possess this property. These functions are related to a function $H(x,q)$, where $x$ is usually $q^r$ or $e^{2\pi i r}$ for some rational number $r$. For this reason we refer to $H$ as a universal'' mock $\theta$-function. Modular transformations of $H$ give rise to the functions $K$, $K_1$, $K_2$. The functions $K$ and $K_1$ appear in Ramanujan's lost notebook. We prove various linear relations between these functions using Appell-Lerch sums (also called generalized Lambert series). Some relations (mock theta conjectures'') involving mock $\theta$-functions of even order and $H$ are listed. Keywords:mock theta function, $q$-series, Appell-Lerch sum, generalized Lambert seriesCategories:11B65, 33D15

62. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 282)

Dahmen, Sander R.; Yazdani, Soroosh
 Level Lowering Modulo Prime Powers and Twisted Fermat Equations We discuss a clean level lowering theorem modulo prime powers for weight $2$ cusp forms. Furthermore, we illustrate how this can be used to completely solve certain twisted Fermat equations $ax^n+by^n+cz^n=0$. Keywords:modular forms, level lowering, Diophantine equationsCategories:11D41, 11F33, 11F11, 11F80, 11G05

63. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 301)

Hurlburt, Chris; Thunder, Jeffrey Lin
 Hermite's Constant for Function Fields We formulate an analog of Hermite's constant for function fields over a finite field and state a conjectural value for this analog. We prove our conjecture in many cases, and prove slightly weaker results in all other cases. Category:11G50

64. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 345)

McKee, James; Smyth, Chris
 Salem Numbers and Pisot Numbers via Interlacing We present a general construction of Salem numbers via rational functions whose zeros and poles mostly lie on the unit circle and satisfy an interlacing condition. This extends and unifies earlier work. We then consider the obvious'' limit points of the set of Salem numbers produced by our theorems and show that these are all Pisot numbers, in support of a conjecture of Boyd. We then show that all Pisot numbers arise in this way. Combining this with a theorem of Boyd, we produce all Salem numbers via an interlacing construction. Keywords:Salem numbers, Pisot numbersCategory:11R06

65. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 81)

David, C.; Wu, J.
 Pseudoprime Reductions of Elliptic Curves Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb Q$ without complex multiplication, and for each prime $p$ of good reduction, let $n_E(p) = | E(\mathbb F_p) |$. For any integer $b$, we consider elliptic pseudoprimes to the base $b$. More precisely, let $Q_{E,b}(x)$ be the number of primes $p \leq x$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$, and let $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$ be the number of compositive $n_E(p)$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$ (also called elliptic curve pseudoprimes). Motivated by cryptography applications, we address the problem of finding upper bounds for $Q_{E,b}(x)$ and $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$, generalising some of the literature for the classical pseudoprimes to this new setting. Keywords:Rosser-Iwaniec sieve, group order of elliptic curves over finite fields, pseudoprimes Categories:11N36, 14H52

66. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1328)

Gun, Sanoli; Murty, M. Ram; Rath, Purusottam
 On a Conjecture of Chowla and Milnor In this paper, we investigate a conjecture due to S. and P. Chowla and its generalization by Milnor. These are related to the delicate question of non-vanishing of $L$-functions associated to periodic functions at integers greater than $1$. We report on some progress in relation to these conjectures. In a different vein, we link them to a conjecture of Zagier on multiple zeta values and also to linear independence of polylogarithms. Categories:11F20, 11F11

67. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 151)

Miller, Steven J.; Wong, Siman
 Moments of the Rank of Elliptic Curves Fix an elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{Q}$ and assume the Riemann Hypothesis for the $L$-function $L(E_D, s)$ for every quadratic twist $E_D$ of $E$ by $D\in\mathbb{Z}$. We combine Weil's explicit formula with techniques of Heath-Brown to derive an asymptotic upper bound for the weighted moments of the analytic rank of $E_D$. We derive from this an upper bound for the density of low-lying zeros of $L(E_D, s)$ that is compatible with the random matrix models of Katz and Sarnak. We also show that for any unbounded increasing function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}$, the analytic rank and (assuming in addition the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture) the number of integral points of $E_D$ are less than $f(D)$ for almost all $D$. Keywords:elliptic curve, explicit formula, integral point, low-lying zeros, quadratic twist, rankCategories:11G05, 11G40

68. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 992)

Bruin, Nils; Doerksen, Kevin
 The Arithmetic of Genus Two Curves with (4,4)-Split Jacobians In this paper we study genus $2$ curves whose Jacobians admit a polarized $(4,4)$-isogeny to a product of elliptic curves. We consider base fields of characteristic different from $2$ and $3$, which we do not assume to be algebraically closed. We obtain a full classification of all principally polarized abelian surfaces that can arise from gluing two elliptic curves along their $4$-torsion, and we derive the relation their absolute invariants satisfy. As an intermediate step, we give a general description of Richelot isogenies between Jacobians of genus $2$ curves, where previously only Richelot isogenies with kernels that are pointwise defined over the base field were considered. Our main tool is a Galois theoretic characterization of genus $2$ curves admitting multiple Richelot isogenies. Keywords:Genus 2 curves, isogenies, split Jacobians, elliptic curvesCategories:11G30, 14H40

69. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1284)

Dewar, Michael
 Non-Existence of Ramanujan Congruences in Modular Forms of Level Four Ramanujan famously found congruences like $p(5n+4)\equiv 0 \operatorname{mod} 5$ for the partition function. We provide a method to find all simple congruences of this type in the coefficients of the inverse of a modular form on $\Gamma_{1}(4)$ that is non-vanishing on the upper half plane. This is applied to answer open questions about the (non)-existence of congruences in the generating functions for overpartitions, crank differences, and 2-colored $F$-partitions. Keywords:modular form, Ramanujan congruence, generalized Frobenius partition, overpartition, crankCategories:11F33, 11P83

70. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 826)

Errthum, Eric
 Singular Moduli of Shimura Curves The $j$-function acts as a parametrization of the classical modular curve. Its values at complex multiplication (CM) points are called singular moduli and are algebraic integers. A Shimura curve is a generalization of the modular curve and, if the Shimura curve has genus~$0$, a rational parameterizing function exists and when evaluated at a CM point is again algebraic over~$\mathbf{Q}$. This paper shows that the coordinate maps given by N.~Elkies for the Shimura curves associated to the quaternion algebras with discriminants $6$ and $10$ are Borcherds lifts of vector-valued modular forms. This property is then used to explicitly compute the rational norms of singular moduli on these curves. This method not only verifies conjectural values for the rational CM points, but also provides a way of algebraically calculating the norms of CM points with arbitrarily large negative discriminant. Categories:11G18, 11F12

71. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1083)

Kaletha, Tasho
 Decomposition of Splitting Invariants in Split Real Groups For a maximal torus in a quasi-split semi-simple simply-connected group over a local field of characteristic $0$, Langlands and Shelstad constructed a cohomological invariant called the splitting invariant, which is an important component of their endoscopic transfer factors. We study this invariant in the case of a split real group and prove a decomposition theorem which expresses this invariant for a general torus as a product of the corresponding invariants for simple tori. We also show how this reduction formula allows for the comparison of splitting invariants between different tori in the given real group. Keywords:endoscopy, real lie group, splitting invariant, transfer factorCategories:11F70, 22E47, 11S37, 11F72, 17B22

72. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1107)

Liu, Baiying
 Genericity of Representations of p-Adic $Sp_{2n}$ and Local Langlands Parameters Let $G$ be the $F$-rational points of the symplectic group $Sp_{2n}$, where $F$ is a non-Archimedean local field of characteristic $0$. Cogdell, Kim, Piatetski-Shapiro, and Shahidi constructed local Langlands functorial lifting from irreducible generic representations of $G$ to irreducible representations of $GL_{2n+1}(F)$. Jiang and Soudry constructed the descent map from irreducible supercuspidal representations of $GL_{2n+1}(F)$ to those of $G$, showing that the local Langlands functorial lifting from the irreducible supercuspidal generic representations is surjective. In this paper, based on above results, using the same descent method of studying $SO_{2n+1}$ as Jiang and Soudry, we will show the rest of local Langlands functorial lifting is also surjective, and for any local Langlands parameter $\phi \in \Phi(G)$, we construct a representation $\sigma$ such that $\phi$ and $\sigma$ have the same twisted local factors. As one application, we prove the $G$-case of a conjecture of Gross-Prasad and Rallis, that is, a local Langlands parameter $\phi \in \Phi(G)$ is generic, i.e., the representation attached to $\phi$ is generic, if and only if the adjoint $L$-function of $\phi$ is holomorphic at $s=1$. As another application, we prove for each Arthur parameter $\psi$, and the corresponding local Langlands parameter $\phi_{\psi}$, the representation attached to $\phi_{\psi}$ is generic if and only if $\phi_{\psi}$ is tempered. Keywords:generic representations, local Langlands parametersCategories:22E50, 11S37

73. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1220)

Baake, Michael; Scharlau, Rudolf; Zeiner, Peter
 Similar Sublattices of Planar Lattices The similar sublattices of a planar lattice can be classified via its multiplier ring. The latter is the ring of rational integers in the generic case, and an order in an imaginary quadratic field otherwise. Several classes of examples are discussed, with special emphasis on concrete results. In particular, we derive Dirichlet series generating functions for the number of distinct similar sublattices of a given index, and relate them to zeta functions of orders in imaginary quadratic fields. Categories:11H06, 11R11, 52C05, 82D25

74. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 591)

Hanzer, Marcela; Muić, Goran
 Rank One Reducibility for Metaplectic Groups via Theta Correspondence We calculate reducibility for the representations of metaplectic groups induced from cuspidal representations of maximal parabolic subgroups via theta correspondence, in terms of the analogous representations of the odd orthogonal groups. We also describe the lifts of all relevant subquotients. Categories:22E50, 11F70

75. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 616)

Lee, Edward
 A Modular Quintic Calabi-Yau Threefold of Level 55 In this note we search the parameter space of Horrocks-Mumford quintic threefolds and locate a Calabi-Yau threefold that is modular, in the sense that the $L$-function of its middle-dimensional cohomology is associated with a classical modular form of weight 4 and level 55. Keywords: Calabi-Yau threefold, non-rigid Calabi-Yau threefold, two-dimensional Galois representation, modular variety, Horrocks-Mumford vector bundleCategories:14J15, 11F23, 14J32, 11G40
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