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51. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 345)

McKee, James; Smyth, Chris
Salem Numbers and Pisot Numbers via Interlacing
We present a general construction of Salem numbers via rational functions whose zeros and poles mostly lie on the unit circle and satisfy an interlacing condition. This extends and unifies earlier work. We then consider the ``obvious'' limit points of the set of Salem numbers produced by our theorems and show that these are all Pisot numbers, in support of a conjecture of Boyd. We then show that all Pisot numbers arise in this way. Combining this with a theorem of Boyd, we produce all Salem numbers via an interlacing construction.

Keywords:Salem numbers, Pisot numbers

52. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 81)

David, C.; Wu, J.
Pseudoprime Reductions of Elliptic Curves
Let $E$ be an elliptic curve over $\mathbb Q$ without complex multiplication, and for each prime $p$ of good reduction, let $n_E(p) = | E(\mathbb F_p) |$. For any integer $b$, we consider elliptic pseudoprimes to the base $b$. More precisely, let $Q_{E,b}(x)$ be the number of primes $p \leq x$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$, and let $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$ be the number of compositive $n_E(p)$ such that $b^{n_E(p)} \equiv b\,({\rm mod}\,n_E(p))$ (also called elliptic curve pseudoprimes). Motivated by cryptography applications, we address the problem of finding upper bounds for $Q_{E,b}(x)$ and $\pi_{E, b}^{\operatorname{pseu}}(x)$, generalising some of the literature for the classical pseudoprimes to this new setting.

Keywords:Rosser-Iwaniec sieve, group order of elliptic curves over finite fields, pseudoprimes
Categories:11N36, 14H52

53. CJM 2011 (vol 64 pp. 151)

Miller, Steven J.; Wong, Siman
Moments of the Rank of Elliptic Curves
Fix an elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{Q}$ and assume the Riemann Hypothesis for the $L$-function $L(E_D, s)$ for every quadratic twist $E_D$ of $E$ by $D\in\mathbb{Z}$. We combine Weil's explicit formula with techniques of Heath-Brown to derive an asymptotic upper bound for the weighted moments of the analytic rank of $E_D$. We derive from this an upper bound for the density of low-lying zeros of $L(E_D, s)$ that is compatible with the random matrix models of Katz and Sarnak. We also show that for any unbounded increasing function $f$ on $\mathbb{R}$, the analytic rank and (assuming in addition the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture) the number of integral points of $E_D$ are less than $f(D)$ for almost all $D$.

Keywords:elliptic curve, explicit formula, integral point, low-lying zeros, quadratic twist, rank
Categories:11G05, 11G40

54. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1328)

Gun, Sanoli; Murty, M. Ram; Rath, Purusottam
On a Conjecture of Chowla and Milnor
In this paper, we investigate a conjecture due to S. and P. Chowla and its generalization by Milnor. These are related to the delicate question of non-vanishing of $L$-functions associated to periodic functions at integers greater than $1$. We report on some progress in relation to these conjectures. In a different vein, we link them to a conjecture of Zagier on multiple zeta values and also to linear independence of polylogarithms.

Categories:11F20, 11F11

55. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 992)

Bruin, Nils; Doerksen, Kevin
The Arithmetic of Genus Two Curves with (4,4)-Split Jacobians
In this paper we study genus $2$ curves whose Jacobians admit a polarized $(4,4)$-isogeny to a product of elliptic curves. We consider base fields of characteristic different from $2$ and $3$, which we do not assume to be algebraically closed. We obtain a full classification of all principally polarized abelian surfaces that can arise from gluing two elliptic curves along their $4$-torsion, and we derive the relation their absolute invariants satisfy. As an intermediate step, we give a general description of Richelot isogenies between Jacobians of genus $2$ curves, where previously only Richelot isogenies with kernels that are pointwise defined over the base field were considered. Our main tool is a Galois theoretic characterization of genus $2$ curves admitting multiple Richelot isogenies.

Keywords:Genus 2 curves, isogenies, split Jacobians, elliptic curves
Categories:11G30, 14H40

56. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1284)

Dewar, Michael
Non-Existence of Ramanujan Congruences in Modular Forms of Level Four
Ramanujan famously found congruences like $p(5n+4)\equiv 0 \operatorname{mod} 5$ for the partition function. We provide a method to find all simple congruences of this type in the coefficients of the inverse of a modular form on $\Gamma_{1}(4)$ that is non-vanishing on the upper half plane. This is applied to answer open questions about the (non)-existence of congruences in the generating functions for overpartitions, crank differences, and 2-colored $F$-partitions.

Keywords:modular form, Ramanujan congruence, generalized Frobenius partition, overpartition, crank
Categories:11F33, 11P83

57. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1083)

Kaletha, Tasho
Decomposition of Splitting Invariants in Split Real Groups
For a maximal torus in a quasi-split semi-simple simply-connected group over a local field of characteristic $0$, Langlands and Shelstad constructed a cohomological invariant called the splitting invariant, which is an important component of their endoscopic transfer factors. We study this invariant in the case of a split real group and prove a decomposition theorem which expresses this invariant for a general torus as a product of the corresponding invariants for simple tori. We also show how this reduction formula allows for the comparison of splitting invariants between different tori in the given real group.

Keywords:endoscopy, real lie group, splitting invariant, transfer factor
Categories:11F70, 22E47, 11S37, 11F72, 17B22

58. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 826)

Errthum, Eric
Singular Moduli of Shimura Curves
The $j$-function acts as a parametrization of the classical modular curve. Its values at complex multiplication (CM) points are called singular moduli and are algebraic integers. A Shimura curve is a generalization of the modular curve and, if the Shimura curve has genus~$0$, a rational parameterizing function exists and when evaluated at a CM point is again algebraic over~$\mathbf{Q}$. This paper shows that the coordinate maps given by N.~Elkies for the Shimura curves associated to the quaternion algebras with discriminants $6$ and $10$ are Borcherds lifts of vector-valued modular forms. This property is then used to explicitly compute the rational norms of singular moduli on these curves. This method not only verifies conjectural values for the rational CM points, but also provides a way of algebraically calculating the norms of CM points with arbitrarily large negative discriminant.

Categories:11G18, 11F12

59. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1220)

Baake, Michael; Scharlau, Rudolf; Zeiner, Peter
Similar Sublattices of Planar Lattices
The similar sublattices of a planar lattice can be classified via its multiplier ring. The latter is the ring of rational integers in the generic case, and an order in an imaginary quadratic field otherwise. Several classes of examples are discussed, with special emphasis on concrete results. In particular, we derive Dirichlet series generating functions for the number of distinct similar sublattices of a given index, and relate them to zeta functions of orders in imaginary quadratic fields.

Categories:11H06, 11R11, 52C05, 82D25

60. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1107)

Liu, Baiying
Genericity of Representations of p-Adic $Sp_{2n}$ and Local Langlands Parameters
Let $G$ be the $F$-rational points of the symplectic group $Sp_{2n}$, where $F$ is a non-Archimedean local field of characteristic $0$. Cogdell, Kim, Piatetski-Shapiro, and Shahidi constructed local Langlands functorial lifting from irreducible generic representations of $G$ to irreducible representations of $GL_{2n+1}(F)$. Jiang and Soudry constructed the descent map from irreducible supercuspidal representations of $GL_{2n+1}(F)$ to those of $G$, showing that the local Langlands functorial lifting from the irreducible supercuspidal generic representations is surjective. In this paper, based on above results, using the same descent method of studying $SO_{2n+1}$ as Jiang and Soudry, we will show the rest of local Langlands functorial lifting is also surjective, and for any local Langlands parameter $\phi \in \Phi(G)$, we construct a representation $\sigma$ such that $\phi$ and $\sigma$ have the same twisted local factors. As one application, we prove the $G$-case of a conjecture of Gross-Prasad and Rallis, that is, a local Langlands parameter $\phi \in \Phi(G)$ is generic, i.e., the representation attached to $\phi$ is generic, if and only if the adjoint $L$-function of $\phi$ is holomorphic at $s=1$. As another application, we prove for each Arthur parameter $\psi$, and the corresponding local Langlands parameter $\phi_{\psi}$, the representation attached to $\phi_{\psi}$ is generic if and only if $\phi_{\psi}$ is tempered.

Keywords:generic representations, local Langlands parameters
Categories:22E50, 11S37

61. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 591)

Hanzer, Marcela; Muić, Goran
Rank One Reducibility for Metaplectic Groups via Theta Correspondence
We calculate reducibility for the representations of metaplectic groups induced from cuspidal representations of maximal parabolic subgroups via theta correspondence, in terms of the analogous representations of the odd orthogonal groups. We also describe the lifts of all relevant subquotients.

Categories:22E50, 11F70

62. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 616)

Lee, Edward
A Modular Quintic Calabi-Yau Threefold of Level 55
In this note we search the parameter space of Horrocks-Mumford quintic threefolds and locate a Calabi-Yau threefold that is modular, in the sense that the $L$-function of its middle-dimensional cohomology is associated with a classical modular form of weight 4 and level 55.

Keywords: Calabi-Yau threefold, non-rigid Calabi-Yau threefold, two-dimensional Galois representation, modular variety, Horrocks-Mumford vector bundle
Categories:14J15, 11F23, 14J32, 11G40

63. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 481)

Baragar, Arthur
The Ample Cone for a K3 Surface
In this paper, we give several pictorial fractal representations of the ample or Kähler cone for surfaces in a certain class of $K3$ surfaces. The class includes surfaces described by smooth $(2,2,2)$ forms in ${\mathbb P^1\times\mathbb P^1\times \mathbb P^1}$ defined over a sufficiently large number field $K$ that have a line parallel to one of the axes and have Picard number four. We relate the Hausdorff dimension of this fractal to the asymptotic growth of orbits of curves under the action of the surface's group of automorphisms. We experimentally estimate the Hausdorff dimension of the fractal to be $1.296 \pm .010$.

Keywords:Fractal, Hausdorff dimension, K3 surface, Kleinian groups, dynamics
Categories:14J28, , , , 14J50, 11D41, 11D72, 11H56, 11G10, 37F35, 37D05

64. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 634)

Lü, Guangshi
On Higher Moments of Fourier Coefficients of Holomorphic Cusp Forms
Let $S_{k}(\Gamma)$ be the space of holomorphic cusp forms of even integral weight $k$ for the full modular group. Let $\lambda_f(n)$ and $\lambda_g(n)$ be the $n$-th normalized Fourier coefficients of two holomorphic Hecke eigencuspforms $f(z), g(z) \in S_{k}(\Gamma)$, respectively. In this paper we are able to show the following results about higher moments of Fourier coefficients of holomorphic cusp forms.\newline (i) For any $\varepsilon>0$, we have \begin{equation*} \sum_{n\leq x}\lambda_f^5(n) \ll_{f,\varepsilon}x^{\frac{15}{16}+\varepsilon} \quad\text{and}\quad\sum_{n\leq x}\lambda_f^7(n) \ll_{f,\varepsilon}x^{\frac{63}{64}+\varepsilon}. \end{equation*} (ii) If $\operatorname{sym}^3\pi_f \ncong \operatorname{sym}^3\pi_g$, then for any $\varepsilon>0$, we have \begin{equation*} \sum_{n \leq x}\lambda_f^3(n)\lambda_g^3(n)\ll_{f,\varepsilon}x^{\frac{31}{32}+\varepsilon}; \end{equation*} If $\operatorname{sym}^2\pi_f \ncong \operatorname{sym}^2\pi_g$, then for any $\varepsilon>0$, we have \[ \sum_{n \leq x}\lambda_f^4(n)\lambda_g^2(n)=cx\log x+c'x+O_{f,\varepsilon}\bigl(x^{\frac{31}{32}+\varepsilon}\bigr); \] If $\operatorname{sym}^2\pi_f \ncong \operatorname{sym}^2\pi_g$ and $\operatorname{sym}^4\pi_f \ncong \operatorname{sym}^4\pi_g$, then for any $\varepsilon>0$, we have \[ \sum_{n \leq x}\lambda_f^4(n)\lambda_g^4(n)=xP(\log x)+O_{f,\varepsilon}\bigl(x^{\frac{127}{128}+\varepsilon}\bigr), \] where $P(x)$ is a polynomial of degree $3$.

Keywords: Fourier coefficients of cusp forms, symmetric power $L$-function
Categories:11F30, , , , 11F11, 11F66

65. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 298)

Gun, Sanoli; Murty, V. Kumar
A Variant of Lehmer's Conjecture, II: The CM-case
Let $f$ be a normalized Hecke eigenform with rational integer Fourier coefficients. It is an interesting question to know how often an integer $n$ has a factor common with the $n$-th Fourier coefficient of $f$. It has been shown in previous papers that this happens very often. In this paper, we give an asymptotic formula for the number of integers $n$ for which $(n, a(n)) = 1$, where $a(n)$ is the $n$-th Fourier coefficient of a normalized Hecke eigenform $f$ of weight $2$ with rational integer Fourier coefficients and having complex multiplication.

Categories:11F11, 11F30

66. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 277)

Ghate, Eknath; Vatsal, Vinayak
Locally Indecomposable Galois Representations
In a previous paper the authors showed that, under some technical conditions, the local Galois representations attached to the members of a non-CM family of ordinary cusp forms are indecomposable for all except possibly finitely many members of the family. In this paper we use deformation theoretic methods to give examples of non-CM families for which every classical member of weight at least two has a locally indecomposable Galois representation.


67. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 241)

Essouabri, Driss; Matsumoto, Kohji; Tsumura, Hirofumi
Multiple Zeta-Functions Associated with Linear Recurrence Sequences and the Vectorial Sum Formula
We prove the holomorphic continuation of certain multi-variable multiple zeta-functions whose coefficients satisfy a suitable recurrence condition. In fact, we introduce more general vectorial zeta-functions and prove their holomorphic continuation. Moreover, we show a vectorial sum formula among those vectorial zeta-functions from which some generalizations of the classical sum formula can be deduced.

Keywords:Zeta-functions, holomorphic continuation, recurrence sequences, Fibonacci numbers, sum formulas
Categories:11M41, 40B05, 11B39

68. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 136)

Gun, Sanoli; Murty, M. Ram; Rath, Purusottam
Transcendental Nature of Special Values of $L$-Functions
In this paper, we study the non-vanishing and transcendence of special values of a varying class of $L$-functions and their derivatives. This allows us to investigate the transcendence of Petersson norms of certain weight one modular forms.

Categories:11J81, 11J86, 11J91

69. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 38)

Brüdern, Jörg; Wooley, Trevor D.
Asymptotic Formulae for Pairs of Diagonal Cubic Equations
We investigate the number of integral solutions possessed by a pair of diagonal cubic equations in a large box. Provided that the number of variables in the system is at least fourteen, and in addition the number of variables in any non-trivial linear combination of the underlying forms is at least eight, we obtain an asymptotic formula for the number of integral solutions consistent with the product of local densities associated with the system.

Keywords:exponential sums, Diophantine equations
Categories:11D72, 11P55

70. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1276)

El Wassouli, Fouzia
A Generalized Poisson Transform of an $L^{p}$-Function over the Shilov Boundary of the $n$-Dimensional Lie Ball
Let $\mathcal{D}$ be the $n$-dimensional Lie ball and let $\mathbf{B}(S)$ be the space of hyperfunctions on the Shilov boundary $S$ of $\mathcal{D}$. The aim of this paper is to give a necessary and sufficient condition on the generalized Poisson transform $P_{l,\lambda}f$ of an element $f$ in the space $\mathbf{B}(S)$ for $f$ to be in $ L^{p}(S)$, $1 > p > \infty.$ Namely, if $F$ is the Poisson transform of some $f\in \mathbf{B}(S)$ (i.e., $F=P_{l,\lambda}f$), then for any $l\in \mathbb{Z}$ and $\lambda\in \mathbb{C}$ such that $\mathcal{R}e[i\lambda] > \frac{n}{2}-1$, we show that $f\in L^{p}(S)$ if and only if $f$ satisfies the growth condition $$ \|F\|_{\lambda,p}=\sup_{0\leq r < 1}(1-r^{2})^{\mathcal{R}e[i\lambda]-\frac{n}{2}+l}\Big[\int_{S}|F(ru)|^{p}du \Big]^{\frac{1}{p}} < +\infty. $$

Keywords:Lie ball, Shilov boundary, Fatou's theorem, hyperfuctions, parabolic subgroup, homogeneous line bundle
Categories:32A45, 30E20, 33C67, 33C60, 33C55, 32A25, 33C75, 11K70

71. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1011)

Buckingham, Paul; Snaith, Victor
Functoriality of the Canonical Fractional Galois Ideal
The fractional Galois ideal is a conjectural improvement on the higher Stickelberger ideals defined at negative integers, and is expected to provide non-trivial annihilators for higher $K$-groups of rings of integers of number fields. In this article, we extend the definition of the fractional Galois ideal to arbitrary (possibly infinite and non-abelian) Galois extensions of number fields under the assumption of Stark's conjectures and prove naturality properties under canonical changes of extension. We discuss applications of this to the construction of ideals in non-commutative Iwasawa algebras.

Categories:11R42, 11R23, 11R70

72. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1155)

Young, Matthew P.
Moments of the Critical Values of Families of Elliptic Curves, with Applications
We make conjectures on the moments of the central values of the family of all elliptic curves and on the moments of the first derivative of the central values of a large family of positive rank curves. In both cases the order of magnitude is the same as that of the moments of the central values of an orthogonal family of $L$-functions. Notably, we predict that the critical values of all rank $1$ elliptic curves is logarithmically larger than the rank $1$ curves in the positive rank family. Furthermore, as arithmetical applications, we make a conjecture on the distribution of $a_p$'s amongst all rank $2$ elliptic curves and show how the Riemann hypothesis can be deduced from sufficient knowledge of the first moment of the positive rank family (based on an idea of Iwaniec)

Categories:11M41, 11G40, 11M26

73. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1099)

Goldmakher, Leo
Character Sums to Smooth Moduli are Small
Recently, Granville and Soundararajan have made fundamental breakthroughs in the study of character sums. Building on their work and using estimates on short character sums developed by Graham--Ringrose and Iwaniec, we improve the Pólya--Vinogradov inequality for characters with smooth conductor.

Categories:11L40, 11M06

74. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 914)

Zorn, Christian
Reducibility of the Principal Series for Sp~2(F) over a p-adic Field
Let $G_n=\mathrm{Sp}_n(F)$ be the rank $n$ symplectic group with entries in a nondyadic $p$-adic field $F$. We further let $\widetilde{G}_n$ be the metaplectic extension of $G_n$ by $\mathbb{C}^{1}=\{z\in\mathbb{C}^{\times} \mid |z|=1\}$ defined using the Leray cocycle. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate the complete list of reducibility points of the genuine principal series of ${\widetilde{G}_2}$. In most cases, we will use some techniques developed by Tadić that analyze the Jacquet modules with respect to all of the parabolics containing a fixed Borel. The exceptional cases involve representations induced from unitary characters $\chi$ with $\chi^2=1$. Because such representations $\pi$ are unitary, to show the irreducibility of $\pi$, it suffices to show that $\dim_{\mathbb{C}}\mathrm{Hom}_{{\widetilde{G}}}(\pi,\pi)=1$. We will accomplish this by examining the poles of certain intertwining operators associated to simple roots. Then some results of Shahidi and Ban decompose arbitrary intertwining operators into a composition of operators corresponding to the simple roots of ${\widetilde{G}_2}$. We will then be able to show that all such operators have poles at principal series representations induced from quadratic characters and therefore such operators do not extend to operators in $\mathrm{Hom}_{{\widetilde{G}_2}}(\pi,\pi)$ for the $\pi$ in question.

Categories:22E50, 11F70

75. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1060)

Darmon, Henri; Tian, Ye
Heegner Points over Towers of Kummer Extensions
Let $E$ be an elliptic curve, and let $L_n$ be the Kummer extension generated by a primitive $p^n$-th root of unity and a $p^n$-th root of $a$ for a fixed $a\in \mathbb{Q}^\times-\{\pm 1\}$. A detailed case study by Coates, Fukaya, Kato and Sujatha and V. Dokchitser has led these authors to predict unbounded and strikingly regular growth for the rank of $E$ over $L_n$ in certain cases. The aim of this note is to explain how some of these predictions might be accounted for by Heegner points arising from a varying collection of Shimura curve parametrisations.

Categories:11G05, 11R23, 11F46
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