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1. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 404)

Hua, Jiajie; Lin, Huaxin
Rotation Algebras and the Exel Trace Formula
We found that if $u$ and $v$ are any two unitaries in a unital $C^*$-algebra with $\|uv-vu\|\lt 2$ and $uvu^*v^*$ commutes with $u$ and $v,$ then the $C^*$-subalgebra $A_{u,v}$ generated by $u$ and $v$ is isomorphic to a quotient of some rotation algebra $A_\theta$ provided that $A_{u,v}$ has a unique tracial state. We also found that the Exel trace formula holds in any unital $C^*$-algebra. Let $\theta\in (-1/2, 1/2)$ be a real number. We prove the following: For any $\epsilon\gt 0,$ there exists $\delta\gt 0$ satisfying the following: if $u$ and $v$ are two unitaries in any unital simple $C^*$-algebra $A$ with tracial rank zero such that \[ \|uv-e^{2\pi i\theta}vu\|\lt \delta \text{ and } {1\over{2\pi i}}\tau(\log(uvu^*v^*))=\theta, \] for all tracial state $\tau$ of $A,$ then there exists a pair of unitaries $\tilde{u}$ and $\tilde{v}$ in $A$ such that \[ \tilde{u}\tilde{v}=e^{2\pi i\theta} \tilde{v}\tilde{u},\,\, \|u-\tilde{u}\|\lt \epsilon \text{ and } \|v-\tilde{v}\|\lt \epsilon. \]

Keywords:rotation algebras, Exel trace formula

2. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 631)

Walters, Samuel G.
K-Theory of Non-Commutative Spheres Arising from the Fourier Automorphism
For a dense $G_\delta$ set of real parameters $\theta$ in $[0,1]$ (containing the rationals) it is shown that the group $K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}^9$, where $A_\theta$ is the rotation C*-algebra generated by unitaries $U$, $V$ satisfying $VU = e^{2\pi i\theta} UV$ and $\sigma$ is the Fourier automorphism of $A_\theta$ defined by $\sigma(U) = V$, $\sigma(V) = U^{-1}$. More precisely, an explicit basis for $K_0$ consisting of nine canonical modules is given. (A slight generalization of this result is also obtained for certain separable continuous fields of unital C*-algebras over $[0,1]$.) The Connes Chern character $\ch \colon K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4) \to H^{\ev} (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)^*$ is shown to be injective for a dense $G_\delta$ set of parameters $\theta$. The main computational tool in this paper is a group homomorphism $\vtr \colon K_0 (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4) \to \mathbb{R}^8 \times \mathbb{Z}$ obtained from the Connes Chern character by restricting the functionals in its codomain to a certain nine-dimensional subspace of $H^{\ev} (A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}_4)$. The range of $\vtr$ is fully determined for each $\theta$. (We conjecture that this subspace is all of $H^{\ev}$.)

Keywords:C*-algebras, K-theory, automorphisms, rotation algebras, unbounded traces, Chern characters
Categories:46L80, 46L40, 19K14

3. CJM 2000 (vol 52 pp. 633)

Walters, Samuel G.
Chern Characters of Fourier Modules
Let $A_\theta$ denote the rotation algebra---the universal $C^\ast$-algebra generated by unitaries $U,V$ satisfying $VU=e^{2\pi i\theta}UV$, where $\theta$ is a fixed real number. Let $\sigma$ denote the Fourier automorphism of $A_\theta$ defined by $U\mapsto V$, $V\mapsto U^{-1}$, and let $B_\theta = A_\theta \rtimes_\sigma \mathbb{Z}/4\mathbb{Z}$ denote the associated $C^\ast$-crossed product. It is shown that there is a canonical inclusion $\mathbb{Z}^9 \hookrightarrow K_0(B_\theta)$ for each $\theta$ given by nine canonical modules. The unbounded trace functionals of $B_\theta$ (yielding the Chern characters here) are calculated to obtain the cyclic cohomology group of order zero $\HC^0(B_\theta)$ when $\theta$ is irrational. The Chern characters of the nine modules---and more importantly, the Fourier module---are computed and shown to involve techniques from the theory of Jacobi's theta functions. Also derived are explicit equations connecting unbounded traces across strong Morita equivalence, which turn out to be non-commutative extensions of certain theta function equations. These results provide the basis for showing that for a dense $G_\delta$ set of values of $\theta$ one has $K_0(B_\theta)\cong\mathbb{Z}^9$ and is generated by the nine classes constructed here.

Keywords:$C^\ast$-algebras, unbounded traces, Chern characters, irrational rotation algebras, $K$-groups
Categories:46L80, 46L40

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