Sum of Hermitian Matrices with Given Eigenvalues: Inertia, Rank, and Multiple Eigenvalues Let $A$ and $B$ be $n\times n$ complex Hermitian (or real symmetric) matrices with eigenvalues $a_1 \ge \dots \ge a_n$ and $b_1 \ge \dots \ge b_n$. All possible inertia values, ranks, and multiple eigenvalues of $A + B$ are determined. Extension of the results to the sum of $k$ matrices with $k > 2$ and connections of the results to other subjects such as algebraic combinatorics are also discussed. Keywords:complex Hermitian matrices, real symmetric matrices, inertia, rank, multiple eigenvaluesCategories:15A42, 15A57