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1. CJM Online first

McReynolds, D. B.
 Geometric Spectra and Commensurability The work of Reid, Chinburg-Hamilton-Long-Reid, Prasad-Rapinchuk, and the author with Reid have demonstrated that geodesics or totally geodesic submanifolds can sometimes be used to determine the commensurability class of an arithmetic manifold. The main results of this article show that generalizations of these results to other arithmetic manifolds will require a wide range of data. Specifically, we prove that certain incommensurable arithmetic manifolds arising from the semisimple Lie groups of the form $(\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{R}))^r \times (\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{C}))^s$ have the same commensurability classes of totally geodesic submanifolds coming from a fixed field. This construction is algebraic and shows the failure of determining, in general, a central simple algebra from subalgebras over a fixed field. This, in turn, can be viewed in terms of forms of $\operatorname{SL}_d$ and the failure of determining the form via certain classes of algebraic subgroups. Keywords:arithmetic groups, Brauer groups, arithmetic equivalence, locally symmetric manifoldsCategory:20G25

2. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 141)

Caillat-Gibert, Shanti; Matignon, Daniel
 Existence of Taut Foliations on Seifert Fibered Homology $3$-spheres This paper concerns the problem of existence of taut foliations among $3$-manifolds. Since the contribution of David Gabai, we know that closed $3$-manifolds with non-trivial second homology group admit a taut foliation. The essential part of this paper focuses on Seifert fibered homology $3$-spheres. The result is quite different if they are integral or rational but non-integral homology $3$-spheres. Concerning integral homology $3$-spheres, we can see that all but the $3$-sphere and the PoincarÃ© $3$-sphere admit a taut foliation. Concerning non-integral homology $3$-spheres, we prove there are infinitely many which admit a taut foliation, and infinitely many without taut foliation. Moreover, we show that the geometries do not determine the existence of taut foliations on non-integral Seifert fibered homology $3$-spheres. Keywords:homology 3-spheres, taut foliation, Seifert-fibered 3-manifoldsCategories:57M25, 57M50, 57N10, 57M15

3. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 400)

Mendonça, Bruno; Tojeiro, Ruy
 Umbilical Submanifolds of $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ We give a complete classification of umbilical submanifolds of arbitrary dimension and codimension of $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$, extending the classification of umbilical surfaces in $\mathbb{S}^2\times \mathbb{R}$ by Souam and Toubiana as well as the local description of umbilical hypersurfaces in $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ by Van der Veken and Vrancken. We prove that, besides small spheres in a slice, up to isometries of the ambient space they come in a two-parameter family of rotational submanifolds whose substantial codimension is either one or two and whose profile is a curve in a totally geodesic $\mathbb{S}^1\times \mathbb{R}$ or $\mathbb{S}^2\times \mathbb{R}$, respectively, the former case arising in a one-parameter family. All of them are diffeomorphic to a sphere, except for a single element that is diffeomorphic to Euclidean space. We obtain explicit parametrizations of all such submanifolds. We also study more general classes of submanifolds of $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{H}^n\times \mathbb{R}$. In particular, we give a complete description of all submanifolds in those product spaces for which the tangent component of a unit vector field spanning the factor $\mathbb{R}$ is an eigenvector of all shape operators. We show that surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector in $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{H}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ having this property are rotational surfaces, and use this fact to improve some recent results by Alencar, do Carmo, and Tribuzy. We also obtain a Dajczer-type reduction of codimension theorem for submanifolds of $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{H}^n\times \mathbb{R}$. Keywords:umbilical submanifolds, product spaces $\mathbb{S}^n\times \mathbb{R}$ and $\mathbb{H}^n\times \mathbb{R}$Categories:53B25, 53C40

4. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 1401)

Zhao, Wei; Shen, Yibing
 A Universal Volume Comparison Theorem for Finsler Manifolds and Related Results In this paper, we establish a universal volume comparison theorem for Finsler manifolds and give the Berger-Kazdan inequality and SantalÃ³'s formula in Finsler geometry. Being based on these, we derive a Berger-Kazdan type comparison theorem and a Croke type isoperimetric inequality for Finsler manifolds. Keywords:Finsler manifold, Berger-Kazdan inequality, Berger-Kazdan comparison theorem, SantalÃ³'s formula, Croke's isoperimetric inequalityCategories:53B40, 53C65, 52A38

5. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 621)

Lee, Paul W. Y.
 On Surfaces in Three Dimensional Contact Manifolds In this paper, we introduce two notions on a surface in a contact manifold. The first one is called degree of transversality (DOT) which measures the transversality between the tangent spaces of a surface and the contact planes. The second quantity, called curvature of transversality (COT), is designed to give a comparison principle for DOT along characteristic curves under bounds on COT. In particular, this gives estimates on lengths of characteristic curves assuming COT is bounded below by a positive constant. We show that surfaces with constant COT exist and we classify all graphs in the Heisenberg group with vanishing COT. This is accomplished by showing that the equation for graphs with zero COT can be decomposed into two first order PDEs, one of which is the backward invisicid Burgers' equation. Finally we show that the p-minimal graph equation in the Heisenberg group also has such a decomposition. Moreover, we can use this decomposition to write down an explicit formula of a solution near a regular point. Keywords:contact manifolds, subriemannian manifolds, surfacesCategory:35R03

6. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 66)

Deng, Shaoqiang; Hu, Zhiguang
 On Flag Curvature of Homogeneous Randers Spaces In this paper we give an explicit formula for the flag curvature of homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type and apply this formula to obtain some interesting results. We first deduce an explicit formula for the flag curvature of an arbitrary left invariant Randers metric on a two-step nilpotent Lie group. Then we obtain a classification of negatively curved homogeneous Randers spaces of Douglas type. This results, in particular, in many examples of homogeneous non-Riemannian Finsler spaces with negative flag curvature. Finally, we prove a rigidity result that a homogeneous Randers space of Berwald type whose flag curvature is everywhere nonzero must be Riemannian. Keywords:homogeneous Randers manifolds, flag curvature, Douglas spaces, two-step nilpotent Lie groupsCategories:22E46, 53C30

7. CJM 2010 (vol 63 pp. 436)

Mine, Kotaro; Sakai, Katsuro
 Simplicial Complexes and Open Subsets of Non-Separable LF-Spaces Let $F$ be a non-separable LF-space homeomorphic to the direct sum $\sum_{n\in\mathbb{N}} \ell_2(\tau_n)$, where $\aleph_0 < \tau_1 < \tau_2 < \cdots$. It is proved that every open subset $U$ of $F$ is homeomorphic to the product $|K| \times F$ for some locally finite-dimensional simplicial complex $K$ such that every vertex $v \in K^{(0)}$ has the star $\operatorname{St}(v,K)$ with $\operatorname{card} \operatorname{St}(v,K)^{(0)} < \tau = \sup\tau_n$ (and $\operatorname{card} K^{(0)} \le \tau$), and, conversely, if $K$ is such a simplicial complex, then the product $|K| \times F$ can be embedded in $F$ as an open set, where $|K|$ is the polyhedron of $K$ with the metric topology. Keywords:LF-space, open set, simplicial complex, metric topology, locally finite-dimensional, star, small box product, ANR, $\ell_2(\tau)$, $\ell_2(\tau)$-manifold, open embedding, $\sum_{i\in\mathbb{N}}\ell_2(\tau_i)$Categories:57N20, 46A13, 46T05, 57N17, 57Q05, 57Q40

8. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 242)

Azagra, Daniel; Fry, Robb
 A Second Order Smooth Variational Principle on Riemannian Manifolds We establish a second order smooth variational principle valid for functions defined on (possibly infinite-dimensional) Riemannian manifolds which are uniformly locally convex and have a strictly positive injectivity radius and bounded sectional curvature. Keywords:smooth variational principle, Riemannian manifoldCategories:58E30, 49J52, 46T05, 47J30, 58B20

9. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 218)

Xing, Yang
 The General Definition of the Complex Monge--AmpÃ¨re Operator on Compact KÃ¤hler Manifolds We introduce a wide subclass ${\mathcal F}(X,\omega)$ of quasi-plurisubharmonic functions in a compact KÃ¤hler manifold, on which the complex Monge-AmpÃ¨re operator is well defined and the convergence theorem is valid. We also prove that ${\mathcal F}(X,\omega)$ is a convex cone and includes all quasi-plurisubharmonic functions that are in the Cegrell class. Keywords:complex Monge--AmpÃ¨re operator, compact KÃ¤hler manifoldCategories:32W20, 32Q15

10. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 1201)

Arvanitoyeorgos, Andreas; Dzhepko, V. V.; Nikonorov, Yu. G.
 Invariant Einstein Metrics on Some Homogeneous Spaces of Classical Lie Groups A Riemannian manifold $(M,\rho)$ is called Einstein if the metric $\rho$ satisfies the condition \linebreak$\Ric (\rho)=c\cdot \rho$ for some constant $c$. This paper is devoted to the investigation of $G$-invariant Einstein metrics, with additional symmetries, on some homogeneous spaces $G/H$ of classical groups. As a consequence, we obtain new invariant Einstein metrics on some Stiefel manifolds $\SO(n)/\SO(l)$. Furthermore, we show that for any positive integer $p$ there exists a Stiefel manifold $\SO(n)/\SO(l)$ that admits at least $p$ $\SO(n)$-invariant Einstein metrics. Keywords:Riemannian manifolds, homogeneous spaces, Einstein metrics, Stiefel manifoldsCategories:53C25, 53C30

11. CJM 2009 (vol 61 pp. 641)

 Characterization of Parallel Isometric Immersions of Space Forms into Space Forms in the Class of Isotropic Immersions For an isotropic submanifold $M^n\,(n\geqq3)$ of a space form $\widetilde{M}^{n+p}(c)$ of constant sectional curvature $c$, we show that if the mean curvature vector of $M^n$ is parallel and the sectional curvature $K$ of $M^n$ satisfies some inequality, then the second fundamental form of $M^n$ in $\widetilde{M}^{n+p}$ is parallel and our manifold $M^n$ is a space form. Keywords:space forms, parallel isometric immersions, isotropic immersions, totally umbilic, Veronese manifolds, sectional curvatures, parallel mean curvature vectorCategories:53C40, 53C42

12. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 658)

Mihailescu, Eugen; Urba\'nski, Mariusz
 Inverse Pressure Estimates and the Independence of Stable Dimension for Non-Invertible Maps We study the case of an Axiom A holomorphic non-degenerate (hence non-invertible) map $f\from\mathbb P^2 \mathbb C \to \mathbb P^2 \mathbb C$, where $\mathbb P^2 \mathbb C$ stands for the complex projective space of dimension 2. Let $\Lambda$ denote a basic set for $f$ of unstable index 1, and $x$ an arbitrary point of $\Lambda$; we denote by $\delta^s(x)$ the Hausdorff dimension of $W^s_r(x) \cap \Lambda$, where $r$ is some fixed positive number and $W^s_r(x)$ is the local stable manifold at $x$ of size $r$; $\delta^s(x)$ is called \emph{the stable dimension at} $x$. Mihailescu and Urba\'nski introduced a notion of inverse topological pressure, denoted by $P^-$, which takes into consideration preimages of points. Manning and McCluskey study the case of hyperbolic diffeomorphisms on real surfaces and give formulas for Hausdorff dimension. Our non-invertible situation is different here since the local unstable manifolds are not uniquely determined by their base point, instead they depend in general on whole prehistories of the base points. Hence our methods are different and are based on using a sequence of inverse pressures for the iterates of $f$, in order to give upper and lower estimates of the stable dimension. We obtain an estimate of the oscillation of the stable dimension on $\Lambda$. When each point $x$ from $\Lambda$ has the same number $d'$ of preimages in $\Lambda$, then we show that $\delta^s(x)$ is independent of $x$; in fact $\delta^s(x)$ is shown to be equal in this case with the unique zero of the map $t \to P(t\phi^s - \log d')$. We also prove the Lipschitz continuity of the stable vector spaces over $\Lambda$; this proof is again different than the one for diffeomorphisms (however, the unstable distribution is not always Lipschitz for conformal non-invertible maps). In the end we include the corresponding results for a real conformal setting. Keywords:Hausdorff dimension, stable manifolds, basic sets, inverse topological pressureCategories:37D20, 37A35, 37F35

13. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 1245)

Chen, Qun; Zhou, Zhen-Rong
 On Gap Properties and Instabilities of $p$-Yang--Mills Fields We consider the $p$-Yang--Mills functional $(p\geq 2)$ defined as $\YM_p(\nabla):=\frac 1 p \int_M \|\rn\|^p$. We call critical points of $\YM_p(\cdot)$ the $p$-Yang--Mills connections, and the associated curvature $\rn$ the $p$-Yang--Mills fields. In this paper, we prove gap properties and instability theorems for $p$-Yang--Mills fields over submanifolds in $\mathbb{R}^{n+k}$ and $\mathbb{S}^{n+k}$. Keywords:$p$-Yang--Mills field, gap property, instability, submanifoldCategories:58E15, 53C05

14. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 845)

Schaffhauser, Florent
 Representations of the Fundamental Group of an $L$-Punctured Sphere Generated by Products of Lagrangian Involutions In this paper, we characterize unitary representations of $\pi:=\piS$ whose generators $u_1, \dots, u_l$ (lying in conjugacy classes fixed initially) can be decomposed as products of two Lagrangian involutions $u_j=\s_j\s_{j+1}$ with $\s_{l+1}=\s_1$. Our main result is that such representations are exactly the elements of the fixed-point set of an anti-symplectic involution defined on the moduli space $\Mod:=\Hom_{\mathcal C}(\pi,U(n))/U(n)$. Consequently, as this fixed-point set is non-empty, it is a Lagrangian submanifold of $\Mod$. To prove this, we use the quasi-Hamiltonian description of the symplectic structure of $\Mod$ and give conditions on an involution defined on a quasi-Hamiltonian $U$-space $(M, \w, \mu\from M \to U)$ for it to induce an anti-symplectic involution on the reduced space $M/\!/U := \mu^{-1}(\{1\})/U$. Keywords:momentum maps, moduli spaces, Lagrangian submanifolds, anti-symplectic involutions, quasi-HamiltonianCategories:53D20, 53D30

15. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 742)

Gil, Juan B.; Krainer, Thomas; Mendoza, Gerardo A.
 Geometry and Spectra of Closed Extensions of Elliptic Cone Operators We study the geometry of the set of closed extensions of index $0$ of an elliptic differential cone operator and its model operator in connection with the spectra of the extensions, and we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of rays of minimal growth for such operators. Keywords:resolvents, manifolds with conical singularities, spectral theor, boundary value problems, GrassmanniansCategories:58J50, 35J70, 14M15

16. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 36)

Develin, Mike; Martin, Jeremy L.; Reiner, Victor
 Classification of Ding's Schubert Varieties: Finer Rook Equivalence K.~Ding studied a class of Schubert varieties $X_\lambda$ in type A partial flag manifolds, indexed by integer partitions $\lambda$ and in bijection with dominant permutations. He observed that the Schubert cell structure of $X_\lambda$ is indexed by maximal rook placements on the Ferrers board $B_\lambda$, and that the integral cohomology groups $H^*(X_\lambda;\:\Zz)$, $H^*(X_\mu;\:\Zz)$ are additively isomorphic exactly when the Ferrers boards $B_\lambda, B_\mu$ satisfy the combinatorial condition of \emph{rook-equivalence}. We classify the varieties $X_\lambda$ up to isomorphism, distinguishing them by their graded cohomology rings with integer coefficients. The crux of our approach is studying the nilpotence orders of linear forms in the cohomology ring. Keywords:Schubert variety, rook placement, Ferrers board, flag manifold, cohomology ring, nilpotenceCategories:14M15, 05E05

17. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 1314)

Zhitomirskii, M.
 Relative Darboux Theorem for Singular Manifolds and Local Contact Algebra In 1999 V. Arnol'd introduced the local contact algebra: studying the problem of classification of singular curves in a contact space, he showed the existence of the ghost of the contact structure (invariants which are not related to the induced structure on the curve). Our main result implies that the only reason for existence of the local contact algebra and the ghost is the difference between the geometric and (defined in this paper) algebraic restriction of a $1$-form to a singular submanifold. We prove that a germ of any subset $N$ of a contact manifold is well defined, up to contactomorphisms, by the algebraic restriction to $N$ of the contact structure. This is a generalization of the Darboux-Givental' theorem for smooth submanifolds of a contact manifold. Studying the difference between the geometric and the algebraic restrictions gives a powerful tool for classification of stratified submanifolds of a contact manifold. This is illustrated by complete solution of three classification problems, including a simple explanation of V.~Arnold's results and further classification results for singular curves in a contact space. We also prove several results on the external geometry of a singular submanifold $N$ in terms of the algebraic restriction of the contact structure to $N$. In particular, the algebraic restriction is zero if and only if $N$ is contained in a smooth Legendrian submanifold of $M$. Keywords:contact manifold, local contact algebra,, relative Darboux theorem, integral curvesCategories:53D10, 14B05, 58K50

18. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 871)

Zhang, Xi
 Hermitian Yang-_Mills--Higgs Metrics on\\Complete KÃ¤hler Manifolds In this paper, first, we will investigate the Dirichlet problem for one type of vortex equation, which generalizes the well-known Hermitian Einstein equation. Secondly, we will give existence results for solutions of these vortex equations over various complete noncompact K\"ahler manifolds. Keywords:vortex equation, Hermitian Yang--Mills--Higgs metric,, holomorphic vector bundle, KÃ¤hler manifoldsCategories:58E15, 53C07

19. CJM 2005 (vol 57 pp. 771)

Schrohe, E.; Seiler, J.
 The Resolvent of Closed Extensions of Cone Differential Operators We study closed extensions $\underline A$ of an elliptic differential operator $A$ on a manifold with conical singularities, acting as an unbounded operator on a weighted $L_p$-space. Under suitable conditions we show that the resolvent $(\lambda-\underline A)^{-1}$ exists in a sector of the complex plane and decays like $1/|\lambda|$ as $|\lambda|\to\infty$. Moreover, we determine the structure of the resolvent with enough precision to guarantee existence and boundedness of imaginary powers of $\underline A$. As an application we treat the Laplace--Beltrami operator for a metric with straight conical degeneracy and describe domains yielding maximal regularity for the Cauchy problem $\dot{u}-\Delta u=f$, $u(0)=0$. Keywords:Manifolds with conical singularities, resolvent, maximal regularityCategories:35J70, 47A10, 58J40

20. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 776)

Lim, Yongdo
 Best Approximation in Riemannian Geodesic Submanifolds of Positive Definite Matrices We explicitly describe the best approximation in geodesic submanifolds of positive definite matrices obtained from involutive congruence transformations on the Cartan-Hadamard manifold ${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\Bbb R})^{++}$ of positive definite matrices. An explicit calculation for the minimal distance function from the geodesic submanifold ${\mathrm{Sym}}(p,{\mathbb R})^{++}\times {\mathrm{Sym}}(q,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ block diagonally embedded in ${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ is given in terms of metric and spectral geometric means, Cayley transform, and Schur complements of positive definite matrices when $p\leq 2$ or $q\leq 2.$ Keywords:Matrix approximation, positive, definite matrix, geodesic submanifold, Cartan-Hadamard manifold,, best approximation, minimal distance function, global tubular, neighborhood theorem, Schur complement, metric and spectral, geometric mean, Cayley transformCategories:15A48, 49R50, 15A18, 53C3

21. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1254)

Isaev, A. V.; Kruzhilin, N. G.
 Effective Actions of the Unitary Group on Complex Manifolds We classify all connected $n$-dimensional complex manifolds admitting effective actions of the unitary group $U_n$ by biholomorphic transformations. One consequence of this classification is a characterization of $\CC^n$ by its automorphism group. Keywords:complex manifolds, group actionsCategories:32Q57, 32M17

22. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 715)

Cushman, Richard; Śniatycki, Jędrzej
 Differential Structure of Orbit Spaces We present a new approach to singular reduction of Hamiltonian systems with symmetries. The tools we use are the category of differential spaces of Sikorski and the Stefan-Sussmann theorem. The former is applied to analyze the differential structure of the spaces involved and the latter is used to prove that some of these spaces are smooth manifolds. Our main result is the identification of accessible sets of the generalized distribution spanned by the Hamiltonian vector fields of invariant functions with singular reduced spaces. We are also able to describe the differential structure of a singular reduced space corresponding to a coadjoint orbit which need not be locally closed. Keywords:accessible sets, differential space, Poisson algebra, proper action, singular reduction, symplectic manifoldsCategories:37J15, 58A40, 58D19, 70H33

23. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 780)

Nicolaescu, Liviu I.
 Seiberg-Witten Invariants of Lens Spaces We show that the Seiberg-Witten invariants of a lens space determine and are determined by its Casson-Walker invariant and its Reidemeister-Turaev torsion. Keywords:lens spaces, Seifert manifolds, Seiberg-Witten invariants, Casson-Walker invariant, Reidemeister torsion, eta invariants, Dedekind-Rademacher sumsCategories:58D27, 57Q10, 57R15, 57R19, 53C20, 53C25

24. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 278)

Helminck, G. F.; van de Leur, J. W.
 Darboux Transformations for the KP Hierarchy in the Segal-Wilson Setting In this paper it is shown that inclusions inside the Segal-Wilson Grassmannian give rise to Darboux transformations between the solutions of the $\KP$ hierarchy corresponding to these planes. We present a closed form of the operators that procure the transformation and express them in the related geometric data. Further the associated transformation on the level of $\tau$-functions is given. Keywords:KP hierarchy, Darboux transformation, Grassmann manifoldCategories:22E65, 22E70, 35Q53, 35Q58, 58B25

25. CJM 2001 (vol 53 pp. 212)

Puppe, V.
 Group Actions and Codes A $\mathbb{Z}_2$-action with maximal number of isolated fixed points'' ({\it i.e.}, with only isolated fixed points such that $\dim_k (\oplus_i H^i(M;k)) =|M^{\mathbb{Z}_2}|, k = \mathbb{F}_2)$ on a $3$-dimensional, closed manifold determines a binary self-dual code of length $=|M^{\mathbb{Z}_2}|$. In turn this code determines the cohomology algebra $H^*(M;k)$ and the equivariant cohomology $H^*_{\mathbb{Z}_2}(M;k)$. Hence, from results on binary self-dual codes one gets information about the cohomology type of $3$-manifolds which admit involutions with maximal number of isolated fixed points. In particular, most'' cohomology types of closed $3$-manifolds do not admit such involutions. Generalizations of the above result are possible in several directions, {\it e.g.}, one gets that most'' cohomology types (over $\mathbb{F}_2)$ of closed $3$-manifolds do not admit a non-trivial involution. Keywords:Involutions, $3$-manifolds, codesCategories:55M35, 57M60, 94B05, 05E20
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