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1. CJM Online first

Boden, Hans Ulysses; Curtis, Cynthia L
 The SL$(2, C)$ Casson invariant for knots and the $\hat{A}$-polynomial In this paper, we extend the definition of the ${SL(2, {\mathbb C})}$ Casson invariant to arbitrary knots $K$ in integral homology 3-spheres and relate it to the $m$-degree of the $\widehat{A}$-polynomial of $K$. We prove a product formula for the $\widehat{A}$-polynomial of the connected sum $K_1 \# K_2$ of two knots in $S^3$ and deduce additivity of ${SL(2, {\mathbb C})}$ Casson knot invariant under connected sum for a large class of knots in $S^3$. We also present an example of a nontrivial knot $K$ in $S^3$ with trivial $\widehat{A}$-polynomial and trivial ${SL(2, {\mathbb C})}$ Casson knot invariant, showing that neither of these invariants detect the unknot. Keywords:Knots, 3-manifolds, character variety, Casson invariant, $A$-polynomialCategories:57M27, 57M25, 57M05

2. CJM Online first

Jaffe, Ethan Y.
 Pathological phenomena in Denjoy-Carleman classes Let $\mathcal{C}^M$ denote a Denjoy-Carleman class of $\mathcal{C}^\infty$ functions (for a given logarithmically-convex sequence $M = (M_n)$). We construct: (1) a function in $\mathcal{C}^M((-1,1))$ which is nowhere in any smaller class; (2) a function on $\mathbb{R}$ which is formally $\mathcal{C}^M$ at every point, but not in $\mathcal{C}^M(\mathbb{R})$; (3) (under the assumption of quasianalyticity) a smooth function on $\mathbb{R}^p$ ($p \geq 2$) which is $\mathcal{C}^M$ on every $\mathcal{C}^M$ curve, but not in $\mathcal{C}^M(\mathbb{R}^p)$. Keywords:Denjoy-Carleman classes, quasianalytic functions, quasianalytic curve, arc-quasianalyticCategory:26E10

3. CJM Online first

Demchenko, Oleg; Gurevich, Alexander
 Kernels in the category of formal group laws Fontaine described the category of formal groups over the ring of Witt vectors over a finite field of characteristic $p$ with the aid of triples consisting of the module of logarithms, the DieudonnÃ© module and the morphism from the former to the latter. We propose an explicit construction for the kernels in this category in term of Fontaine's triples. The construction is applied to the formal norm homomorphism in the case of an unramified extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and of a totally ramified extension of degree less or equal than $p$. A similar consideration applied to a global extension allows us to establish the existence of a strict isomorphism between the formal norm torus and a formal group law coming from $L$-series. Keywords:formal groups, $p$-divisible groups, Dieudonne modules, norm toriCategory:14L05

4. CJM Online first

Fernández Bretón, David J.
 Strongly Summable Ultrafilters, Union Ultrafilters, and the Trivial Sums Property We answer two questions of Hindman, SteprÄns and Strauss, namely we prove that every strongly summable ultrafilter on an abelian group is sparse and has the trivial sums property. Moreover we show that in most cases the sparseness of the given ultrafilter is a consequence of its being isomorphic to a union ultrafilter. However, this does not happen in all cases: we also construct (assuming Martin's Axiom for countable partial orders, i.e. $\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{M})=\mathfrak c$), on the Boolean group, a strongly summable ultrafilter that is not additively isomorphic to any union ultrafilter. Keywords:ultrafilter, Stone-Cech compactification, sparse ultrafilter, strongly summable ultrafilter, union ultrafilter, finite sum, additive isomorphism, trivial sums property, Boolean group, abelian groupCategories:03E75, 54D35, 54D80, 05D10, 05A18, 20K99

5. CJM Online first

Aluffi, Paolo; Faber, Eleonore
 Chern classes of splayed intersections We generalize the Chern class relation for the transversal intersection of two nonsingular varieties to a relation for possibly singular varieties, under a splayedness assumption. We show that the relation for the Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes holds for two splayed hypersurfaces in a nonsingular variety, and under a `strong splayedness' assumption for more general subschemes. Moreover, the relation is shown to hold for the Chern-Fulton classes of any two splayed subschemes. The main tool is a formula for Segre classes of splayed subschemes. We also discuss the Chern class relation under the assumption that one of the varieties is a general very ample divisor. Keywords:splayed intersection, Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson class, Chern-Fulton class, splayed blowup, Segre classCategories:14C17, 14J17

6. CJM Online first

Dubickas, Arturas; Sha, Min; Shparlinski, Igor
 Explicit form of Cassels' $p$-adic embedding theorem for number fields In this paper, we mainly give a general explicit form of Cassels' $p$-adic embedding theorem for number fields. We also give its refined form in the case of cyclotomic fields. As a byproduct, given an irreducible polynomial $f$ over $\mathbb{Z}$, we give a general unconditional upper bound for the smallest prime number $p$ such that $f$ has a simple root modulo $p$. Keywords:number field, $p$-adic embedding, height, polynomial, cyclotomic fieldCategories:11R04, 11S85, 11G50, 11R09, 11R18

7. CJM Online first

da Silva, Genival; Kerr, Matt; Pearlstein, Gregory
 Arithmetic of degenerating principal variations of Hodge structure: examples arising from mirror symmetry and middle convolution We collect evidence in support of a conjecture of Griffiths, Green and Kerr on the arithmetic of extension classes of limiting mixed Hodge structures arising from semistable degenerations over a number field. After briefly summarizing how a result of Iritani implies this conjecture for a collection of hypergeometric Calabi-Yau threefold examples studied by Doran and Morgan, the authors investigate a sequence of (non-hypergeometric) examples in dimensions $1\leq d\leq6$ arising from Katz's theory of the middle convolution. A crucial role is played by the Mumford-Tate group (which is $G_{2}$) of the family of 6-folds, and the theory of boundary components of Mumford-Tate domains. Keywords:variation of Hodge structure, limiting mixed Hodge structure, Calabi-Yau variety, middle convolution, Mumford-Tate groupCategories:14D07, 14M17, 17B45, 20G99, 32M10, 32G20

8. CJM Online first

Runde, Volker; Viselter, Ami
 On positive definiteness over locally compact quantum groups The notion of positive-definite functions over locally compact quantum groups was recently introduced and studied by Daws and Salmi. Based on this work, we generalize various well-known results about positive-definite functions over groups to the quantum framework. Among these are theorems on "square roots" of positive-definite functions, comparison of various topologies, positive-definite measures and characterizations of amenability, and the separation property with respect to compact quantum subgroups. Keywords:bicrossed product, locally compact quantum group, non-commutative $L^p$-space, positive-definite function, positive-definite measure, separation propertyCategories:20G42, 22D25, 43A35, 46L51, 46L52, 46L89

9. CJM Online first

Kawakami, Yu
 Function-theoretic Properties for the Gauss Maps of Various Classes of Surfaces We elucidate the geometric background of function-theoretic properties for the Gauss maps of several classes of immersed surfaces in three-dimensional space forms, for example, minimal surfaces in Euclidean three-space, improper affine spheres in the affine three-space, and constant mean curvature one surfaces and flat surfaces in hyperbolic three-space. To achieve this purpose, we prove an optimal curvature bound for a specified conformal metric on an open Riemann surface and give some applications. We also provide unicity theorems for the Gauss maps of these classes of surfaces. Keywords:Gauss map, minimal surface, constant mean curvature surface, front, ramification, omitted value, the Ahlfors island theorem, unicity theorem.Categories:53C42, 30D35, 30F45, 53A10, 53A15

10. CJM Online first

Izumi, Masaki; Morrison, Scott; Penneys, David
 Quotients of $A_2 * T_2$ We study unitary quotients of the free product unitary pivotal category $A_2*T_2$. We show that such quotients are parametrized by an integer $n\geq 1$ and an $2n$-th root of unity $\omega$. We show that for $n=1,2,3$, there is exactly one quotient and $\omega=1$. For $4\leq n\leq 10$, we show that there are no such quotients. Our methods also apply to quotients of $T_2*T_2$, where we have a similar result. The essence of our method is a consistency check on jellyfish relations. While we only treat the specific cases of $A_2 * T_2$ and $T_2 * T_2$, we anticipate that our technique can be extended to a general method for proving nonexistence of planar algebras with a specified principal graph. During the preparation of this manuscript, we learnt of Liu's independent result on composites of $A_3$ and $A_4$ subfactor planar algebras (arxiv:1308.5691). In 1994, Bisch-Haagerup showed that the principal graph of a composite of $A_3$ and $A_4$ must fit into a certain family, and Liu has classified all such subfactor planar algebras. We explain the connection between the quotient categories and the corresponding composite subfactor planar algebras. As a corollary of Liu's result, there are no such quotient categories for $n\geq 4$. This is an abridged version of arxiv:1308.5723. Keywords:pivotal category, free product, quotient, subfactor, intermediate subfactorCategory:46L37

11. CJM Online first

Bonfanti, Matteo Alfonso; van Geemen,
 Abelian Surfaces with an Automorphism and Quaternionic Multiplication We construct one dimensional families of Abelian surfaces with quaternionic multiplication which also have an automorphism of order three or four. Using Barth's description of the moduli space of $(2,4)$-polarized Abelian surfaces, we find the Shimura curve parametrizing these Abelian surfaces in a specific case. We explicitly relate these surfaces to the Jacobians of genus two curves studied by Hashimoto and Murabayashi. We also describe a (Humbert) surface in Barth's moduli space which parametrizes Abelian surfaces with real multiplication by $\mathbf{Z}[\sqrt{2}]$. Keywords:abelian surfaces, moduli, shimura curvesCategories:14K10, 11G10, 14K20

12. CJM Online first

Barros, Carlos Braga; Rocha, Victor; Souza, Josiney
 Lyapunov Stability and Attraction Under Equivariant Maps Let $M$ and $N$ be admissible Hausdorff topological spaces endowed with admissible families of open coverings. Assume that $\mathcal{S}$ is a semigroup acting on both $M$ and $N$. In this paper we study the behavior of limit sets, prolongations, prolongational limit sets, attracting sets, attractors and Lyapunov stable sets (all concepts defined for the action of the semigroup $\mathcal{S}$) under equivariant maps and semiconjugations from $M$ to $N$. Keywords:Lyapunov stability, semigroup actions, generalized flows, equivariant maps, admissible topological spacesCategories:37B25, 37C75, 34C27, 34D05

13. CJM Online first

Shiozawa, Yuichi
 Lower Escape Rate of Symmetric Jump-diffusion Processes We establish an integral test on the lower escape rate of symmetric jump-diffusion processes generated by regular Dirichlet forms. Using this test, we can find the speed of particles escaping to infinity. We apply this test to symmetric jump processes of variable order. We also derive the upper and lower escape rates of time changed processes by using those of underlying processes. Keywords:lower escape rate, Dirichlet form, Markov process, time changeCategories:60G17, 31C25, 60J25

14. CJM Online first

Martins, Luciana de Fátima; Saji, Kentaro
 Geometric invariants of cuspidal edges We give a normal form of the cuspidal edge which uses only diffeomorphisms on the source and isometries on the target. Using this normal form, we study differential geometric invariants of cuspidal edges which determine them up to order three. We also clarify relations between these invariants. Keywords:cuspidal edge, curvature, wave frontsCategories:57R45, 53A05, 53A55

15. CJM 2015 (vol 67 pp. 481)

an Huef, Astrid; Archbold, Robert John
 The C*-algebras of Compact Transformation Groups We investigate the representation theory of the crossed-product $C^*$-algebra associated to a compact group $G$ acting on a locally compact space $X$ when the stability subgroups vary discontinuously. Our main result applies when $G$ has a principal stability subgroup or $X$ is locally of finite $G$-orbit type. Then the upper multiplicity of the representation of the crossed product induced from an irreducible representation $V$ of a stability subgroup is obtained by restricting $V$ to a certain closed subgroup of the stability subgroup and taking the maximum of the multiplicities of the irreducible summands occurring in the restriction of $V$. As a corollary we obtain that when the trivial subgroup is a principal stability subgroup, the crossed product is a Fell algebra if and only if every stability subgroup is abelian. A second corollary is that the $C^*$-algebra of the motion group $\mathbb{R}^n\rtimes \operatorname{SO}(n)$ is a Fell algebra. This uses the classical branching theorem for the special orthogonal group $\operatorname{SO}(n)$ with respect to $\operatorname{SO}(n-1)$. Since proper transformation groups are locally induced from the actions of compact groups, we describe how some of our results can be extended to transformation groups that are locally proper. Keywords:compact transformation group, proper action, spectrum of a C*-algebra, multiplicity of a representation, crossed-product C*-algebra, continuous-trace C*-algebra, Fell algebraCategories:46L05, 46L55

16. CJM 2015 (vol 67 pp. 696)

Zhang, Tong
 Geography of Irregular Gorenstein 3-folds In this paper, we study the explicit geography problem of irregular Gorenstein minimal 3-folds of general type. We generalize the classical Noether-Castelnuovo type inequalities for irregular surfaces to irregular 3-folds according to the Albanese dimension. Keywords:3-fold, geography, irregular varietyCategory:14J30

17. CJM Online first

Carey, Alan L; Gayral, Victor; Phillips, John; Rennie, Adam; Sukochev, Fedor
 Spectral flow for nonunital spectral triples We prove two results about nonunital index theory left open in a previous paper. The first is that the spectral triple arising from an action of the reals on a $C^*$-algebra with invariant trace satisfies the hypotheses of the nonunital local index formula. The second result concerns the meaning of spectral flow in the nonunital case. For the special case of paths arising from the odd index pairing for smooth spectral triples in the nonunital setting we are able to connect with earlier approaches to the analytic definition of spectral flow. Keywords:spectral triple, spectral flow, local index theoremCategory:46H30

18. CJM 2015 (vol 67 pp. 597)

Drappeau, Sary
 Sommes friables d'exponentielles et applications An integer is said to be $y$-friable if its greatest prime factor is less than $y$. In this paper, we obtain estimates for exponential sums over $y$-friable numbers up to $x$ which are non-trivial when $y \geq \exp\{c \sqrt{\log x} \log \log x\}$. As a consequence, we obtain an asymptotic formula for the number of $y$-friable solutions to the equation $a+b=c$ which is valid unconditionnally under the same assumption. We use a contour integration argument based on the saddle point method, as developped in the context of friable numbers by Hildebrand and Tenenbaum, and used by Lagarias, Soundararajan and Harper to study exponential and character sums over friable numbers. Keywords:thÃ©orie analytique des nombres, entiers friables, mÃ©thode du colCategories:12N25, 11L07

19. CJM Online first

Zhang, Junqiang; Cao, Jun; Jiang, Renjin; Yang, Dachun
 Non-tangential Maximal Function Characterizations of Hardy Spaces Associated with Degenerate Elliptic Operators Let $w$ be either in the Muckenhoupt class of $A_2(\mathbb{R}^n)$ weights or in the class of $QC(\mathbb{R}^n)$ weights, and $L_w:=-w^{-1}\mathop{\mathrm{div}}(A\nabla)$ the degenerate elliptic operator on the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$, $n\ge 2$. In this article, the authors establish the non-tangential maximal function characterization of the Hardy space $H_{L_w}^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$ associated with $L_w$ for $p\in (0,1]$ and, when $p\in (\frac{n}{n+1},1]$ and $w\in A_{q_0}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $q_0\in[1,\frac{p(n+1)}n)$, the authors prove that the associated Riesz transform $\nabla L_w^{-1/2}$ is bounded from $H_{L_w}^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$ to the weighted classical Hardy space $H_w^p(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Keywords:degenerate elliptic operator, Hardy space, square function, maximal function, molecule, Riesz transformCategories:42B30, 42B35, 35J70

20. CJM Online first

Cojocaru, Alina Carmen; Shulman, Andrew Michael
 The Distribution of the First Elementary Divisor of the Reductions of a Generic Drinfeld Module of Arbitrary Rank Let $\psi$ be a generic Drinfeld module of rank $r \geq 2$. We study the first elementary divisor $d_{1, \wp}(\psi)$ of the reduction of $\psi$ modulo a prime $\wp$, as $\wp$ varies. In particular, we prove the existence of the density of the primes $\wp$ for which $d_{1, \wp} (\psi)$ is fixed. For $r = 2$, we also study the second elementary divisor (the exponent) of the reduction of $\psi$ modulo $\wp$ and prove that, on average, it has a large norm. Our work is motivated by the study of J.-P. Serre of an elliptic curve analogue of Artin's Primitive Root Conjecture, and, moreover, by refinements to Serre's study developed by the first author and M.R. Murty. Keywords:Drinfeld modules, density theoremsCategories:11R45, 11G09, 11R58

21. CJM Online first

Stange, Katherine E.
 Integral Points on Elliptic Curves and Explicit Valuations of Division Polynomials Assuming Lang's conjectured lower bound on the heights of non-torsion points on an elliptic curve, we show that there exists an absolute constant $C$ such that for any elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{Q}$ and non-torsion point $P \in E(\mathbb{Q})$, there is at most one integral multiple $[n]P$ such that $n \gt C$. The proof is a modification of a proof of Ingram giving an unconditional but not uniform bound. The new ingredient is a collection of explicit formulae for the sequence $v(\Psi_n)$ of valuations of the division polynomials. For $P$ of non-singular reduction, such sequences are already well described in most cases, but for $P$ of singular reduction, we are led to define a new class of sequences called \emph{elliptic troublemaker sequences}, which measure the failure of the NÃ©ron local height to be quadratic. As a corollary in the spirit of a conjecture of Lang and Hall, we obtain a uniform upper bound on $\widehat{h}(P)/h(E)$ for integer points having two large integral multiples. Keywords:elliptic divisibility sequence, Lang's conjecture, height functionsCategories:11G05, 11G07, 11D25, 11B37, 11B39, 11Y55, 11G50, 11H52

22. CJM Online first

Kaniuth, Eberhard
 The Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein property and spectral synthesis for certain Banach algebra products Associated with two commutative Banach algebras $A$ and $B$ and a character $\theta$ of $B$ is a certain Banach algebra product $A\times_\theta B$, which is a splitting extension of $B$ by $A$. We investigate two topics for the algebra $A\times_\theta B$ in relation to the corresponding ones of $A$ and $B$. The first one is the Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein property and the algebra of Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein functions on the spectrum, whereas the second one concerns the wide range of spectral synthesis problems for $A\times_\theta B$. Keywords:commutative Banach algebra, splitting extension, Gelfand spectrum, set of synthesis, weak spectral set, multiplier algebra, BSE-algebra, BSE-functionCategories:46J10, 46J25, 43A30, 43A45

23. CJM Online first

 The Weak b-principle: Mumford Conjecture In this note we introduce and study a new class of maps called oriented colored broken submersions. This is the simplest class of maps that satisfies a version of the b-principle and in dimension $2$ approximates the class of oriented submersions well in the sense that every oriented colored broken submersion of dimension $2$ to a closed simply connected manifold is bordant to a submersion. We show that the Madsen-Weiss theorem (the standard Mumford Conjecture) fits a general setting of the b-principle. Namely, a version of the b-principle for oriented colored broken submersions together with the Harer stability theorem and Miller-Morita theorem implies the Madsen-Weiss theorem. Keywords:generalized cohomology theories, fold singularities, h-principle, infinite loop spacesCategories:55N20, 53C23

24. CJM Online first

Carcamo, Cristian; Vidal, Claudio
 Stability of Equilibrium Solutions in Planar Hamiltonian Difference Systems In this paper, we study the stability in the Lyapunov sense of the equilibrium solutions of discrete or difference Hamiltonian systems in the plane. First, we perform a detailed study of linear Hamiltonian systems as a function of the parameters, in particular we analyze the regular and the degenerate cases. Next, we give a detailed study of the normal form associated with the linear Hamiltonian system. At the same time we obtain the conditions under which we can get stability (in linear approximation) of the equilibrium solution, classifying all the possible phase diagrams as a function of the parameters. After that, we study the stability of the equilibrium solutions of the first order difference system in the plane associated to mechanical Hamiltonian system and Hamiltonian system defined by cubic polynomials. Finally, important differences with the continuous case are pointed out. Keywords:difference equations, Hamiltonian systems, stability in the Lyapunov senseCategories:34D20, 34E10

25. CJM Online first

Charlesworth, Ian; Nelson, Brent; Skoufranis, Paul
 On two-faced families of non-commutative random variables We demonstrate that the notions of bi-free independence and combinatorial-bi-free independence of two-faced families are equivalent using a diagrammatic view of bi-non-crossing partitions. These diagrams produce an operator model on a Fock space suitable for representing any two-faced family of non-commutative random variables. Furthermore, using a Kreweras complement on bi-non-crossing partitions we establish the expected formulas for the multiplicative convolution of a bi-free pair of two-faced families. Keywords:free probability, operator algebras, bi-freeCategory:46L54
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