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1. CJM Online first

Brugallé, Erwan; Shaw, Kristin
 Obstructions to Approximating Tropical Curves in Surfaces Via Intersection Theory We provide some new local obstructions to approximating tropical curves in smooth tropical surfaces. These obstructions are based on a relation between tropical and complex intersection theories which is also established here. We give two applications of the methods developed in this paper. First we classify all locally irreducible approximable 3-valent fan tropical curves in a fan tropical plane. Secondly, we prove that a generic non-singular tropical surface in tropical projective 3-space contains finitely many approximable tropical lines if it is of degree 3, and contains no approximable tropical lines if it is of degree 4 or more. Keywords:tropical geometry, amoebas, approximation of tropical varieties, intersection theoryCategories:14T05, 14M25

2. CJM Online first

Roth, Oliver
 Pontryagin's maximum principle for the Loewner equation in higher dimensions In this paper we develop a variational method for the Loewner equation in higher dimensions. As a result we obtain a version of Pontryagin's maximum principle from optimal control theory for the Loewner equation in several complex variables. Based on recent work of Arosio, Bracci and Wold, we then apply our version of the Pontryagin maximum principle to obtain first-order necessary conditions for the extremal mappings for a wide class of extremal problems over the set of normalized biholomorphic mappings on the unit ball in $\mathbb{C}^n$. Keywords:univalent function, Loewner's equationCategories:32H02, 30C55, 49K15

3. CJM Online first

Ducrot, Arnaud; Magal, Pierre; Seydi, Ousmane
 A Finite-time Condition for Exponential Trichotomy in Infinite Dynamical Systems In this article we study exponential trichotomy for infinite dimensional discrete time dynamical systems. The goal of this article is to prove that finite time exponential trichotomy conditions allow to derive exponential trichotomy for any times. We present an application to the case of pseudo orbits in some neighborhood of a normally hyperbolic set. Keywords:exponential trichotomy, exponential dichotomy, discrete time dynamical systems, difference equationsCategories:34D09, 34A10

4. CJM Online first

Elliott, George A.; Niu, Zhuang
 All Irrational Extended Rotation Algebras are AF Algebras Let $\theta\in[0, 1]$ be any irrational number. It is shown that the extended rotation algebra $\mathcal B_\theta$ introduced in a previous paper is always an AF algebra. Keywords:irrational rotation algebra, extended irrational rotation algebra, AF-embedding

5. CJM Online first

Zhang, Tong
 Geography of Irregular Gorenstein 3-folds In this paper, we study the explicit geography problem of irregular Gorenstein minimal 3-folds of general type. We generalize the classical Noether-Castelnuovo type inequalities for irregular surfaces to irregular 3-folds according to the Albanese dimension. Keywords:3-fold, geography, irregular varietyCategory:14J30

6. CJM Online first

Hua, Jiajie; Lin, Huaxin
 Rotation algebras and the Exel trace formula We found that if $u$ and $v$ are any two unitaries in a unital $C^*$-algebra with $\|uv-vu\|\lt 2$ and $uvu^*v^*$ commutes with $u$ and $v,$ then the $C^*$-subalgebra $A_{u,v}$ generated by $u$ and $v$ is isomorphic to a quotient of some rotation algebra $A_\theta$ provided that $A_{u,v}$ has a unique tracial state. We also found that the Exel trace formula holds in any unital $C^*$-algebra. Let $\theta\in (-1/2, 1/2)$ be a real number. We prove the following: For any $\epsilon\gt 0,$ there exists $\delta\gt 0$ satisfying the following: if $u$ and $v$ are two unitaries in any unital simple $C^*$-algebra $A$ with tracial rank zero such that $\|uv-e^{2\pi i\theta}vu\|\lt \delta \text{ and } {1\over{2\pi i}}\tau(\log(uvu^*v^*))=\theta,$ for all tracial state $\tau$ of $A,$ then there exists a pair of unitaries $\tilde{u}$ and $\tilde{v}$ in $A$ such that $\tilde{u}\tilde{v}=e^{2\pi i\theta} \tilde{v}\tilde{u},\,\, \|u-\tilde{u}\|\lt \epsilon \text{ and } \|v-\tilde{v}\|\lt \epsilon.$ Keywords:rotation algebras, Exel trace formulaCategory:46L05

7. CJM Online first

Lescop, Christine
 On homotopy invariants of combings of three-manifolds Combings of compact, oriented $3$-dimensional manifolds $M$ are homotopy classes of nowhere vanishing vector fields. The Euler class of the normal bundle is an invariant of the combing, and it only depends on the underlying Spin$^c$-structure. A combing is called torsion if this Euler class is a torsion element of $H^2(M;\mathbb Z)$. Gompf introduced a $\mathbb Q$-valued invariant $\theta_G$ of torsion combings on closed $3$-manifolds, and he showed that $\theta_G$ distinguishes all torsion combings with the same Spin$^c$-structure. We give an alternative definition for $\theta_G$ and we express its variation as a linking number. We define a similar invariant $p_1$ of combings for manifolds bounded by $S^2$. We relate $p_1$ to the $\Theta$-invariant, which is the simplest configuration space integral invariant of rational homology $3$-balls, by the formula $\Theta=\frac14p_1 + 6 \lambda(\hat{M})$ where $\lambda$ is the Casson-Walker invariant. The article also includes a self-contained presentation of combings for $3$-manifolds. Keywords:Spin$^c$-structure, nowhere zero vector fields, first Pontrjagin class, Euler class, Heegaard Floer homology grading, Gompf invariant, Theta invariant, Casson-Walker invariant, perturbative expansion of Chern-Simons theory, configuration space integralsCategories:57M27, 57R20, 57N10

8. CJM Online first

Ashraf, Samia; Azam, Haniya; Berceanu, Barbu
 Representation stability of power sets and square free polynomials The symmetric group $\mathcal{S}_n$ acts on the power set $\mathcal{P}(n)$ and also on the set of square free polynomials in $n$ variables. These two related representations are analyzed from the stability point of view. An application is given for the action of the symmetric group on the cohomology of the pure braid group. Keywords:symmetric group modules, square free polynomials, representation stability, Arnold algebraCategories:20C30, 13A50, 20F36, 55R80

9. CJM Online first

Kaniuth, Eberhard
 The Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein property and spectral synthesis for certain Banach algebra products Associated with two commutative Banach algebras $A$ and $B$ and a character $\theta$ of $B$ is a certain Banach algebra product $A\times_\theta B$, which is a splitting extension of $B$ by $A$. We investigate two topics for the algebra $A\times_\theta B$ in relation to the corresponding ones of $A$ and $B$. The first one is the Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein property and the algebra of Bochner-Schoenberg-Eberlein functions on the spectrum, whereas the second one concerns the wide range of spectral synthesis problems for $A\times_\theta B$. Keywords:commutative Banach algebra, splitting extension, Gelfand spectrum, set of synthesis, weak spectral set, multiplier algebra, BSE-algebra, BSE-functionCategories:46J10, 46J25, 43A30, 43A45

10. CJM Online first

Adler, Jeffrey D.; Lansky, Joshua M.
 Lifting Representations of Finite Reductive Groups I: Semisimple Conjugacy Classes Suppose that $\tilde{G}$ is a connected reductive group defined over a field $k$, and $\Gamma$ is a finite group acting via $k$-automorphisms of $\tilde{G}$ satisfying a certain quasi-semisimplicity condition. Then the identity component of the group of $\Gamma$-fixed points in $\tilde{G}$ is reductive. We axiomatize the main features of the relationship between this fixed-point group and the pair $(\tilde{G},\Gamma)$, and consider any group $G$ satisfying the axioms. If both $\tilde{G}$ and $G$ are $k$-quasisplit, then we can consider their duals $\tilde{G}^*$ and $G^*$. We show the existence of and give an explicit formula for a natural map from the set of semisimple stable conjugacy classes in $G^*(k)$ to the analogous set for $\tilde{G}^*(k)$. If $k$ is finite, then our groups are automatically quasisplit, and our result specializes to give a map of semisimple conjugacy classes. Since such classes parametrize packets of irreducible representations of $G(k)$ and $\tilde{G}(k)$, one obtains a mapping of such packets. Keywords:reductive group, lifting, conjugacy class, representation, Lusztig seriesCategories:20G15, 20G40, 20C33, 22E35

11. CJM Online first

Mok, Chung Pang; Tan, Fucheng
 Overconvergent Families of Siegel-Hilbert Modular Forms We construct one-parameter families of overconvergent Siegel-Hilbert modular forms. This result has applications to construction of Galois representations for automorphic forms of non-cohomological weights. Keywords:p-adic automorphic form, rigid analytic geometryCategories:11F46, 14G22

12. CJM Online first

Agler, Jim; McCarthy,
 Global holomorphic functions in several noncommuting variables We define a free holomorphic function to be a function that is locally, with respect to the free topology, a bounded nc-function. We prove that free holomorphic functions are the functions that are locally uniformly approximable by free polynomials. We prove a realization formula and an Oka-Weil theorem for free analytic functions. Keywords:noncommutative analysis, free holomorphic functionsCategory:15A54

13. CJM Online first

Köck, Bernhard; Tait, Joseph
 Faithfulness of Actions on Riemann-Roch Spaces Given a faithful action of a finite group $G$ on an algebraic curve~$X$ of genus $g_X\geq 2$, we give explicit criteria for the induced action of~$G$ on the Riemann-Roch space~$H^0(X,\mathcal{O}_X(D))$ to be faithful, where $D$ is a $G$-invariant divisor on $X$ of degree at least~$2g_X-2$. This leads to a concise answer to the question when the action of~$G$ on the space~$H^0(X, \Omega_X^{\otimes m})$ of global holomorphic polydifferentials of order $m$ is faithful. If $X$ is hyperelliptic, we furthermore provide an explicit basis of~$H^0(X, \Omega_X^{\otimes m})$. Finally, we give applications in deformation theory and in coding theory and we discuss the analogous problem for the action of~$G$ on the first homology $H_1(X, \mathbb{Z}/m\mathbb{Z})$ if $X$ is a Riemann surface. Keywords:faithful action, Riemann-Roch space, polydifferential, hyperelliptic curve, equivariant deformation theory, Goppa code, homologyCategories:14H30, 30F30, 14L30, 14D15, 11R32

14. CJM Online first

 Bounded Derived Categories of Infinite Quivers: Grothendieck Duality, Reflection Functor We study bounded derived categories of the category of representations of infinite quivers over a ring $R$. In case $R$ is a commutative noetherian ring with a dualising complex, we investigate an equivalence similar to Grothendieck duality for these categories, while a notion of dualising complex does not apply to them. The quivers we consider are left, resp. right, rooted quivers that are either noetherian or their opposite are noetherian. We also consider reflection functor and generalize a result of Happel to noetherian rings of finite global dimension, instead of fields. Keywords:derived category, Grothendieck duality, representation of quivers, reflection functorCategories:18E30, 16G20, 18E40, 16D90, 18A40

15. CJM 2014 (vol 66 pp. 993)

Beuzart-Plessis, Raphaël
 Expression d'un facteur epsilon de paire par une formule intÃ©grale Let $E/F$ be a quadratic extension of $p$-adic fields and let $d$, $m$ be nonnegative integers of distinct parities. Fix admissible irreducible tempered representations $\pi$ and $\sigma$ of $GL_d(E)$ and $GL_m(E)$ respectively. We assume that $\pi$ and $\sigma$ are conjugate-dual. That is to say $\pi\simeq \pi^{\vee,c}$ and $\sigma\simeq \sigma^{\vee,c}$ where $c$ is the non trivial $F$-automorphism of $E$. This implies, we can extend $\pi$ to an unitary representation $\tilde{\pi}$ of a nonconnected group $GL_d(E)\rtimes \{1,\theta\}$. Define $\tilde{\sigma}$ the same way. We state and prove an integral formula for $\epsilon(1/2,\pi\times \sigma,\psi_E)$ involving the characters of $\tilde{\pi}$ and $\tilde{\sigma}$. This formula is related to the local Gan-Gross-Prasad conjecture for unitary groups. Keywords:epsilon factor, twisted groupsCategories:22E50, 11F85

16. CJM Online first

Di Nasso, Mauro; Goldbring, Isaac; Jin, Renling; Leth, Steven; Lupini, Martino; Mahlburg, Karl
 On a sumset conjecture of ErdÅs ErdÅs conjectured that for any set $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ with positive lower asymptotic density, there are infinite sets $B,C\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ such that $B+C\subseteq A$. We verify ErdÅs' conjecture in the case that $A$ has Banach density exceeding $\frac{1}{2}$. As a consequence, we prove that, for $A\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ with positive Banach density (a much weaker assumption than positive lower density), we can find infinite $B,C\subseteq \mathbb{N}$ such that $B+C$ is contained in the union of $A$ and a translate of $A$. Both of the aforementioned results are generalized to arbitrary countable amenable groups. We also provide a positive solution to ErdÅs' conjecture for subsets of the natural numbers that are pseudorandom. Keywords:sumsets of integers, asymptotic density, amenable groups, nonstandard analysisCategories:11B05, 11B13, 11P70, 28D15, 37A45

17. CJM Online first

Graham, Robert; Pichot, Mikael
 A Free Product Formula for the Sofic Dimension It is proved that if $G=G_1*_{G_3}G_2$ is free product of probability measure preserving $s$-regular ergodic discrete groupoids amalgamated over an amenable subgroupoid $G_3$, then the sofic dimension $s(G)$ satisfies the equality $s(G)=\mathfrak{h}(G_1^0)s(G_1)+\mathfrak{h}(G_2^0)s(G_2)-\mathfrak{h}(G_3^0)s(G_3)$ where $\mathfrak{h}$ is the normalized Haar measure on $G$. Keywords:sofic groups, dynamical systems, orbit equivalence, free entropyCategory:20E06

18. CJM Online first

Samart, Detchat
 Mahler Measures as Linear Combinations of $L$-values of Multiple Modular Forms We study the Mahler measures of certain families of Laurent polynomials in two and three variables. Each of the known Mahler measure formulas for these families involves $L$-values of at most one newform and/or at most one quadratic character. In this paper, we show, either rigorously or numerically, that the Mahler measures of some polynomials are related to $L$-values of multiple newforms and quadratic characters simultaneously. The results suggest that the number of modular $L$-values appearing in the formulas significantly depends on the shape of the algebraic value of the parameter chosen for each polynomial. As a consequence, we also obtain new formulas relating special values of hypergeometric series evaluated at algebraic numbers to special values of $L$-functions. Keywords:Mahler measures, Eisenstein-Kronecker series, $L$-functions, hypergeometric seriesCategories:11F67, 33C20

19. CJM Online first

Barron, Tatyana; Kerner, Dmitry; Tvalavadze, Marina
 On Varieties of Lie Algebras of Maximal Class We study complex projective varieties that parametrize (finite-dimensional) filiform Lie algebras over ${\mathbb C}$, using equations derived by Millionshchikov. In the infinite-dimensional case we concentrate our attention on ${\mathbb N}$-graded Lie algebras of maximal class. As shown by A. Fialowski there are only three isomorphism types of $\mathbb{N}$-graded Lie algebras $L=\oplus^{\infty}_{i=1} L_i$ of maximal class generated by $L_1$ and $L_2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_2 \rangle$. Vergne described the structure of these algebras with the property $L=\langle L_1 \rangle$. In this paper we study those generated by the first and $q$-th components where $q\gt 2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_q \rangle$. Under some technical condition, there can only be one isomorphism type of such algebras. For $q=3$ we fully classify them. This gives a partial answer to a question posed by Millionshchikov. Keywords:filiform Lie algebras, graded Lie algebras, projective varieties, topology, classificationCategories:17B70, 14F45

20. CJM 2014 (vol 66 pp. 961)

Baird, Thomas
 Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles over a Real Curve: $\mathbb Z/2$-Betti Numbers Moduli spaces of real bundles over a real curve arise naturally as Lagrangian submanifolds of the moduli space of semi-stable bundles over a complex curve. In this paper, we adapt the methods of Atiyah-Bott's Yang-Mills over a Riemann Surface'' to compute $\mathbb Z/2$-Betti numbers of these spaces. Keywords:cohomology of moduli spaces, holomorphic vector bundlesCategories:32L05, 14P25

21. CJM Online first

McReynolds, D. B.
 Geometric Spectra and Commensurability The work of Reid, Chinburg-Hamilton-Long-Reid, Prasad-Rapinchuk, and the author with Reid have demonstrated that geodesics or totally geodesic submanifolds can sometimes be used to determine the commensurability class of an arithmetic manifold. The main results of this article show that generalizations of these results to other arithmetic manifolds will require a wide range of data. Specifically, we prove that certain incommensurable arithmetic manifolds arising from the semisimple Lie groups of the form $(\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{R}))^r \times (\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{C}))^s$ have the same commensurability classes of totally geodesic submanifolds coming from a fixed field. This construction is algebraic and shows the failure of determining, in general, a central simple algebra from subalgebras over a fixed field. This, in turn, can be viewed in terms of forms of $\operatorname{SL}_d$ and the failure of determining the form via certain classes of algebraic subgroups. Keywords:arithmetic groups, Brauer groups, arithmetic equivalence, locally symmetric manifoldsCategory:20G25

22. CJM Online first

 Sharp Localized Inequalities for Fourier Multipliers In the paper we study sharp localized $L^q\colon L^p$ estimates for Fourier multipliers resulting from modulation of the jumps of LÃ©vy processes. The proofs of these estimates rest on probabilistic methods and exploit related sharp bounds for differentially subordinated martingales, which are of independent interest. The lower bounds for the constants involve the analysis of laminates, a family of certain special probability measures on $2\times 2$ matrices. As an application, we obtain new sharp bounds for the real and imaginary parts of the Beurling-Ahlfors operator . Keywords:Fourier multiplier, martingale, laminateCategories:42B15, 60G44, 42B20

23. CJM 2014 (vol 66 pp. 1078)

Lanphier, Dominic; Skogman, Howard
 Values of Twisted Tensor $L$-functions of Automorphic Forms Over Imaginary Quadratic Fields Let $K$ be a complex quadratic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ and let $\mathbb{A}_K$ denote the adeles of $K$. We find special values at all of the critical points of twisted tensor $L$-functions attached to cohomological cuspforms on $GL_2(\mathbb{A}_K)$, and establish Galois equivariance of the values. To investigate the values, we determine the archimedean factors of a class of integral representations of these $L$-functions, thus proving a conjecture due to Ghate. We also investigate analytic properties of these $L$-functions, such as their functional equations. Keywords:twisted tensor $L$-function, cuspform, hypergeometric seriesCategories:11F67, 11F37

24. CJM Online first

Nishinou, Takeo
 Toric Degenerations, Tropical Curve, and Gromov-Witten Invariants of Fano Manifolds In this paper, we give a tropical method for computing Gromov-Witten type invariants of Fano manifolds of special type. This method applies to those Fano manifolds which admit toric degenerations to toric Fano varieties with singularities allowing small resolutions. Examples include (generalized) flag manifolds of type A, and some moduli space of rank two bundles on a genus two curve. Keywords:Fano varieties, Gromov-Witten invariants, tropical curvesCategory:14J45

25. CJM Online first

Bell, Jason P.; Lagarias, Jeffrey C.
 A Skolem-Mahler-Lech Theorem for Iterated Automorphisms of $K$-algebras This paper proves a commutative algebraic extension of a generalized Skolem-Mahler-Lech theorem due to the first author. Let $A$ be a finitely generated commutative $K$-algebra over a field of characteristic $0$, and let $\sigma$ be a $K$-algebra automorphism of $A$. Given ideals $I$ and $J$ of $A$, we show that the set $S$ of integers $m$ such that $\sigma^m(I) \supseteq J$ is a finite union of complete doubly infinite arithmetic progressions in $m$, up to the addition of a finite set. Alternatively, this result states that for an affine scheme $X$ of finite type over $K$, an automorphism $\sigma \in \operatorname{Aut}_K(X)$, and $Y$ and $Z$ any two closed subschemes of $X$, the set of integers $m$ with $\sigma^m(Z ) \subseteq Y$ is as above. The paper presents examples showing that this result may fail to hold if the affine scheme $X$ is not of finite type, or if $X$ is of finite type but the field $K$ has positive characteristic. Keywords:automorphisms, endomorphisms, affine space, commutative algebras, Skolem-Mahler-Lech theoremCategories:11D45, 14R10, 11Y55, 11D88
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