CMS/SMC
Canadian Mathematical Society
www.cms.math.ca
Canadian Mathematical Society
  location:  Publicationsjournals
Publications        
Search results

Search: All articles in the CJM digital archive with keyword f

  Expand all        Collapse all Results 1 - 25 of 349

1. CJM Online first

McReynolds, D. B.
Geometric Spectra and Commensurability
The work of Reid, Chinburg-Hamilton-Long-Reid, Prasad-Rapinchuk, and the author with Reid have demonstrated that geodesics or totally geodesic submanifolds can sometimes be used to determine the commensurability class of an arithmetic manifold. The main results of this article show that generalizations of these results to other arithmetic manifolds will require a wide range of data. Specifically, we prove that certain incommensurable arithmetic manifolds arising from the semisimple Lie groups of the form $(\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{R}))^r \times (\operatorname{SL}(d,\mathbf{C}))^s$ have the same commensurability classes of totally geodesic submanifolds coming from a fixed field. This construction is algebraic and shows the failure of determining, in general, a central simple algebra from subalgebras over a fixed field. This, in turn, can be viewed in terms of forms of $\operatorname{SL}_d$ and the failure of determining the form via certain classes of algebraic subgroups.

Keywords:arithmetic groups, Brauer groups, arithmetic equivalence, locally symmetric manifolds
Category:20G25

2. CJM Online first

Osėkowski, Adam
Sharp Localized Inequalities for Fourier Multipliers
In the paper we study sharp localized $L^q\colon L^p$ estimates for Fourier multipliers resulting from modulation of the jumps of Lévy processes. The proofs of these estimates rest on probabilistic methods and exploit related sharp bounds for differentially subordinated martingales, which are of independent interest. The lower bounds for the constants involve the analysis of laminates, a family of certain special probability measures on $2\times 2$ matrices. As an application, we obtain new sharp bounds for the real and imaginary parts of the Beurling-Ahlfors operator .

Keywords:Fourier multiplier, martingale, laminate
Categories:42B15, 60G44, 42B20

3. CJM Online first

Samart, Detchat
Mahler Measures as Linear Combinations of $L$-values of Multiple Modular Forms
We study the Mahler measures of certain families of Laurent polynomials in two and three variables. Each of the known Mahler measure formulas for these families involves $L$-values of at most one newform and/or at most one quadratic character. In this paper, we show, either rigorously or numerically, that the Mahler measures of some polynomials are related to $L$-values of multiple newforms and quadratic characters simultaneously. The results suggest that the number of modular $L$-values appearing in the formulas significantly depends on the shape of the algebraic value of the parameter chosen for each polynomial. As a consequence, we also obtain new formulas relating special values of hypergeometric series evaluated at algebraic numbers to special values of $L$-functions.

Keywords:Mahler measures, Eisenstein-Kronecker series, $L$-functions, hypergeometric series
Categories:11F67, 33C20

4. CJM Online first

Lanphier, Dominic; Skogman, Howard
Values of Twisted Tensor $L$-functions of Automorphic Forms Over Imaginary Fields
Let $K$ be a complex quadratic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ and let $\mathbb{A}_K$ denote the adeles of $K$. We find special values at all of the critical points of twisted tensor $L$-functions attached to cohomological cuspforms on $GL_2(\mathbb{A}_K)$, and establish Galois equivariance of the values. To investigate the values, we determine the archimedean factors of a class of integral representations of these $L$-functions, thus proving a conjecture due to Ghate. We also investigate analytic properties of these $L$-functions, such as their functional equations.

Keywords:twisted tensor $L$-function, cuspform, hypergeometric series
Categories:11F67, 11F37

5. CJM Online first

Nishinou, Takeo
Toric Degenerations, Tropical Curve, and Gromov-Witten Invariants of Fano Manifolds
In this paper, we give a tropical method for computing Gromov-Witten type invariants of Fano manifolds of special type. This method applies to those Fano manifolds which admit toric degenerations to toric Fano varieties with singularities allowing small resolutions. Examples include (generalized) flag manifolds of type A, and some moduli space of rank two bundles on a genus two curve.

Keywords:Fano varieties, Gromov-Witten invariants, tropical curves
Category:14J45

6. CJM Online first

Barron, Tatyana; Kerner, Dmitry; Tvalavadze, Marina
On Varieties of Lie Algebras of Maximal Class
We study complex projective varieties that parametrize (finite-dimensional) filiform Lie algebras over ${\mathbb C}$, using equations derived by Millionshchikov. In the infinite-dimensional case we concentrate our attention on ${\mathbb N}$-graded Lie algebras of maximal class. As shown by A. Fialowski there are only three isomorphism types of $\mathbb{N}$-graded Lie algebras $L=\oplus^{\infty}_{i=1} L_i$ of maximal class generated by $L_1$ and $L_2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_2 \rangle$. Vergne described the structure of these algebras with the property $L=\langle L_1 \rangle$. In this paper we study those generated by the first and $q$-th components where $q\gt 2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_q \rangle$. Under some technical condition, there can only be one isomorphism type of such algebras. For $q=3$ we fully classify them. This gives a partial answer to a question posed by Millionshchikov.

Keywords:filiform Lie algebras, graded Lie algebras, projective varieties, topology, classification
Categories:17B70, 14F45

7. CJM Online first

Bell, Jason P.; Lagarias, Jeffrey C.
A Skolem-Mahler-Lech Theorem for Iterated Automorphisms of $K$-algebras
This paper proves a commutative algebraic extension of a generalized Skolem-Mahler-Lech theorem due to the first author. Let $A$ be a finitely generated commutative $K$-algebra over a field of characteristic $0$, and let $\sigma$ be a $K$-algebra automorphism of $A$. Given ideals $I$ and $J$ of $A$, we show that the set $S$ of integers $m$ such that $\sigma^m(I) \supseteq J$ is a finite union of complete doubly infinite arithmetic progressions in $m$, up to the addition of a finite set. Alternatively, this result states that for an affine scheme $X$ of finite type over $K$, an automorphism $\sigma \in \operatorname{Aut}_K(X)$, and $Y$ and $Z$ any two closed subschemes of $X$, the set of integers $m$ with $\sigma^m(Z ) \subseteq Y$ is as above. The paper presents examples showing that this result may fail to hold if the affine scheme $X$ is not of finite type, or if $X$ is of finite type but the field $K$ has positive characteristic.

Keywords:automorphisms, endomorphisms, affine space, commutative algebras, Skolem-Mahler-Lech theorem
Categories:11D45, 14R10, 11Y55, 11D88

8. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 429)

Rivera-Noriega, Jorge
Perturbation and Solvability of Initial $L^p$ Dirichlet Problems for Parabolic Equations over Non-cylindrical Domains
For parabolic linear operators $L$ of second order in divergence form, we prove that the solvability of initial $L^p$ Dirichlet problems for the whole range $1\lt p\lt \infty$ is preserved under appropriate small perturbations of the coefficients of the operators involved. We also prove that if the coefficients of $L$ satisfy a suitable controlled oscillation in the form of Carleson measure conditions, then for certain values of $p\gt 1$, the initial $L^p$ Dirichlet problem associated to $Lu=0$ over non-cylindrical domains is solvable. The results are adequate adaptations of the corresponding results for elliptic equations.

Keywords:initial $L^p$ Dirichlet problem, second order parabolic equations in divergence form, non-cylindrical domains, reverse Hölder inequalities
Category:35K20

9. CJM Online first

Feigin, Evgeny; Finkelberg, Michael; Littelmann, Peter
Symplectic Degenerate Flag Varieties
A simple finite dimensional module $V_\lambda$ of a simple complex algebraic group $G$ is naturally endowed with a filtration induced by the PBW-filtration of $U(\mathrm{Lie}\, G)$. The associated graded space $V_\lambda^a$ is a module for the group $G^a$, which can be roughly described as a semi-direct product of a Borel subgroup of $G$ and a large commutative unipotent group $\mathbb{G}_a^M$. In analogy to the flag variety $\mathcal{F}_\lambda=G.[v_\lambda]\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda)$, we call the closure $\overline{G^a.[v_\lambda]}\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda^a)$ of the $G^a$-orbit through the highest weight line the degenerate flag variety $\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$. In general this is a singular variety, but we conjecture that it has many nice properties similar to that of Schubert varieties. In this paper we consider the case of $G$ being the symplectic group. The symplectic case is important for the conjecture because it is the first known case where even for fundamental weights $\omega$ the varieties $\mathcal{F}^a_\omega$ differ from $\mathcal{F}_\omega$. We give an explicit construction of the varieties $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$ and construct desingularizations, similar to the Bott-Samelson resolutions in the classical case. We prove that $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$ are normal locally complete intersections with terminal and rational singularities. We also show that these varieties are Frobenius split. Using the above mentioned results, we prove an analogue of the Borel-Weil theorem and obtain a $q$-character formula for the characters of irreducible $Sp_{2n}$-modules via the Atiyah-Bott-Lefschetz fixed points formula.

Keywords:Lie algebras, flag varieties, symplectic groups, representations
Categories:14M15, 22E46

10. CJM Online first

Baird, Thomas
Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles over a Real Curve: $\mathbb Z/2$-Betti Numbers
Moduli spaces of real bundles over a real curve arise naturally as Lagrangian submanifolds of the moduli space of semi-stable bundles over a complex curve. In this paper, we adapt the methods of Atiyah-Bott's ``Yang-Mills over a Riemann Surface'' to compute $\mathbb Z/2$-Betti numbers of these spaces.

Keywords:cohomology of moduli spaces, holomorphic vector bundles
Categories:32L05, 14P25

11. CJM Online first

Alfonseca, M. Angeles; Kim, Jaegil
On the Local Convexity of Intersection Bodies of Revolution
One of the fundamental results in Convex Geometry is Busemann's theorem, which states that the intersection body of a symmetric convex body is convex. Thus, it is only natural to ask if there is a quantitative version of Busemann's theorem, i.e., if the intersection body operation actually improves convexity. In this paper we concentrate on the symmetric bodies of revolution to provide several results on the (strict) improvement of convexity under the intersection body operation. It is shown that the intersection body of a symmetric convex body of revolution has the same asymptotic behavior near the equator as the Euclidean ball. We apply this result to show that in sufficiently high dimension the double intersection body of a symmetric convex body of revolution is very close to an ellipsoid in the Banach-Mazur distance. We also prove results on the local convexity at the equator of intersection bodies in the class of star bodies of revolution.

Keywords:convex bodies, intersection bodies of star bodies, Busemann's theorem, local convexity
Categories:52A20, 52A38, 44A12

12. CJM Online first

Clouâtre, Raphaël
Unitary Equivalence and Similarity to Jordan Models for Weak Contractions of Class $C_0$
We obtain results on the unitary equivalence of weak contractions of class $C_0$ to their Jordan models under an assumption on their commutants. In particular, our work addresses the case of arbitrary finite multiplicity. The main tool is the theory of boundary representations due to Arveson. We also generalize and improve previously known results concerning unitary equivalence and similarity to Jordan models when the minimal function is a Blaschke product.

Keywords:weak contractions, operators of class $C_0$, Jordan model, unitary equivalence
Categories:47A45, 47L55

13. CJM Online first

Henniart, Guy; Sécherre, Vincent
Types et contragrédientes
Soit $\mathrm{G}$ un groupe réductif $p$-adique, et soit $\mathrm{R}$ un corps algébriquement clos. Soit $\pi$ une représentation lisse de $\mathrm{G}$ dans un espace vectoriel $\mathrm{V}$ sur $\mathrm{R}$. Fixons un sous-groupe ouvert et compact $\mathrm{K}$ de $\mathrm{G}$ et une représentation lisse irréductible $\tau$ de $\mathrm{K}$ dans un espace vectoriel $\mathrm{W}$ de dimension finie sur $\mathrm{R}$. Sur l'espace $\mathrm{Hom}_{\mathrm{K}(\mathrm{W},\mathrm{V})}$ agit l'algèbre d'entrelacement $\mathscr{H}(\mathrm{G},\mathrm{K},\mathrm{W})$. Nous examinons la compatibilité de ces constructions avec le passage aux représentations contragrédientes $\mathrm{V}^ėe$ et $\mathrm{W}^ėe$, et donnons en particulier des conditions sur $\mathrm{W}$ ou sur la caractéristique de $\mathrm{R}$ pour que le comportement soit semblable au cas des représentations complexes. Nous prenons un point de vue abstrait, n'utilisant que des propriétés générales de $\mathrm{G}$. Nous terminons par une application à la théorie des types pour le groupe $\mathrm{GL}_n$ et ses formes intérieures sur un corps local non archimédien.

Keywords:modular representations of p-adic reductive groups, types, contragredient, intertwining
Category:22E50

14. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 141)

Caillat-Gibert, Shanti; Matignon, Daniel
Existence of Taut Foliations on Seifert Fibered Homology $3$-spheres
This paper concerns the problem of existence of taut foliations among $3$-manifolds. Since the contribution of David Gabai, we know that closed $3$-manifolds with non-trivial second homology group admit a taut foliation. The essential part of this paper focuses on Seifert fibered homology $3$-spheres. The result is quite different if they are integral or rational but non-integral homology $3$-spheres. Concerning integral homology $3$-spheres, we can see that all but the $3$-sphere and the Poincaré $3$-sphere admit a taut foliation. Concerning non-integral homology $3$-spheres, we prove there are infinitely many which admit a taut foliation, and infinitely many without taut foliation. Moreover, we show that the geometries do not determine the existence of taut foliations on non-integral Seifert fibered homology $3$-spheres.

Keywords:homology 3-spheres, taut foliation, Seifert-fibered 3-manifolds
Categories:57M25, 57M50, 57N10, 57M15

15. CJM Online first

Hrušák, Michael; Mill, Jan van
Addendum to ``Nearly Countable Dense Homogeneous Spaces'
This paper provides an addendum to M. Hrušák and J. van Mill ``Nearly countable dense homogeneous spaces.'' Canad. J. Math., published online 2013-03-08 http://dx.doi.org/10.4153/CJM-2013-006-8.

Keywords:countable dense homogeneous, nearly countable dense homogeneous, Effros Theorem, Vaught's conjecture
Categories:54H05, 03E15, 54E50

16. CJM Online first

Szpruch, Dani
Symmetric Genuine Spherical Whittaker Functions on $\overline{GSp_{2n}(F)}$
Let $F$ be a p-adic field of odd residual characteristic. Let $\overline{GSp_{2n}(F)}$ and $\overline{Sp_{2n}(F)}$ be the metaplectic double covers of the general symplectic group and the symplectic group attached to the $2n$ dimensional symplectic space over $F$. Let $\sigma$ be a genuine, possibly reducible, unramified principal series representation of $\overline{GSp_{2n}(F)}$. In these notes we give an explicit formulas for a spanning set for the space of Spherical Whittaker functions attached to $\sigma$. For odd $n$, and generically for even $n$, this spanning set is a basis. The significant property of this set is that each of its elements is unchanged under the action of the Weyl group of $\overline{Sp_{2n}(F)}$. If $n$ is odd then each element in the set has an equivariant property that generalizes a uniqueness result of Gelbart, Howe and Piatetski-Shapiro. Using this symmetric set, we construct a family of reducible genuine unramified principal series representations which have more then one generic constituent. This family contains all the reducible genuine unramified principal series representations induced from a unitary data and exists only for $n$ even.

Keywords:metaplectic group, Casselman Shalika Formula
Category:11F85

17. CJM Online first

Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Xiangwen
Generalized Kähler--Einstein Metrics and Energy Functionals
In this paper, we consider a generalized Kähler-Einstein equation on Kähler manifold $M$. Using the twisted $\mathcal K$-energy introduced by Song and Tian, we show that the existence of generalized Kähler-Einstein metrics with semi-positive twisting $(1, 1)$-form $\theta $ is also closely related to the properness of the twisted $\mathcal K$-energy functional. Under the condition that the twisting form $\theta $ is strictly positive at a point or $M$ admits no nontrivial Hamiltonian holomorphic vector field, we prove that the existence of generalized Kähler-Einstein metric implies a Moser-Trudinger type inequality.

Keywords:complex Monge--Ampère equation, energy functional, generalized Kähler--Einstein metric, Moser--Trudinger type inequality
Categories:53C55, 32W20

18. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1320)

Taniguchi, Takashi; Thorne, Frank
Orbital $L$-functions for the Space of Binary Cubic Forms
We introduce the notion of orbital $L$-functions for the space of binary cubic forms and investigate their analytic properties. We study their functional equations and residue formulas in some detail. Aside from their intrinsic interest, the results from this paper are used to prove the existence of secondary terms in counting functions for cubic fields. This is worked out in a companion paper.

Keywords:binary cubic forms, prehomogeneous vector spaces, Shintani zeta functions, $L$-functions, cubic rings and fields
Categories:11M41, 11E76

19. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1287)

Reihani, Kamran
$K$-theory of Furstenberg Transformation Group $C^*$-algebras
The paper studies the $K$-theoretic invariants of the crossed product $C^{*}$-algebras associated with an important family of homeomorphisms of the tori $\mathbb{T}^{n}$ called Furstenberg transformations. Using the Pimsner-Voiculescu theorem, we prove that given $n$, the $K$-groups of those crossed products, whose corresponding $n\times n$ integer matrices are unipotent of maximal degree, always have the same rank $a_{n}$. We show using the theory developed here that a claim made in the literature about the torsion subgroups of these $K$-groups is false. Using the representation theory of the simple Lie algebra $\frak{sl}(2,\mathbb{C})$, we show that, remarkably, $a_{n}$ has a combinatorial significance. For example, every $a_{2n+1}$ is just the number of ways that $0$ can be represented as a sum of integers between $-n$ and $n$ (with no repetitions). By adapting an argument of van Lint (in which he answered a question of Erdős), a simple, explicit formula for the asymptotic behavior of the sequence $\{a_{n}\}$ is given. Finally, we describe the order structure of the $K_{0}$-groups of an important class of Furstenberg crossed products, obtaining their complete Elliott invariant using classification results of H. Lin and N. C. Phillips.

Keywords:$K$-theory, transformation group $C^*$-algebra, Furstenberg transformation, Anzai transformation, minimal homeomorphism, positive cone, minimal homeomorphism
Categories:19K14, 19K99, 46L35, 46L80, , 05A15, 05A16, 05A17, 15A36, 17B10, 17B20, 37B05, 54H20

20. CJM Online first

Beuzart-Plessis, Raphaël
Expression d'un facteur epsilon de paire par une formule intégrale
Let $E/F$ be a quadratic extension of $p$-adic fields and let $d$, $m$ be nonnegative integers of distinct parities. Fix admissible irreducible tempered representations $\pi$ and $\sigma$ of $GL_d(E)$ and $GL_m(E)$ respectively. We assume that $\pi$ and $\sigma$ are conjugate-dual. That is to say $\pi\simeq \pi^{\vee,c}$ and $\sigma\simeq \sigma^{\vee,c}$ where $c$ is the non trivial $F$-automorphism of $E$. This implies, we can extend $\pi$ to an unitary representation $\tilde{\pi}$ of a nonconnected group $GL_d(E)\rtimes \{1,\theta\}$. Define $\tilde{\sigma}$ the same way. We state and prove an integral formula for $\epsilon(1/2,\pi\times \sigma,\psi_E)$ involving the characters of $\tilde{\pi}$ and $\tilde{\sigma}$. This formula is related to the local Gan-Gross-Prasad conjecture for unitary groups.

Keywords:epsilon factor, twisted groups
Categories:22E50, 11F85

21. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 284)

Eikrem, Kjersti Solberg
Random Harmonic Functions in Growth Spaces and Bloch-type Spaces
Let $h^\infty_v(\mathbf D)$ and $h^\infty_v(\mathbf B)$ be the spaces of harmonic functions in the unit disk and multi-dimensional unit ball which admit a two-sided radial majorant $v(r)$. We consider functions $v $ that fulfill a doubling condition. In the two-dimensional case let $u (re^{i\theta},\xi) = \sum_{j=0}^\infty (a_{j0} \xi_{j0} r^j \cos j\theta +a_{j1} \xi_{j1} r^j \sin j\theta)$ where $\xi =\{\xi_{ji}\}$ is a sequence of random subnormal variables and $a_{ji}$ are real; in higher dimensions we consider series of spherical harmonics. We will obtain conditions on the coefficients $a_{ji} $ which imply that $u$ is in $h^\infty_v(\mathbf B)$ almost surely. Our estimate improves previous results by Bennett, Stegenga and Timoney, and we prove that the estimate is sharp. The results for growth spaces can easily be applied to Bloch-type spaces, and we obtain a similar characterization for these spaces, which generalizes results by Anderson, Clunie and Pommerenke and by Guo and Liu.

Keywords:harmonic functions, random series, growth space, Bloch-type space
Categories:30B20, 31B05, 30H30, 42B05

22. CJM Online first

Izmestiev, Ivan
Infinitesimal Rigidity of Convex Polyhedra through the Second Derivative of the Hilbert-Einstein Functional
The paper is centered around a new proof of the infinitesimal rigidity of convex polyhedra. The proof is based on studying derivatives of the discrete Hilbert-Einstein functional on the space of "warped polyhedra" with a fixed metric on the boundary. The situation is in a sense dual to using derivatives of the volume in order to prove the Gauss infinitesimal rigidity of convex polyhedra. This latter kind of rigidity is related to the Minkowski theorem on the existence and uniqueness of a polyhedron with prescribed face normals and face areas. In the spherical and in the hyperbolic-de Sitter space, there is a perfect duality between the Hilbert-Einstein functional and the volume, as well as between both kinds of rigidity. We review some of the related work and discuss directions for future research.

Keywords:convex polyhedron, rigidity, Hilbert-Einstein functional, Minkowski theorem
Categories:52B99, 53C24

23. CJM Online first

Plevnik, Lucijan; Šemrl, Peter
Maps Preserving Complementarity of Closed Subspaces of a Hilbert Space
Let $\mathcal{H}$ and $\mathcal{K}$ be infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert spaces and ${\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H}$ the lattice of all closed subspaces oh $\mathcal{H}$. We describe the general form of pairs of bijective maps $\phi , \psi : {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H} \to {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{K}$ having the property that for every pair $U,V \in {\rm Lat}\,\mathcal{H}$ we have $\mathcal{H} = U \oplus V \iff \mathcal{K} = \phi (U) \oplus \psi (V)$. Then we reformulate this theorem as a description of bijective image equality and kernel equality preserving maps acting on bounded linear idempotent operators. Several known structural results for maps on idempotents are easy consequences.

Keywords:Hilbert space, lattice of closed subspaces, complemented subspaces, adjacent subspaces, idempotents
Categories:46B20, 47B49

24. CJM 2013 (vol 65 pp. 1384)

Wright, Paul
Estimates of Hausdorff Dimension for Non-wandering Sets of Higher Dimensional Open Billiards
This article concerns a class of open billiards consisting of a finite number of strictly convex, non-eclipsing obstacles $K$. The non-wandering set $M_0$ of the billiard ball map is a topological Cantor set and its Hausdorff dimension has been previously estimated for billiards in $\mathbb{R}^2$, using well-known techniques. We extend these estimates to billiards in $\mathbb{R}^n$, and make various refinements to the estimates. These refinements also allow improvements to other results. We also show that in many cases, the non-wandering set is confined to a particular subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$ formed by the convex hull of points determined by period 2 orbits. This allows more accurate bounds on the constants used in estimating Hausdorff dimension.

Keywords:dynamical systems, billiards, dimension, Hausdorff
Categories:37D20, 37D40

25. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 453)

Vaz, Pedro; Wagner, Emmanuel
A Remark on BMW algebra, $q$-Schur Algebras and Categorification
We prove that the 2-variable BMW algebra embeds into an algebra constructed from the HOMFLY-PT polynomial. We also prove that the $\mathfrak{so}_{2N}$-BMW algebra embeds in the $q$-Schur algebra of type $A$. We use these results to suggest a schema providing categorifications of the $\mathfrak{so}_{2N}$-BMW algebra.

Keywords:tangle algebras, BMW algebra, HOMFLY-PT Skein algebra, q-Schur algebra, categorification
Categories:57M27, 81R50, 17B37, 16W99
Page
   1 2 3 4 ... 14    

© Canadian Mathematical Society, 2014 : http://www.cms.math.ca/