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1. CJM Online first

Ganguly, Arijit; Ghosh, Anish
Dirichlet's theorem in function fields
We study metric Diophantine approximation for function fields specifically the problem of improving Dirichlet's theorem in Diophantine approximation.

Keywords:Dirichlet's theorem, Diophantine approximation, positive characteristic
Categories:11J83, 11K60, 37D40, 37A17, 22E40

2. CJM Online first

Yattselev, Maxim L.
Strong Asymptotics of Hermite-Padé Approximants for Angelesco Systems
In this work type II Hermite-Padé approximants for a vector of Cauchy transforms of smooth Jacobi-type densities are considered. It is assumed that densities are supported on mutually disjoint intervals (an Angelesco system with complex weights). The formulae of strong asymptotics are derived for any ray sequence of multi-indices.

Keywords:Hermite-Padé approximation, multiple orthogonal polynomials, non-Hermitian orthogonality, strong asymptotics, matrix Riemann-Hilbert approach
Categories:42C05, 41A20, 41A21

3. CJM 2015 (vol 68 pp. 109)

Kopotun, Kirill; Leviatan, Dany; Shevchuk, Igor
Constrained Approximation with Jacobi Weights
In this paper, we prove that, for $\ell=1$ or $2$, the rate of best $\ell$-monotone polynomial approximation in the $L_p$ norm ($1\leq p \leq \infty$) weighted by the Jacobi weight $w_{\alpha,\beta}(x) :=(1+x)^\alpha(1-x)^\beta$ with $\alpha,\beta\gt -1/p$ if $p\lt \infty$, or $\alpha,\beta\geq 0$ if $p=\infty$, is bounded by an appropriate $(\ell+1)$st modulus of smoothness with the same weight, and that this rate cannot be bounded by the $(\ell+2)$nd modulus. Related results on constrained weighted spline approximation and applications of our estimates are also given.

Keywords:constrained approximation, Jacobi weights, weighted moduli of smoothness, exact estimates, exact orders
Categories:41A29, 41A10, 41A15, 41A17, 41A25

4. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 527)

Brugallé, Erwan; Shaw, Kristin
Obstructions to Approximating Tropical Curves in Surfaces Via Intersection Theory
We provide some new local obstructions to approximating tropical curves in smooth tropical surfaces. These obstructions are based on a relation between tropical and complex intersection theories which is also established here. We give two applications of the methods developed in this paper. First we classify all locally irreducible approximable 3-valent fan tropical curves in a fan tropical plane. Secondly, we prove that a generic non-singular tropical surface in tropical projective 3-space contains finitely many approximable tropical lines if it is of degree 3, and contains no approximable tropical lines if it is of degree 4 or more.

Keywords:tropical geometry, amoebas, approximation of tropical varieties, intersection theory
Categories:14T05, 14M25

5. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1161)

Neuwirth, Stefan; Ricard, Éric
Transfer of Fourier Multipliers into Schur Multipliers and Sumsets in a Discrete Group
We inspect the relationship between relative Fourier multipliers on noncommutative Lebesgue-Orlicz spaces of a discrete group $\varGamma$ and relative Toeplitz-Schur multipliers on Schatten-von-Neumann-Orlicz classes. Four applications are given: lacunary sets, unconditional Schauder bases for the subspace of a Lebesgue space determined by a given spectrum $\varLambda\subseteq\varGamma$, the norm of the Hilbert transform and the Riesz projection on Schatten-von-Neumann classes with exponent a power of 2, and the norm of Toeplitz Schur multipliers on Schatten-von-Neumann classes with exponent less than 1.

Keywords:Fourier multiplier, Toeplitz Schur multiplier, lacunary set, unconditional approximation property, Hilbert transform, Riesz projection
Categories:47B49, 43A22, 43A46, 46B28

6. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 1419)

Yang, Dachun; Yang, Dongyong
BMO-Estimates for Maximal Operators via Approximations of the Identity with Non-Doubling Measures
Let $\mu$ be a nonnegative Radon measure on $\mathbb{R}^d$ that satisfies the growth condition that there exist constants $C_0>0$ and $n\in(0,d]$ such that for all $x\in\mathbb{R}^d$ and $r>0$, ${\mu(B(x,\,r))\le C_0r^n}$, where $B(x,r)$ is the open ball centered at $x$ and having radius $r$. In this paper, the authors prove that if $f$ belongs to the $\textrm {BMO}$-type space $\textrm{RBMO}(\mu)$ of Tolsa, then the homogeneous maximal function $\dot{\mathcal{M}}_S(f)$ (when $\mathbb{R}^d$ is not an initial cube) and the inhomogeneous maximal function $\mathcal{M}_S(f)$ (when $\mathbb{R}^d$ is an initial cube) associated with a given approximation of the identity $S$ of Tolsa are either infinite everywhere or finite almost everywhere, and in the latter case, $\dot{\mathcal{M}}_S$ and $\mathcal{M}_S$ are bounded from $\textrm{RBMO}(\mu)$ to the $\textrm {BLO}$-type space $\textrm{RBLO}(\mu)$. The authors also prove that the inhomogeneous maximal operator $\mathcal{M}_S$ is bounded from the local $\textrm {BMO}$-type space $\textrm{rbmo}(\mu)$ to the local $\textrm {BLO}$-type space $\textrm{rblo}(\mu)$.

Keywords:Non-doubling measure, maximal operator, approximation of the identity, RBMO(mu), RBLO(mu), rbmo(mu), rblo(mu)
Categories:42B25, 42B30, 47A30, 43A99

7. CJM 2010 (vol 62 pp. 737)

Ditzian, Z.; Prymak, A.
Approximation by Dilated Averages and K-Functionals
For a positive finite measure $d\mu(\mathbf{u})$ on $\mathbb{R}^d$ normalized to satisfy $\int_{\mathbb{R}^d}d\mu(\mathbf{u})=1$, the dilated average of $f( \mathbf{x})$ is given by \[ A_tf(\mathbf{x})=\int_{\mathbb{R}^d}f(\mathbf{x}-t\mathbf{u})d\mu(\mathbf{u}). \] It will be shown that under some mild assumptions on $d\mu(\mathbf{u})$ one has the equivalence \[ \|A_tf-f\|_B\approx \inf \{ (\|f-g\|_B+t^2 \|P(D)g\|_B): P(D)g\in B\}\quad\text{for }t>0, \] where $\varphi(t)\approx \psi(t)$ means $c^{-1}\le\varphi(t)/\psi(t)\le c$, $B$ is a Banach space of functions for which translations are continuous isometries and $P(D)$ is an elliptic differential operator induced by $\mu$. Many applications are given, notable among which is the averaging operator with $d\mu(\mathbf{u})= \frac{1}{m(S)}\chi_S(\mathbf{u})d\mathbf{u}$, where $S$ is a bounded convex set in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with an interior point, $m(S)$ is the Lebesgue measure of $S$, and $\chi_S(\mathbf{u})$ is the characteristic function of $S$. The rate of approximation by averages on the boundary of a convex set under more restrictive conditions is also shown to be equivalent to an appropriate $K$-functional.

Keywords:rate of approximation, K-functionals, strong converse inequality
Categories:41A27, 41A35, 41A63

8. CJM 2007 (vol 59 pp. 3)

Biller, Harald
Holomorphic Generation of Continuous Inverse Algebras
We study complex commutative Banach algebras (and, more generally, continuous inverse algebras) in which the holomorphic functions of a fixed $n$-tuple of elements are dense. In particular, we characterize the compact subsets of~$\C^n$ which appear as joint spectra of such $n$-tuples. The characterization is compared with several established notions of holomorphic convexity by means of approximation conditions.

Keywords:holomorphic functional calculus, commutative continuous inverse algebra, holomorphic convexity, Stein compacta, meromorphic convexity, holomorphic approximation
Categories:46H30, 32A38, 32E30, 41A20, 46J15

9. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 249)

Bello Hernández, M.; Mínguez Ceniceros, J.
Convergence of Fourier--Padé Approximants for Stieltjes Functions
We prove convergence of diagonal multipoint Pad\'e approximants of Stieltjes-type functions when a certain moment problem is determinate. This is used for the study of the convergence of Fourier--Pad\'e and nonlinear Fourier--Pad\'e approximants for such type of functions.

Keywords:rational approximation, multipoint Padé approximants, Fourier--Padé approximants, moment problem
Categories:41A20, 41A21, 44A60

10. CJM 2004 (vol 56 pp. 776)

Lim, Yongdo
Best Approximation in Riemannian Geodesic Submanifolds of Positive Definite Matrices
We explicitly describe the best approximation in geodesic submanifolds of positive definite matrices obtained from involutive congruence transformations on the Cartan-Hadamard manifold ${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\Bbb R})^{++}$ of positive definite matrices. An explicit calculation for the minimal distance function from the geodesic submanifold ${\mathrm{Sym}}(p,{\mathbb R})^{++}\times {\mathrm{Sym}}(q,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ block diagonally embedded in ${\mathrm{Sym}}(n,{\mathbb R})^{++}$ is given in terms of metric and spectral geometric means, Cayley transform, and Schur complements of positive definite matrices when $p\leq 2$ or $q\leq 2.$

Keywords:Matrix approximation, positive, definite matrix, geodesic submanifold, Cartan-Hadamard manifold,, best approximation, minimal distance function, global tubular, neighborhood theorem, Schur complement, metric and spectral, geometric mean, Cayley transform
Categories:15A48, 49R50, 15A18, 53C3

11. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1305)

Vulakh, L. Ya.
Continued Fractions Associated with $\SL_3 (\mathbf{Z})$ and Units in Complex Cubic Fields
Continued fractions associated with $\GL_3 (\mathbf{Z})$ are introduced and applied to find fundamental units in a two-parameter family of complex cubic fields.

Keywords:fundamental units, continued fractions, diophantine approximation, symmetric space
Categories:11R27, 11J70, 11J13

12. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 1121)

Bao, Jiguang
Fully Nonlinear Elliptic Equations on General Domains
By means of the Pucci operator, we construct a function $u_0$, which plays an essential role in our considerations, and give the existence and regularity theorems for the bounded viscosity solutions of the generalized Dirichlet problems of second order fully nonlinear elliptic equations on the general bounded domains, which may be irregular. The approximation method, the accretive operator technique and the Caffarelli's perturbation theory are used.

Keywords:Pucci operator, viscosity solution, existence, $C^{2,\psi}$ regularity, Dini condition, fully nonlinear equation, general domain, accretive operator, approximation lemma
Categories:35D05, 35D10, 35J60, 35J67

13. CJM 2002 (vol 54 pp. 945)

Boivin, André; Gauthier, Paul M.; Paramonov, Petr V.
Approximation on Closed Sets by Analytic or Meromorphic Solutions of Elliptic Equations and Applications
Given a homogeneous elliptic partial differential operator $L$ with constant complex coefficients and a class of functions (jet-distributions) which are defined on a (relatively) closed subset of a domain $\Omega$ in $\mathbf{R}^n$ and which belong locally to a Banach space $V$, we consider the problem of approximating in the norm of $V$ the functions in this class by ``analytic'' and ``meromorphic'' solutions of the equation $Lu=0$. We establish new Roth, Arakelyan (including tangential) and Carleman type theorems for a large class of Banach spaces $V$ and operators $L$. Important applications to boundary value problems of solutions of homogeneous elliptic partial differential equations are obtained, including the solution of a generalized Dirichlet problem.

Keywords:approximation on closed sets, elliptic operator, strongly elliptic operator, $L$-meromorphic and $L$-analytic functions, localization operator, Banach space of distributions, Dirichlet problem
Categories:30D40, 30E10, 31B35, 35Jxx, 35J67, 41A30

14. CJM 1999 (vol 51 pp. 117)

Sauer, A.
Meromorphic functions with prescribed asymptotic behaviour, zeros and poles and applications in complex approximation
We construct meromorphic functions with asymptotic power series expansion in $z^{-1}$ at $\infty$ on an Arakelyan set $A$ having prescribed zeros and poles outside $A$. We use our results to prove approximation theorems where the approximating function fulfills interpolation restrictions outside the set of approximation.

Keywords:asymptotic expansions, approximation theory
Categories:30D30, 30E10, 30E15

15. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 944)

Jia, R. Q.; Riemenschneider, S. D.; Zhou, D. X.
Approximation by multiple refinable functions
We consider the shift-invariant space, $\bbbs(\Phi)$, generated by a set $\Phi=\{\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_r\}$ of compactly supported distributions on $\RR$ when the vector of distributions $\phi:=(\phi_1,\ldots,\phi_r)^T$ satisfies a system of refinement equations expressed in matrix form as $$ \phi=\sum_{\alpha\in\ZZ}a(\alpha)\phi(2\,\cdot - \,\alpha) $$ where $a$ is a finitely supported sequence of $r\times r$ matrices of complex numbers. Such {\it multiple refinable functions} occur naturally in the study of multiple wavelets. The purpose of the present paper is to characterize the {\it accuracy} of $\Phi$, the order of the polynomial space contained in $\bbbs(\Phi)$, strictly in terms of the refinement mask $a$. The accuracy determines the $L_p$-approximation order of $\bbbs(\Phi)$ when the functions in $\Phi$ belong to $L_p(\RR)$ (see Jia~[10]). The characterization is achieved in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the subdivision operator associated with the mask $a$. In particular, they extend and improve the results of Heil, Strang and Strela~[7], and of Plonka~[16]. In addition, a counterexample is given to the statement of Strang and Strela~[20] that the eigenvalues of the subdivision operator determine the accuracy. The results do not require the linear independence of the shifts of $\phi$.

Keywords:Refinement equations, refinable functions, approximation, order, accuracy, shift-invariant spaces, subdivision
Categories:39B12, 41A25, 65F15

16. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 1034)

Saff, E. B.; Stahl, H.
Ray sequences of best rational approximants for $|x|^\alpha$
The convergence behavior of best uniform rational approximations $r^\ast_{mn}$ with numerator degree~$m$ and denominator degree~$n$ to the function $|x|^\alpha$, $\alpha>0$, on $[-1,1]$ is investigated. It is assumed that the indices $(m,n)$ progress along a ray sequence in the lower triangle of the Walsh table, {\it i.e.} the sequence of indices $\{ (m,n)\}$ satisfies $$ {m\over n}\rightarrow c\in [1, \infty)\quad\hbox{as } m+ n\rightarrow\infty. $$ In addition to the convergence behavior, the asymptotic distribution of poles and zeros of the approximants and the distribution of the extreme points of the error function $|x|^\alpha - r^\ast_{mn} (x)$ on $[-1,1]$ will be studied. The results will be compared with those for paradiagonal sequences $(m=n+2[\alpha/2])$ and for sequences of best polynomial approximants.

Keywords:Walsh table, rational approximation, best approximation,, distribution of poles and zeros.
Categories:41A25, 41A44

17. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 963)

Lin, Huaxin
Homomorphisms from $C(X)$ into $C^*$-algebras
Let $A$ be a simple $C^*$-algebra with real rank zero, stable rank one and weakly unperforated $K_0(A)$ of countable rank. We show that a monomorphism $\phi\colon C(S^2) \to A$ can be approximated pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into $A$ with finite dimensional range if and only if certain index vanishes. In particular, we show that every homomorphism $\phi$ from $C(S^2)$ into a UHF-algebra can be approximated pointwise by homomorphisms from $C(S^2)$ into the UHF-algebra with finite dimensional range. As an application, we show that if $A$ is a simple $C^*$-algebra of real rank zero and is an inductive limit of matrices over $C(S^2)$ then $A$ is an AF-algebra. Similar results for tori are also obtained. Classification of ${\bf Hom}\bigl(C(X),A\bigr)$ for lower dimensional spaces is also studied.

Keywords:Homomorphism of $C(S^2)$, approximation, real, rank zero, classification
Categories:46L05, 46L80, 46L35

18. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 74)

Hu, Y. K.; Kopotun, K. A.; Yu, X. M.
Constrained approximation in Sobolev spaces
Positive, copositive, onesided and intertwining (co-onesided) polynomial and spline approximations of functions $f\in\Wp^k\mll$ are considered. Both uniform and pointwise estimates, which are exact in some sense, are obtained.

Keywords:Constrained approximation, polynomials, splines, degree of, approximation, $L_p$ space, Sobolev space
Categories:41A10, 41A15, 41A25, 41A29

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