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1. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 571)

Gras, Georges
 Les $\theta$-rÃ©gulateurs locaux d'un nombre algÃ©brique : Conjectures $p$-adiques Let $K/\mathbb{Q}$ be Galois and let $\eta\in K^\times$ be such that $\operatorname{Reg}_\infty (\eta) \ne 0$. We define the local $\theta$-regulators $\Delta_p^\theta(\eta) \in \mathbb{F}_p$ for the $\mathbb{Q}_p\,$-irreducible characters $\theta$ of $G=\operatorname{Gal}(K/\mathbb{Q})$. A linear representation ${\mathcal L}^\theta\simeq \delta \, V_\theta$ is associated with $\Delta_p^\theta (\eta)$ whose nullity is equivalent to $\delta \geq 1$. Each $\Delta_p^\theta (\eta)$ yields $\operatorname{Reg}_p^\theta (\eta)$ modulo $p$ in the factorization $\prod_{\theta}(\operatorname{Reg}_p^\theta (\eta))^{\varphi(1)}$ of $\operatorname{Reg}_p^G (\eta) := \frac{ \operatorname{Reg}_p(\eta)}{p^{[K : \mathbb{Q}\,]} }$ (normalized $p$-adic regulator). From $\operatorname{Prob}\big (\Delta_p^\theta(\eta) = 0 \ \& \ {\mathcal L}^\theta \simeq \delta \, V_\theta\big ) \leq p^{- f \delta^2}$ ($f \geq 1$ is a residue degree) and the Borel-Cantelli heuristic, we conjecture that, for $p$ large enough, $\operatorname{Reg}_p^G (\eta)$ is a $p$-adic unit or that $p^{\varphi(1)} \parallel \operatorname{Reg}_p^G (\eta)$ (a single $\theta$ with $f=\delta=1$); this obstruction may be lifted assuming the existence of a binomial probability law confirmed through numerical studies (groups $C_3$, $C_5$, $D_6$). This conjecture would imply that, for all $p$ large enough, Fermat quotients, normalized $p$-adic regulators are $p$-adic units and that number fields are $p$-rational. We recall some deep cohomological results that may strengthen such conjectures. Keywords:$p$-adic regulators, Leopoldt-Jaulent conjecture, Frobenius group determinants, characters, Fermat quotient, Abelian $p$-ramification, probabilistic number theoryCategories:11F85, 11R04, 20C15, 11C20, 11R37, 11R27, 11Y40

2. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 655)

 Discrete Curvature and Abelian Groups We study a natural discrete Bochner-type inequality on graphs, and explore its merit as a notion of curvature'' in discrete spaces. An appealing feature of this discrete version of the so-called $\Gamma_2$-calculus (of Bakry-Ãmery) seems to be that it is fairly straightforward to compute this notion of curvature parameter for several specific graphs of interest -- particularly, abelian groups, slices of the hypercube, and the symmetric group under various sets of generators. We further develop this notion by deriving Buser-type inequalities (Ã  la Ledoux), relating functional and isoperimetric constants associated with a graph. Our derivations provide a tight bound on the Cheeger constant (i.e., the edge-isoperimetric constant) in terms of the spectral gap, for graphs with nonnegative curvature, particularly, the class of abelian Cayley graphs -- a result of independent interest. Keywords:Ricci curvature, graph theory, abelian groupsCategories:53C21, 57M15

3. CJM 2015 (vol 68 pp. 44)

Fernández Bretón, David J.
 Strongly Summable Ultrafilters, Union Ultrafilters, and the Trivial Sums Property We answer two questions of Hindman, SteprÄns and Strauss, namely we prove that every strongly summable ultrafilter on an abelian group is sparse and has the trivial sums property. Moreover we show that in most cases the sparseness of the given ultrafilter is a consequence of its being isomorphic to a union ultrafilter. However, this does not happen in all cases: we also construct (assuming Martin's Axiom for countable partial orders, i.e. $\operatorname{cov}(\mathcal{M})=\mathfrak c$), on the Boolean group, a strongly summable ultrafilter that is not additively isomorphic to any union ultrafilter. Keywords:ultrafilter, Stone-Cech compactification, sparse ultrafilter, strongly summable ultrafilter, union ultrafilter, finite sum, additive isomorphism, trivial sums property, Boolean group, abelian groupCategories:03E75, 54D35, 54D80, 05D10, 05A18, 20K99

4. CJM 2015 (vol 67 pp. 654)

Lim, Meng Fai; Murty, V. Kumar
 Growth of Selmer groups of CM Abelian varieties Let $p$ be an odd prime. We study the variation of the $p$-rank of the Selmer group of Abelian varieties with complex multiplication in certain towers of number fields. Keywords:Selmer group, Abelian variety with complex multiplication, $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension, $p$-Hilbert class towerCategories:11G15, 11G10, 11R23, 11R34

5. CJM 2015 (vol 68 pp. 24)

Bonfanti, Matteo Alfonso; van Geemen, Bert
 Abelian Surfaces with an Automorphism and Quaternionic Multiplication We construct one dimensional families of Abelian surfaces with quaternionic multiplication which also have an automorphism of order three or four. Using Barth's description of the moduli space of $(2,4)$-polarized Abelian surfaces, we find the Shimura curve parametrizing these Abelian surfaces in a specific case. We explicitly relate these surfaces to the Jacobians of genus two curves studied by Hashimoto and Murabayashi. We also describe a (Humbert) surface in Barth's moduli space which parametrizes Abelian surfaces with real multiplication by $\mathbf{Z}[\sqrt{2}]$. Keywords:abelian surfaces, moduli, shimura curvesCategories:14K10, 11G10, 14K20

6. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 198)

Murty, V. Kumar; Patankar, Vijay M.
 Tate Cycles on Abelian Varieties with Complex Multiplication We consider Tate cycles on an Abelian variety $A$ defined over a sufficiently large number field $K$ and having complex multiplication. We show that there is an effective bound $C = C(A,K)$ so that to check whether a given cohomology class is a Tate class on $A$, it suffices to check the action of Frobenius elements at primes $v$ of norm $\leq C$. We also show that for a set of primes $v$ of $K$ of density $1$, the space of Tate cycles on the special fibre $A_v$ of the NÃ©ron model of $A$ is isomorphic to the space of Tate cycles on $A$ itself. Keywords:Abelian varieties, complex multiplication, Tate cyclesCategories:11G10, 14K22

7. CJM 2012 (vol 66 pp. 170)

Guitart, Xavier; Quer, Jordi
 Modular Abelian Varieties Over Number Fields The main result of this paper is a characterization of the abelian varieties $B/K$ defined over Galois number fields with the property that the $L$-function $L(B/K;s)$ is a product of $L$-functions of non-CM newforms over $\mathbb Q$ for congruence subgroups of the form $\Gamma_1(N)$. The characterization involves the structure of $\operatorname{End}(B)$, isogenies between the Galois conjugates of $B$, and a Galois cohomology class attached to $B/K$. We call the varieties having this property strongly modular. The last section is devoted to the study of a family of abelian surfaces with quaternionic multiplication. As an illustration of the ways in which the general results of the paper can be applied we prove the strong modularity of some particular abelian surfaces belonging to that family, and we show how to find nontrivial examples of strongly modular varieties by twisting. Keywords:Modular abelian varieties, $GL_2$-type varieties, modular formsCategories:11G10, 11G18, 11F11

8. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 403)

Van Order, Jeanine
 On the Dihedral Main Conjectures of Iwasawa Theory for Hilbert Modular Eigenforms We construct a bipartite Euler system in the sense of Howard for Hilbert modular eigenforms of parallel weight two over totally real fields, generalizing works of Bertolini-Darmon, Longo, Nekovar, Pollack-Weston and others. The construction has direct applications to Iwasawa main conjectures. For instance, it implies in many cases one divisibility of the associated dihedral or anticyclotomic main conjecture, at the same time reducing the other divisibility to a certain nonvanishing criterion for the associated $p$-adic $L$-functions. It also has applications to cyclotomic main conjectures for Hilbert modular forms over CM fields via the technique of Skinner and Urban. Keywords:Iwasawa theory, Hilbert modular forms, abelian varietiesCategories:11G10, 11G18, 11G40

9. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 195)

Penegini, Matteo; Polizzi, Francesco
 Surfaces with $p_g=q=2$, $K^2=6$, and Albanese Map of Degree $2$ We classify minimal surfaces of general type with $p_g=q=2$ and $K^2=6$ whose Albanese map is a generically finite double cover. We show that the corresponding moduli space is the disjoint union of three generically smooth irreducible components $\mathcal{M}_{Ia}$, $\mathcal{M}_{Ib}$, $\mathcal{M}_{II}$ of dimension $4$, $4$, $3$, respectively. Keywords:surface of general type, abelian surface, Albanese mapCategories:14J29, 14J10

10. CJM 2011 (vol 63 pp. 1058)

Easton, Robert W.
 $S_3$-covers of Schemes We analyze flat $S_3$-covers of schemes, attempting to create structures parallel to those found in the abelian and triple cover theories. We use an initial local analysis as a guide in finding a global description. Keywords:nonabelian groups, permutation group, group covers, schemesCategory:14L30
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