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1. CJM Online first

Allison, Bruce; Faulkner, John; Smirnov, Oleg
Weyl images of Kantor pairs
Kantor pairs arise naturally in the study of $5$-graded Lie algebras. In this article, we introduce and study Kantor pairs with short Peirce gradings and relate them to Lie algebras graded by the root system of type $\mathrm{BC}_2$. This relationship allows us to define so called Weyl images of short Peirce graded Kantor pairs. We use Weyl images to construct new examples of Kantor pairs, including a class of infinite dimensional central simple Kantor pairs over a field of characteristic $\ne 2$ or $3$, as well as a family of forms of a split Kantor pair of type $\mathrm{E}_6$.

Keywords:Kantor pair, graded Lie algebra, Jordan pair
Categories:17B60, 17B70, 17C99, 17B65

2. CJM 2016 (vol 68 pp. 841)

Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar; Hare, Kathryn
Characterizing the Absolute Continuity of the Convolution of Orbital Measures in a Classical Lie Algebra
Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a compact, simple Lie algebra of dimension $d$. It is a classical result that the convolution of any $d$ non-trivial, $G$-invariant, orbital measures is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure on $\mathfrak{g}$ and the sum of any $d$ non-trivial orbits has non-empty interior. The number $d$ was later reduced to the rank of the Lie algebra (or rank $+1$ in the case of type $A_{n}$). More recently, the minimal integer $k=k(X)$ such that the $k$-fold convolution of the orbital measure supported on the orbit generated by $X$ is an absolutely continuous measure was calculated for each $X\in \mathfrak{g}$. In this paper $\mathfrak{g}$ is any of the classical, compact, simple Lie algebras. We characterize the tuples $(X_{1},\dots,X_{L})$, with $X_{i}\in \mathfrak{g},$ which have the property that the convolution of the $L$-orbital measures supported on the orbits generated by the $X_{i}$ is absolutely continuous and, equivalently, the sum of their orbits has non-empty interior. The characterization depends on the Lie type of $\mathfrak{g}$ and the structure of the annihilating roots of the $X_{i}$. Such a characterization was previously known only for type $A_{n}$.

Keywords:compact Lie algebra, orbital measure, absolutely continuous measure
Categories:43A80, 17B45, 58C35

3. CJM Online first

Marquis, Timothée; Neeb, Karl-Hermann
Isomorphisms of twisted Hilbert loop algebras
The closest infinite dimensional relatives of compact Lie algebras are Hilbert-Lie algebras, i.e. real Hilbert spaces with a Lie algebra structure for which the scalar product is invariant. Locally affine Lie algebras (LALAs) correspond to double extensions of (twisted) loop algebras over simple Hilbert-Lie algebras $\mathfrak{k}$, also called affinisations of $\mathfrak{k}$. They possess a root space decomposition whose corresponding root system is a locally affine root system of one of the $7$ families $A_J^{(1)}$, $B_J^{(1)}$, $C_J^{(1)}$, $D_J^{(1)}$, $B_J^{(2)}$, $C_J^{(2)}$ and $BC_J^{(2)}$ for some infinite set $J$. To each of these types corresponds a ``minimal" affinisation of some simple Hilbert-Lie algebra $\mathfrak{k}$, which we call standard. In this paper, we give for each affinisation $\mathfrak{g}$ of a simple Hilbert-Lie algebra $\mathfrak{k}$ an explicit isomorphism from $\mathfrak{g}$ to one of the standard affinisations of $\mathfrak{k}$. The existence of such an isomorphism could also be derived from the classification of locally affine root systems, but for representation theoretic purposes it is crucial to obtain it explicitly as a deformation between two twists which is compatible with the root decompositions. We illustrate this by applying our isomorphism theorem to the study of positive energy highest weight representations of $\mathfrak{g}$. In subsequent work, the present paper will be used to obtain a complete classification of the positive energy highest weight representations of affinisations of $\mathfrak{k}$.

Keywords:locally affine Lie algebra, Hilbert-Lie algebra, positive energy representation
Categories:17B65, 17B70, 17B22, 17B10

4. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 55)

Barron, Tatyana; Kerner, Dmitry; Tvalavadze, Marina
On Varieties of Lie Algebras of Maximal Class
We study complex projective varieties that parametrize (finite-dimensional) filiform Lie algebras over ${\mathbb C}$, using equations derived by Millionshchikov. In the infinite-dimensional case we concentrate our attention on ${\mathbb N}$-graded Lie algebras of maximal class. As shown by A. Fialowski there are only three isomorphism types of $\mathbb{N}$-graded Lie algebras $L=\oplus^{\infty}_{i=1} L_i$ of maximal class generated by $L_1$ and $L_2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_2 \rangle$. Vergne described the structure of these algebras with the property $L=\langle L_1 \rangle$. In this paper we study those generated by the first and $q$-th components where $q\gt 2$, $L=\langle L_1, L_q \rangle$. Under some technical condition, there can only be one isomorphism type of such algebras. For $q=3$ we fully classify them. This gives a partial answer to a question posed by Millionshchikov.

Keywords:filiform Lie algebras, graded Lie algebras, projective varieties, topology, classification
Categories:17B70, 14F45

5. CJM 2014 (vol 67 pp. 573)

Chen, Fulin; Gao, Yun; Jing, Naihuan; Tan, Shaobin
Twisted Vertex Operators and Unitary Lie Algebras
A representation of the central extension of the unitary Lie algebra coordinated with a skew Laurent polynomial ring is constructed using vertex operators over an integral $\mathbb Z_2$-lattice. The irreducible decomposition of the representation is explicitly computed and described. As a by-product, some fundamental representations of affine Kac-Moody Lie algebra of type $A_n^{(2)}$ are recovered by the new method.

Keywords:Lie algebra, vertex operator, representation theory
Categories:17B60, 17B69

6. CJM 2013 (vol 66 pp. 1250)

Feigin, Evgeny; Finkelberg, Michael; Littelmann, Peter
Symplectic Degenerate Flag Varieties
A simple finite dimensional module $V_\lambda$ of a simple complex algebraic group $G$ is naturally endowed with a filtration induced by the PBW-filtration of $U(\mathrm{Lie}\, G)$. The associated graded space $V_\lambda^a$ is a module for the group $G^a$, which can be roughly described as a semi-direct product of a Borel subgroup of $G$ and a large commutative unipotent group $\mathbb{G}_a^M$. In analogy to the flag variety $\mathcal{F}_\lambda=G.[v_\lambda]\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda)$, we call the closure $\overline{G^a.[v_\lambda]}\subset \mathbb{P}(V_\lambda^a)$ of the $G^a$-orbit through the highest weight line the degenerate flag variety $\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$. In general this is a singular variety, but we conjecture that it has many nice properties similar to that of Schubert varieties. In this paper we consider the case of $G$ being the symplectic group. The symplectic case is important for the conjecture because it is the first known case where even for fundamental weights $\omega$ the varieties $\mathcal{F}^a_\omega$ differ from $\mathcal{F}_\omega$. We give an explicit construction of the varieties $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$ and construct desingularizations, similar to the Bott-Samelson resolutions in the classical case. We prove that $Sp\mathcal{F}^a_\lambda$ are normal locally complete intersections with terminal and rational singularities. We also show that these varieties are Frobenius split. Using the above mentioned results, we prove an analogue of the Borel-Weil theorem and obtain a $q$-character formula for the characters of irreducible $Sp_{2n}$-modules via the Atiyah-Bott-Lefschetz fixed points formula.

Keywords:Lie algebras, flag varieties, symplectic groups, representations
Categories:14M15, 22E46

7. CJM 2012 (vol 65 pp. 82)

Félix, Yves; Halperin, Steve; Thomas, Jean-Claude
The Ranks of the Homotopy Groups of a Finite Dimensional Complex
Let $X$ be an $n$-dimensional, finite, simply connected CW complex and set $\alpha_X =\limsup_i \frac{\log\mbox{ rank}\, \pi_i(X)}{i}$. When $0\lt \alpha_X\lt \infty$, we give upper and lower bound for $ \sum_{i=k+2}^{k+n} \textrm{rank}\, \pi_i(X) $ for $k$ sufficiently large. We show also for any $r$ that $\alpha_X$ can be estimated from the integers rk$\,\pi_i(X)$, $i\leq nr$ with an error bound depending explicitly on $r$.

Keywords:homotopy groups, graded Lie algebra, exponential growth, LS category
Categories:55P35, 55P62, , , , 17B70

8. CJM 2009 (vol 62 pp. 52)

Deng, Shaoqiang
An Algebraic Approach to Weakly Symmetric Finsler Spaces
In this paper, we introduce a new algebraic notion, weakly symmetric Lie algebras, to give an algebraic description of an interesting class of homogeneous Riemann--Finsler spaces, weakly symmetric Finsler spaces. Using this new definition, we are able to give a classification of weakly symmetric Finsler spaces with dimensions $2$ and $3$. Finally, we show that all the non-Riemannian reversible weakly symmetric Finsler spaces we find are non-Berwaldian and with vanishing S-curvature. This means that reversible non-Berwaldian Finsler spaces with vanishing S-curvature may exist at large. Hence the generalized volume comparison theorems due to Z. Shen are valid for a rather large class of Finsler spaces.

Keywords:weakly symmetric Finsler spaces, weakly symmetric Lie algebras, Berwald spaces, S-curvature
Categories:53C60, 58B20, 22E46, 22E60

9. CJM 2008 (vol 60 pp. 892)

Neeb, Karl-Hermann; Wagemann, Friedrich
The Second Cohomology of Current Algebras of General Lie Algebras
Let $A$ be a unital commutative associative algebra over a field of characteristic zero, $\k$ a Lie algebra, and $\zf$ a vector space, considered as a trivial module of the Lie algebra $\gf := A \otimes \kf$. In this paper, we give a description of the cohomology space $H^2(\gf,\zf)$ in terms of easily accessible data associated with $A$ and $\kf$. We also discuss the topological situation, where $A$ and $\kf$ are locally convex algebras.

Keywords:current algebra, Lie algebra cohomology, Lie algebra homology, invariant bilinear form, central extension
Categories:17B56, 17B65

10. CJM 2006 (vol 58 pp. 1291)

Weimar-Woods, Evelyn
The General Structure of $G$-Graded Contractions of Lie Algebras I. The Classification
We give the general structure of complex (resp., real) $G$-graded contractions of Lie algebras where $G$ is an arbitrary finite Abelian group. For this purpose, we introduce a number of concepts, such as pseudobasis, higher-order identities, and sign invariants. We characterize the equivalence classes of $G$-graded contractions by showing that our set of invariants (support, higher-order identities, and sign invariants) is complete, which yields a classification.

Keywords:Lie algebras, graded contractions
Categories:17B05, 17B70

11. CJM 1998 (vol 50 pp. 210)

Zhao, Kaiming
Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type $W$ Lie algebras in characteristic $0$
In this paper, we determine when two simple generalized Cartan type $W$ Lie algebras $W_d (A, T, \varphi)$ are isomorphic, and discuss the relationship between the Jacobian conjecture and the generalized Cartan type $W$ Lie algebras.

Keywords:Simple Lie algebras, the general Lie algebra, generalized Cartan type $W$ Lie algebras, isomorphism, Jacobian conjecture
Categories:17B40, 17B65, 17B56, 17B68

12. CJM 1997 (vol 49 pp. 133)

Reeder, Mark
Exterior powers of the adjoint representation
Exterior powers of the adjoint representation of a complex semisimple Lie algebra are decomposed into irreducible representations, to varying degrees of satisfaction.

Keywords:Lie algebras, adjoint representation, exterior algebra
Categories:20G05, 20C30, 22E10, 22E60

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