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The $f$-Chromatic Index of a Graph Whose $f$-Core has Maximum Degree $2$

Published:2013-03-20
Printed: Sep 2013
• S. Akbari,
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
• M. Chavooshi,
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
• M. Ghanbari,
School of Mathematics, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran, Iran
• S. Zare,
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract

Let $G$ be a graph. The minimum number of colors needed to color the edges of $G$ is called the chromatic index of $G$ and is denoted by $\chi'(G)$. It is well-known that $\Delta(G) \leq \chi'(G) \leq \Delta(G)+1$, for any graph $G$, where $\Delta(G)$ denotes the maximum degree of $G$. A graph $G$ is said to be Class $1$ if $\chi'(G) = \Delta(G)$ and Class $2$ if $\chi'(G) = \Delta(G) + 1$. Also, $G_\Delta$ is the induced subgraph on all vertices of degree $\Delta(G)$. Let $f:V(G)\rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ be a function. An $f$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a coloring of the edges of $E(G)$ such that each color appears at each vertex $v\in V(G)$ at most $f (v)$ times. The minimum number of colors needed to $f$-color $G$ is called the $f$-chromatic index of $G$ and is denoted by $\chi'_{f}(G)$. It was shown that for every graph $G$, $\Delta_{f}(G)\le \chi'_{f}(G)\le \Delta_{f}(G)+1$, where $\Delta_{f}(G)=\max_{v\in V(G)} \big\lceil \frac{d_G(v)}{f(v)}\big\rceil$. A graph $G$ is said to be $f$-Class $1$ if $\chi'_{f}(G)=\Delta_{f}(G)$, and $f$-Class $2$, otherwise. Also, $G_{\Delta_f}$ is the induced subgraph of $G$ on $\{v\in V(G):\,\frac{d_G(v)}{f(v)}=\Delta_{f}(G)\}$. Hilton and Zhao showed that if $G_{\Delta}$ has maximum degree two and $G$ is Class $2$, then $G$ is critical, $G_{\Delta}$ is a disjoint union of cycles and $\delta(G)=\Delta(G)-1$, where $\delta(G)$ denotes the minimum degree of $G$, respectively. In this paper, we generalize this theorem to $f$-coloring of graphs. Also, we determine the $f$-chromatic index of a connected graph $G$ with $|G_{\Delta_f}|\le 4$.
 Keywords: $f$-coloring, $f$-Core, $f$-Class $1$
 MSC Classifications: 05C15 - Coloring of graphs and hypergraphs 05C38 - Paths and cycles [See also 90B10]